By Susan Steider & Mallory Grams Table of Contents


Chapter One: The Renaissance



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Chapter One: The Renaissance 2.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS

Francesco Petrarch


  • Time: 1304-1374

  • What: Petrarch was an Italian poet

  • Importance: He came up with a different form of poetry, the sonnet.

Michelangelo



  • Time: 1475-1564

  • What: He was a very rounded artist. He was more known for his sculpting but he was also a painter, poet, and architect.

  • Importance: He created the most known pieces of art in history. The statue of David and the scene from Genesis on the ceiling of the Sistine chapel in Rome.

Leonardo Da Vinci



  • Time: 1452-1519

  • What: he was most known for being a artist but he was also a scientist

  • Importance: He not only created the most prestigious works of art in history, The Mona Lisa and The last Supper, but he also conceptualized the ideas of a helicopter, solar power, and the calculator.

Erasmus


  • Time: 1466-1536

  • What: a Dutch theologian and humanist

  • Importance: He was one of the main creators in the Greek and Latin editions of the New Testament, which brought about questions that helped in the progression of the Reformation.

John Calvin



  • Time: 1509-1564

  • What: A French theologian. He was a very important figure in the Protestant Reformation.




  • Importance: A leader in the Geneva Reformation-creator of Calvinism which traveled all across the western world..

Martin Luther 3.



  • Time: 1493-1546

  • What: He was a German monk who had theories on religious reform; Protestantism

  • Importance: Creator of the famous 95 theses. He challenged the authority of the papacy. His ideas helped promote the protestant Reformation.

Huguenots



  • Time: 16th and 18th centuries

  • What: they were protestants and reformists who closely fallowed Calvinism (members of the reformed church)

  • Importance: they became a large political force, their influence lead closely to the religious wars of 1562-1598.

Elizabeth



  • Time: 1533-1558

  • What: She was the queen of England

  • Importance: She was important because not only was she a woman ruling England but she ruled for almost 50 years. She did not marry and was know as the virgin queen. She increased the power in England and had a huge influence on a worldwide basis.

Christopher Columbus



  • Time: 1451-1506

  • What: Christopher was a navigator and colonist

  • Importance: He was the first to uncover the Americans after the Vikings. He inspired exploration of the western world.

Ulrich Zwingli



  • Time: 1484-1531

  • What: A significant leader in the protestant Reformation in Switzerland

  • Importance: He came to conclusions that were similar to the conclusions that Martin Luther formed.

Humanism


  • Time: Starting out in the 15th century and continuing through out history

  • What: That man has the potential to think for himself and not just god.

  • Importance: it created a completely new way of thinking

Praise of Folly



  • Time: 1509-1511

  • What: An essay written by Erasmus

  • Importance: An influential piece that helped in the ideas of the Reformation

4.

95 Theses



  • Time: 1517

  • What: The 95 Theses was a challenging factor in the teachings of the church; Martin Luther wrote them.

  • Importance: they created a debate that also helped in the protestant Reformation.

Diet of Worms



  • Time: 1521

  • What: A meeting all the estates of the Holy Roman Empire, that was held in Worms, Germany

  • Importance: Its purpose was to deal with Martin Luther and the consequences/effects of the Protestant Reformation.

Predestination



  • Time: 16th and 17th century

  • What: A different approach to the Christian world that emphasizes the rule of God over all things/beings

  • Importance: this was a very common belief in this era. It was a more liberal view on Christianity.

Jesuits


  • Time: 1534

  • What: A religious order designed to restore religious order, they were known as the “soldiers of Christ”

  • Importance: these were the people trying to weed out and “fix” the non-believers of God.

Peace of Augsburg



  • Time: 1555

  • What: a temporary deal made with the Holy Roman Empire, concerning the religious conflict that was rapidly rising.

  • Importance: It ended the continuing religious struggle between the Christians and the Protestants. It allowed the German rulers to pick either Lutheranism or Catholicism within their boundaries that they controlled, ultimately gaining their independence

5.

Papal line of Demarcation/Treaty of Tordesillas



  • Time: 1494

  • What: It was a treaty that was signed in Tordesillas, Spain. Where Portugal and Spain agreed in dividing the Christian world into two other zones.

  • Importance: It was an attempt at resolving the issues that had accumulated fallowing the arrival of Christopher Columbus

Merchant Capitalism



  • Time: 11th or 16th centuries depending on your point of view

  • What: a very early phase of the development of capitalism dealing with the economy and social system.

  • Importance:

Mercantilism



  • Time: 1500-1800’s

  • What: commercialism, mercantile practices

  • Importance: It was the Economic system for the major trading nations. The idea is that increasing exports and collecting precious metals best served national wealth and power.

Chapter one: European History






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