Burkina Faso is a landlocked country of 105,869 square miles, located in the heart of Western Africa, approximately 600 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. Ouagadougou, the capital city, has about one million inhabitants. The country borders Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger and Togo. With 13.4 million inhabitants and a density of 13.1 inhabitants per mile², Burkina Faso is one of the most populated states in western Africa. Per capita income is about $US 1000. Industry is mainly agricultural. Burkina Faso exports cotton, cattle and out-of-season vegetables to Europe. Weather is dry for much of the year with summer temperatures often reaching 45 deg C. Principal cities are Bobo Dioulasso, Koudougou and Fada Ngourma.
Status of Ratification
Burkina Faso signed the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol (MP) on July 10th. 1989.
The country ratified both the London and Copenhagen Amendments in 1995, and subsequently ratified the Montreal and Beijing Amendments in 2002.
3 Institutional And Regulatory Framework
General legislative framework Burkina Faso ratified the Convention of Vienna and the Montreal Protocol on 20th July 1989. The legal basis for subsequent legislation controlling the import and use of ODS goes back to a ministerial edict (no. 91-069/PRES) promulgated on 25th November 1991 and the corresponding decree through which it was enforced (no. 91-0434/MICM) issued on 27th November 1991. The legal basis for ODS legislation was subsequently strengthened by the Law no. 005/97/ADP promulgated on 30th January 1997. This document defined atmospheric pollution as the presence in the air of substances or particles that prejudice health, public safety or the environment, or by the presence in the atmosphere of substances which (among other things) contribute to Global Warming or Ozone Depletion.
Establishment and Role of National Ozone Unit (Bureau National Ozone (BNO))
The BNO was established in 1994 as an entity within the Department of Anti-pollution and Health which answers to the General department for the Preservation of the Environment within the Ministry of Environment. The objective of the BNO is to reduce ODS consumption according to the limits set in the Montreal Protocol for substances listed in Annexes A and C. To achieve this goal, the following specific tasks have been assigned to the BNO:
To study the import and consumption of ODS
To communicate data on the import and consumption of ODS to the MP Secretariat
To organize training, information and awareness raising programs to sensitise the general public to the problem of ozone depletion.
To create a refrigerant recovery and recycling Centre.
Legislation specific to ODS was enacted via a ministerial decree issued on 11th March 1997. This required that a Prior Approval for Import be obtained for the import of any ODS or piece of equipment containing ODS. A Notice to Importers was issued on the same day (97-005/MCIA/SG) by the Ministry of Commerce covering the import of any substance appearing in Annex A of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments or any equipment containing these substances.
The control of ODS import and export on a day-to-day basis is achieved through close co-operation between the Bureau National Ozone (BNO), the Individual Client Centre, and the Customs Service.
The legislation from 1997 required that importers wishing to import shipments of ODS submit an application to the “Centre des guichets uniques” who then established the bona fides of the importer and referred the application to the BNO, who would decide if and how much ODS the importer could bring into Burkina Faso. A positive response from the BNO would result in the issuing of the Prior Approval for Import (API - referred to above). The BNO issued permits in accordance with a phased reduction in ODS imports which succeeded in meeting the 50% cut in base consumption required for 2005.
The mechanism described above no longer applies as import of most ODS became illegal in January 2006 (see below). Further documentation is required under normal customs rules for any shipment of goods valued at over 500,000 CFA (769 euros). Any shipment of goods valued at 3million CFA or more (4,614 euros) must be inspected by an accredited goods inspection company. The following describes the current legislative framework governing trade in ODS and ODS-containing equipment.
ODS Legislation via the Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA)
The UEMOA comprises Togo, Cote d’Ivoire, Benin, Senegal, Mali, Gambia in addition to Burkina Faso. The ODS control mechanism described above became redundant from January 1st 2006 when the UEMOA member states jointly agreed to ban the import and export of all Annexes A, B and E ODS (CFCs, halons, Carbon Tetrachloride, Methyl Chloroform and Methyl Bromide) and equipment containing these ODS apart from equipment required for urgent medical purposes. This was enacted via Regulation No. 04/2005/CM/UEMOA “Harmonisation of regulations concerning the import, trade and re-export of ODS and ODS containing equipment”. This was agreed by the Council of Ministers of the member states in July 2005. It prescribes a tight regime of control which is aimed at preventing the movement of ODS between member states. Some of the relevant articles of the legislation are:
Art 3: Import of ODS and equipment containing ODS will become illegal when this regulation comes into force.
