British vrs maya

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Logwood and Mahogany settlements

-settled Around Belize City; a small village

-Baymen were moving up and down the coast and up the rivers setting up temporary camps

-The principal inhabitants were at Cay casina (St. George’s Caye)

Why Belize town? Most convenient for the settlers because of the mouth of the Belize River was used for imports and exports.

How was logwood processed? The heart of the wood (2 ft), 20 feet high; stands near coasts and river banks. Cut into small pieces without losing its value. Logwood was shipped down river in dories or floating cradles of cabbage palm.

Rules of land distribution?

  1. When a person finds a logwood spot and builds his hut the land became his property. No one can cut within 1000 paces.

  2. No inhabitant shall have two work sites

  3. No inhabitant shall have a double portion of land, under the pretense of a partner.

-Changes to Mahogany; All navigable rivers, creeks, and lagoons were considered open to occupation. All freeholders were entitled to logwood works. Inhabitants that owned “ four able negro men” could get a mahogany camp.

- Mahogany grew scattered; Three miles around the area; Every ten able slaves meant two years of works

-Enclave economy: An economic system in which an export based industry dominated by international capital extracts resources or products from another country.

British Meet the Maya

-NO; The Maya had retreated in land; there is no record of any interaction at the conception of the British settlement; pirates were illiterate; on 1779 attack all records were burnt by the Spanish

-What was the purpose of the British? Extraction of Timber: the Maya saw them as threat to their territory and independence.

“THE WILD INDIANS” Central Belize and northwestern region; Living in scattered small villages; Near the Belize River Valley.

-Launched small raids on camps; No centralized major attacks were launched

-1788 and 1802; troops were being requested to punish the indians; Arms and ammunitions were requested for the gangs working up Hogstye Bank.

EFFECT OF BRITISH EXPANSIONISM: The Maya retreated further in land; The British made sure to divide the Maya and the Slaves; The Maya attacked camps; British brought ammunitions and troops to the settlement

Caste war 1847-1901

-The revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán (Mexico) against the population of European descent (called Yucatecos) in political and economic control.

-Occurred in the Yucatan Peninsula

Why it started? Social structure; the indios were at the bottom of the social pyramid; The European Yucatecos were expanding their territory and having private ownership of lands; The Maya were defending their communal lands

The war began: Yucatan was a free nation; The Indians were defeating the Yucatecos; Maya went back to their fields to plant; The Mexican republic aided; Yucateco forces: pushed back the Maya for more than half of the state; Yucatecos: North west; Maya: southeast

-The Maya attacked constantly; Their major city was Chan Santa Cruz; Followers were called Cruzob; Joined forces with the Icaiche

The British: The Maya were buying gunpowder from the British; The Mexican Government reached an agreement with Britain; The Guns and ammunitions were not sold anymore to the Maya.

End of the war: The Mexican army managed to gain control over Chan Santa Cruz; the Maya retreated and still waged attacks; the Maya never defeated the Mexican forces again.

Caste war in Belize

-Maya form of subsistence concentrated on farming; the Maya realized the British was a big threat to their livelihood; Large companies owned the land; Maya from Yucatan influenced confrontations in British Honduras

-The Icaiche: A Maya group that were called the pacificos that lived in the northwestern area of British Honduras and south west of Yucatan; Unified with the Santa Cruz to fight against the Yucatecos; then sided with the Yucatecos against eh Santa cruz

- Instability within the border: Nobody wanted to invest in these areas; British Hondurans could not get any land because the ICAICHE Maya were claiming the territory.

- The Icaiche and Santa Cruz split in 1851; Icaiche sided with the Yucatecos; in order to be free; The British began to harvest mahogany within their lands;Warfare between the Icaiche and Santa Cruz start.

-Santa Cruz sided with the british: Leader was Asencio Ek; Settled around Yalbac Cayo; Called themselves San Pedro Maya; fighting the Icaiche.

-Battle of San Pedro: *In Belize; the San Pedro and Icaiche Maya joined in 1867; *Began to get rent from the British camps; * British were fearful.

Colonizing the Maya

-maya vrs British: The Icaiche: Luciano Tzuc: Raided camps in 1856; The Santa Cruz: Asencio Ek; controlled a significant area; Were weakened

-Marcos canul Icaiche Maya leader: Demanded rent for the lands being used by the British; 1860’s he led a major attack on the British settlements; In 1870 entered Corozal and took the town

-Maya united: They claimed the northern region; 1882: the Maya accepted to respect the boundaries claimed by the British; Agreement between the Maya and the British.

-Phases of British colonialism on the maya: Phase 1- 1788-1817; Maya launched a series of small raids on British camps in the western region; Maya retreated.

Phase 2- 1817-1847: little activity the Maya went in land

Phase 3- 1847-1872: violent warfare between the Maya and British

Phase 4- 1872-1900: consolidation of British dominion

  • Colonizing the Maya: The Maya were denied land; They were forced to work for the “white men; Were made dependent

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