By Susan Steider & Mallory Grams Table of Contents

Cultural and Intellectual History 1900-2000

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Cultural and Intellectual History 1900-2000



Georgia O’Keefe

  • Time: November 15, 1887-March 6, 1986

  • What: She was an American painter.

  • Importance: She was a very important person in American art and was widely known. Some of her most famous paintings are representation of flowers, rocks, and landscapes.

Andy Warhol

  • Time: August 6, 1928-February 22, 1987

  • What: He was an American painter, an avant-garde filmmaker, a record producer, an author, and a public figure.

  • Importance: He was widely known in the movement of pop art. He was a very controversial figure during his time.


  • Time: Oct. 22, 1925 and is still alive today.

  • What: He is an American artist.

  • Importance: He was important in the transition between abstract expressionism and pop art in the 1950’s. Most famous for combines, which were a mix of sculpture and painting.

Soren Kierkegaard

  • Time: May 5, 1813-November 11, 1855

  • What: He was a Danish philosopher and theologian.

  • Importance: Many of his works had to do with religion, the idea of faith in god, and Christian ethics.


  • Time: September 25, 1906-August 9, 1975

  • What: He was a Russian Composer.

  • Importance: His works were popular and well liked. He won awards for his work, which was sometimes banned.


  • Time: born on Sept. 30, 1928 and is still alive today

  • What: He is a Jewish author.

  • Importance: He has written over 40 books and his most popular is Night. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986.


  • Time: August 24, 1899 –June 14, 1986

  • What: Argentine writer

  • Importance: He wrote short stories, essays and translations. He was influenced to do so by many other writers.


  • Time: March 26, 1925

  • What: French Composer and conductor

  • Importance: He wrote contemporary classical music and was also a conductor. He won a couple different awards for some of his pieces.


  • Time: November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960

  • What: He was a French-Algerian author and philosopher

  • Importance: He won the Noble Prize in 1957. He is often associated with existentialism. One of his well-known essays is The Rebel.

Jean-Paul Sartre

  • Time: June 21, 1905-April 15, 1980

  • What: He was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer.

  • Importance: He was the main figure in French philosophy during the 20th century.


  • Time: 20th century

  • What: A type of artwork and a movement in art.

  • Importance: It was important, because new ideas were coming up and the impact of the art was of great importance.


  • Time: 20th century

  • What: The way things are structured.

  • Importance: It is important because it was a type of art that was changing a lot.

Avant Garde

  • Time: 20th century

  • What: in French it means “front guard” or “advanced guard”

  • Importance: Mostly used to describe people or works that were experimental in art, culture and politics.


  • Time: mid 20th century

  • What: A philosophical movement that was about individual existence, freedom and choice.

  • Importance: The existence of individualism was stressed a lot. Also, subjectivity, choice and commitment were things that were stressed during this time.


  • Time: 20th century

  • What: a form of art work

  • Importance: It began in France and rejected the laws of beauty and social organization.

Abstract Expressionism

  • Time: 20th century

  • What: a form of art work

  • Importance: Purely form and color used. There are no concrete objects in the art pieces. Also, it is divided into two groups, one that focuses on physical action and the other on the effect of pure color.

Contemporary Sculpture

  • Time: 20th century

  • What: A type of sculpture that was widespread.

  • Importance: It was used a lot. It shows continuities and radical experimentation. It is also a very modern style.

Popular music

  • Time: 20th century

  • What: Very widespread, and mostly American in origin.

  • Importance: It is basically a social fact of life. It is something that almost everyone encounters everyday in their life.


  • Time: 1914 and lasted through the 20’s

  • What: a form of art work

  • Importance: It is very abstract and approaches the object with an analytical. It began in Paris and is most recognized from Picasso’s art work.


  • Time: started in 1924

  • What: a style of art

  • Importance: It is visual imagery from the subconscious wind. It doesn’t have to be logically comprehensible. Influenced by Freud and Jung’s psychoanalytical work.

Chapter Twelve: European History

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