Art 4: Production of ODS and export from the territory of member states is forbidden
Art 5: Application of the provisions of the MP and its amendments in respect of the import from non-member state of ODS or equipment containing ODS is the responsibility of the Ministry in charge of Commerce of the State to which the shipment is destined. The Ministry of Commerce of this state must provide prior authorisation.
Art 7: The BNO of each member state is charged with registering the importers and distributors of ODS and equipment containing it.
Art 8: A Community Ozone Committee (CCO) is created within UEMOA and charged with putting into effect the provisions of the MP relating to ODS
Art 9: A list of ODS and the equipment containing them can be modified through regulations issued by the UEMOA council of ministers following notification by the CCO
Art 10: All contravention of the provisions of the present regulation exposes those carrying out the contravention to the legal sanctions provided by the relevant member state
Art 12: The present regulation enters into force on 1st January 2006 and will be published in the official bulletin of the UEMOA
Capacity building for ozone monitoring and research Many stations that used to observe the thickness of the ozone layer with Dobson spectrophotometers have switched over to the more automatic Brewer spectrophotometer. After some years of overlapping measurements, the Dobson instruments are no longer needed at these sites and can be relocated to sites in developing countries. Such relocation is a very cost effective way of transferring knowledge and observing capacity to developing countries since the instrument is obtained at no cost.
Many ozone- and UV-monitoring stations are located in developing countries and countries with economies in transition (CEITs).
There are an insufficient number of regional centres for research, calibration, and validation, especially in developing countries.
Burkina Faso is a land lock Country in West African Sahara. Despite of the limited means the country makes many efforts in various areas to ensure a equality between actuals people needs and the situation in the future. So Burkina Faso is party of most of Multilateral Environment Agreement like Vienna Convention and its Montreal Protocol, the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change. In this last domain The country acquire measurement station in the frame of climate change and mitigation plan, implemented by our Meteorological department. In the new concept on country integrated management of the MEAs Burkina Faso vested interest to establish an ozone monitoring station in accordance with the discussion and recommendations of Ozone Research Managers Meetings under the Vienna Convention for the protection of the Ozone Layer; To that end the country wish to be considered on voluntary basis by likely donors (USA, Canada that help sine Burkina on implementing the national ozone programme) in receiving a proper working second hands equipment either a Dobson or a Brewer Spectrophotometer from its previous quoted partners . A twinning arrangement with one or two developed countries can also be foreseen
The aim of acquiring a monitoring station would be to join WM0’s GAW network and contribute to the world’s ozone data collected and archived by world data centres such us WOUDC? at the same time to built a capacity in Burkina Faso for atmospheric Science and research. Further with the initiative Burkina Faso will be able to conduct research programs that will help understand the behavior in this part of the world which is the West Africa below the Sahara Occidental. Therefore Burkina Faso will be a very useful place to monitor these parameters to prove the ground truth for the world in order to verify data from other means.
5. Measurements Gases and other parameters to be measured would include: Total column ozone, trace gases, UV levels.
6. Location of measurement site The monitoring instrument will be placed back to back in a suitable and appropriate place in the meteorological devote to that end. The meteorological will be request to gather data and maintain the station.
The physics and atmospheric chemistry labs of University of Ouagadougou, the National Ozone unit and the national meteorological department jointly will be responsible for measurements and maintenance of the instruments. The department of physics of atmospheric chemistry has students at graduate and postgraduate level. Especially there is an enthusiasm for postgraduate students to join atmospheric research. There are trained laboratory technician in the department to handle instruments. If they are provided with necessary additional training they will be able to maintain the instruments. Since university is planning to expand on monitoring and research there will be an interest on these types of instruments and data. There is also postgraduate programme on environment sciences at the university and the students in these programs will be using the instruments for their research. The Ozone Unit is keen to provide necessary input for this project and the technical help is also available with the unit through their technical staff. Therefore, instrument will be put in to useful work and sustainability will be ensured. The data will be sent to the data centres and taking the measurements Personnel to be involved and their responsibilities.
Implementation Period Continue implementation of monitoring and maintenance Conduct periodic training and maintenance Organize participation in the GAW calibration exercises and other relevant activities as appropriate.