CHAPTER THREE FREE RESPONSE ESSAY
FRQ: Compare and contrast the differences and similarities of the early scientific revolution and enlightenment period (17th century) with that of the Intellectual Movement from 1850-1914. Throughout the years of European History many intellectual and scientific movements have occurred dating back to the seventeenth century. From the beginning of the Scientific Revolution with Nicholas Copernicus in the sixteenth century to the modern intellectual phase with Ernest Rutherford in the nineteenth century. Overall the impact of these very similar times in history is immense and essential to the scientific and intellectual thinking that occurs in today’s modern society.
The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment went hand in hand, and helped shape the modern way of thinking. Using the ideas laid down by Aristotle in the fourth century BC, people like Ptolemy who worked out the difficult rules that explained the small irregularities in the planets movement, changed how people thought. The ideas of the time period were vastly scientific and hovered around the term Humanity-which means looking at the human race as intellectual beings. Theories of Astronomy, more in depth Mathematics, universal gravitation were ideas that contradicted the morals of the Catholic Church, which at certain points became an issue. People were starting to believe that there was more then God but reason. As the Scientific Revolution progresses and the Enlightenment broaden, the terms philosophy and psychology comes into play. Philosophes such as Voltaire, john Lock, and others influenced the thoughts and reasoning for humans alike. Challenging the way people thought and acted were the outcome of the Scientific Revolution and the age of Enlightenment, ideas that changed the course of History.
The intellectual Movement in the late nineteenth century into the twentieth century was more about the psychological aspect of everyday life. Starting with the notorious Sigmund Freud, the man who dove into the idea of psychoanalysis. Not only was psychology a big part of the movement but the new generation of transportation was added to the mix. Karl Benz invented the internal combustion engine in 1885 and by 1897 Rudolf Diesel made the diesel engine. The scientific aspect was making big leaps as well. In the early twentieth century a man named Ernest Rutherford discovered that there was a positive charge in the nucleus. There were many artistic movements going on at the time as well. Concepts like Realism, Impressionism, and post-impressionism were all alive and prospering. And then there was Charles Darwin an evolutionary thinker. Darwin was known to be one of the most influential thinkers of the nineteenth century. He came up with the theory that life evolved from earlier life, out of that came “The Origin of Species” which he wrote in 1859. Many of the theories presented in the Intellectual Movement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries still hold true today.
The scientific and intellectual movements in the seventeenth century and that of the nineteenth and twentieth were very similar but very different. They were the same in a way that they were both making huge discoveries that changed how people lived. But they were different in the way that in the later years the technology and ability that the European people had was much more then that of the early years. Base off of the formulas and ideas formed in the seventeenth century, people were able to add onto the in years to come. The Scientific Revolution and enlightenment were only the beginning for what was to come in later years. They could be thought of as the building blocks or the laid out path for the modern day science, art, literature, and technological advances.