By Susan Steider & Mallory Grams Table of Contents

Intellectual & Cultural History 1700-1900

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Intellectual & Cultural History 1700-1900


FRQ: Who were three of the most influential intellectual people of the time? Give specific examples as to how they were influential.
There were many influential people in this time that were also intellectuals. There are three that come to mind, Immanuel Kant, Karl Marx and Charles Darwin. All three of them had their own ideas and influenced people in a different way.

Immanuel Kant was a chief spokesperson. He wrote Critique of Judgment in 1790. That defined pleasure of doing art as a “disinterested satisfaction.” He also thought that art was combining opposite principles together. That can be the case but not always. He was influential because his ideas were very ordinary. He was a very well known man, too.

Karl Marx thought that capitalism was a very bad thing. He wrote Communist Manifesto in 1848, which was about how communism is bad and not logical. He thought the revolution was needed and was unavoidable any way. Marx and Engels both believed that factory workers got not benefits from working for themselves. They were living in unsanitary conditions, overcrowded houses, and had no political power at all. Engels had inherited a textile factory and he along with Marx observed the workers on a daily basis. Marx’s influence was not only social but very political, too. His views on art weren’t very important to people, but the fact that he thought art was an obsession with money and profit made them stand out. That is how Karl Marx influenced the time period.
Lastly, Charles Darwin believed in natural selection. Natural selection could also be called “survival of the fittest.” He thought that the animals who were most likely to survive would be the one to mate and basically all of the bad genes would disappear from a species. He wrote two books, The Origin of Species and The Decent of Man. His ideas were very clear, but some of them went against the church. His influence was mostly scientific and social.

In conclusion, there are three main intellectuals who had a large influence on social, scientific and political ideas. Kant, Marx and Darwin are people we still study today because of the impact they had on society when they were living in Europe. All three of them had their own ideas and thoughts about a topic.

Score: __4___/9

Reasoning: This essay receives a 4, because it kind of answers the question but not in much detail. It needs more explanation to go along with the facts. It is organized and addresses the question.


Chapter Twelve


Cultural History – 1900-2000

Chapter twelve: European History

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