By Frater Apollonius 4°=7□

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It is necessary that the laws should not be enclosed in houses, or by gates, but in the manners of the citizens. Which, therefore is the basic principle of any state? The education of the youth. For vines will never bear useful fruit, unless they are well cultivated; nor will horses ever excel, unless the colts are properly trained. Recently ripened fruit grows similar to its surroundings. With utmost prudence do men study how to prune and tend the vines; but to things pertaining to the education of their species the behave rashly and negligently; though neither wines nor wine govern men, but man and the soul of man. The nurture of a plant, indeed, we commit to an expert, who is supposed to deserve no less than two minae (a day); but the education of youth we commit to some Illyrian or Thracian, who is worthless. As the earliest legislators could not render the bourgeoisie stable, they prescribed (in the curriculum) dancing and rhythm, which instills motion and order; and besides these they added sports, some of which induced fellowship, but others truth and mental keenness. For those who thought that intoxication or guzzling had committed any crime, the prescribed the pipe of harmony, which by maturing and refining the manners so-shaped the mind that it became capable of culture.

It is well to invoke God at the beginning and end both of supper and dinner, not because he is in want of anything of the kind, but in order that the soul may be transfigured by the recollection of divinity. For since we proceed from him, and participate in a divine nature, we should honor him. Since also God is just, we also should act justly in all things.

In the next place, there are four causes which terminate all things; and bring them to an end; namely nature, law, art and fortune. Nature is admittedly the principle of all things. Law is the inspective guardian and creator of all things that change manners into political concord. Art is justly said to be the mother and guide of things consummated through human prudence. But of things which accidentally happen to the worthy and unworthy, the cause is ascribed to fortune, which does not produce anything orderly, moderate, or controlled.

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