By Susan Steider & Mallory Grams Table of Contents

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Score: __7___/9

Reasoning: This essay received a 7, because it has a clear thesis, addresses all parts of the question, but may have some minor errors. Also, it a very good amount of specific details.


Chapter Three
The Scientific Revolution


The Age of Enlightenment

European three: European History

The Scientific Revolution &

The Enlightenment



Nicolaus Copernicus

  • Time: 1473-1543

  • What: He was many things including a mathematician, astronomer, physician, administrator, military commander, economist

  • Importance: He was the first astronomer to come up with the idea that Earth was not the center of the universe. They say that he was the first to define heliocentircy; something that bagan the Scientific Revolution.

Rene Descartes

  • Time: 1596-1650

  • What: He was a very important philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer.

  • Importance: Descartes founded the idea of anlytic geometry, the dividing factor between algebra and geometry important to the invention of analysis and calculus. he was noted saying “I think, therefore I am.”

Isaac Newton

  • Time: 1643-1727

  • What: He was an physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist.

  • Importance: His book, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, helped people understand universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the path for mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three hundred years and is the base for todays engineering.


  • Time: 1694-1778

  • What: He was a French Enlightened writer, philosopher.

  • Importance: He was known for his humor, philosophical ideas, and defense of civil liberties, including right to a fair trial and freedom of religion. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform despite strict laws and harsh penalties for those who broke them.

Adam Smith

  • Time: 1723-1790

  • What: He was a Scottish philosopher and a pioneering political economist.

  • Importance: He is a major contributor to the modern view of free market economics. He is known primarily as the author of two treatises: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776).


  • Time: 1756-1791

  • What: He was very influential composer of the Classical era

  • Importance: His output of over 600 compositions includes works widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concert ante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. Mozart is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers and many of his works are part of the standard concert repertoire.


  • Time: 1770-1827

  • What: He was a German composer and an amazing pianist.

  • Importance: He was an important aspect in the turning period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music. Beethoven remains one of the most famous and influential musicians of all time.

Catherine the Great

  • Time: 1729-1796

  • What: reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years.

  • Importance: Catherine had a reputation for favoritism of the arts, education and literature. She exemplifies the enlightened despot of her era.

JJ Rousseau

  • Time: 1712-1778

  • What: He was a philosopher and composer.

  • Importance: He was a leader of the French revolutionaries. His very political ideas influenced, the development of both liberal and socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism.



William Harvey

  • Time: 1578-1657

  • What: He was an English medical doctor.

  • Importance: He was noted for being the first person to correctly describe, in large detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. Although Spanish physician Michael Servetus discovered circulation a quarter century before Harvey was born.


  • Time: 1543

  • What: Heliocentric Is being measured or considered as being seen from the center of the sun.

  • Importance: It changed how the human race thought in terms of how the universe was laid out. It was proposed in the 3rd-c BC, and revived with great success by Copernicus in 1543.


  • Time: 1680–90

  • What: having or representing the earth as a center

  • Importance: originated with the Ptolemaic system

Inductive Thinking

  • Time: early 1500’s

  • What: is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed to support the conclusion but do not ensure it.

  • Importance: this sort of reasoning was exampled by Davis Hume

Deductive Thinking

  • Time: 400 B.C

  • What: Deductive reasoning was developed by Aristotle, Thales, Pythagoras, and other Greek philosophers of the Classical Period

  • Importance: Deductive reasoning applies general principles to reach specific conclusions, whereas inductive reasoning examines specific information, perhaps many pieces of specific information, to derive a general principle.



  • Time: 1660–70

  • What: pure and unqualified knowledge

  • Importance: it was a very big era in the 16 and 17oo’s. It helps us understand the meaning.


  • Time: 1770–80

  • What: Any of the popular French intellectuals or social philosophers of the 18th century, as Diderot, Rousseau, or Voltaire

  • Importance: It is the term used to describe the important people in this unit.

Enlightened Despot

    • Time: 17th and 18th centuries

    • What: A ruler who believed and followed the enlightenment

    • Importance: It pinpointed the rulers of that time period

Tabula Rasa

    • Time: all throughout history

    • What: The idea that all humans are born with a blank slate

    • Significance: It was a big theme and belief of the enlightened period.


    • Time: 1650–1660

    • What: The belief that all knowledge is derived from a position of experience.

    • Importance: Empiricists such as Hume, Lock, and Mill take the natural sciences as their model of knowledge; rationalists use mathematics or logic.


    • Time: 1675–1685

    • What: A belief that God is in existence using the evidence of nature and reason.

    • Importance: This belief was very prevalent in the age of the enlightenment.

Chapter three: European History

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