What: He was many things including a mathematician, astronomer, physician, administrator, military commander, economist
Importance: He was the first astronomer to come up with the idea that Earth was not the center of the universe. They say that he was the first to define heliocentircy; something that bagan the Scientific Revolution.
What: He was a very important philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer.
Importance: Descartes founded the idea of anlytic geometry, the dividing factor between algebra and geometry important to the invention of analysis and calculus. he was noted saying “I think, therefore I am.”
What: He was an physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist.
Importance: His book, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, helped people understand universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the path for mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three hundred years and is the base for todays engineering.
Importance: He was known for his humor, philosophical ideas, and defense of civil liberties, including right to a fair trial and freedom of religion. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform despite strict laws and harsh penalties for those who broke them.
What: He was a Scottish philosopher and a pioneering political economist.
Importance: He is a major contributor to the modern view of free market economics. He is known primarily as the author of two treatises: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776).
What: He was very influential composer of the Classical era
Importance: His output of over 600 compositions includes works widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concert ante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. Mozart is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers and many of his works are part of the standard concert repertoire.
What: He was a German composer and an amazing pianist.
Importance: He was an important aspect in the turning period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music. Beethoven remains one of the most famous and influential musicians of all time.
Catherine the Great
What: reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years.
Importance: Catherine had a reputation for favoritism of the arts, education and literature. She exemplifies the enlightened despot of her era.
What: He was a philosopher and composer.
Importance: He was a leader of the French revolutionaries. His very political ideas influenced, the development of both liberal and socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism.
What: He was an English medical doctor.
Importance: He was noted for being the first person to correctly describe, in large detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. Although Spanish physician Michael Servetus discovered circulation a quarter century before Harvey was born.
What: Heliocentric Is being measured or considered as being seen from the center of the sun.
Importance: It changed how the human race thought in terms of how the universe was laid out. It was proposed in the 3rd-c BC, and revived with great success by Copernicus in 1543.
What: having or representing the earth as a center
Importance: originated with the Ptolemaic system
Time: early 1500’s
What: is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed to support the conclusion but do not ensure it.
What: Deductive reasoning was developed by Aristotle, Thales, Pythagoras, and other Greek philosophers of the Classical Period
Importance: Deductive reasoning applies general principles to reach specific conclusions, whereas inductive reasoning examines specific information, perhaps many pieces of specific information, to derive a general principle.
What: pure and unqualified knowledge
Importance: it was a very big era in the 16 and 17oo’s. It helps us understand the meaning.
What: Any of the popular French intellectuals or social philosophers of the 18th century, as Diderot, Rousseau, or Voltaire
Importance: It is the term used to describe the important people in this unit.