British Monarchs



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British Monarchs

  1. Henry VIII (1491-1547, r. 1509-1547) House of Tudor. The son of Tudor founder Henry VII, he brought England into both the Renaissance and the Reformation. Henry patronized the philosopher Erasmus, the painter Hans Holbein the Younger, and the writer Thomas More. Originally a supporter of the Catholic Church--the Pope had named him "Defender of the Faith"--he named himself head of the Church of England in 1533 so that he could divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. Henry executed top ministers who crossed him, including Thomas Cromwell and Thomas More. He married six times, but only his third wife, Jane Seymour, bore him a son, the sickly Edward VI.A

  2. Elizabeth I (1533-1603, r. 1558-1603) House of Tudor. Known as the "Virgin Queen" because she never married, as Henry VIII's daughter by Anne Boleyn, the Catholic Church considered her illegitimate. After the death of her Catholic sister Mary I, Elizabeth I tried to restore religious order by declaring England a Protestant state but naming herself only "Governor" of the Church. She foiled attempts at her throne by Spanish king Philip II and Mary, Queen of Scots; the latter Elizabeth reluctantly executed in 1587. Her reign saw great expansion of the English navy and the emergence of William Shakespeare, but when she died, the Crown went to Scottish king James VI, the son of Mary, Queen of Scots.

  3. George III (1738-1820, r. 1760-1820) House of Hanover. Though he lost the American colonies in the Revolutionary War, Britain's economic empire expanded during his reign. While George's ministers kept their lives, they fell from power frequently, including both William Pitts, Lord Bute, and Lord North. Popular at home, he suffered from porphyria, causing the "madness" that ultimately led to the Regency period (1811-1820) of his son George IV.

  4. (Alexandrina) Victoria (1819-1901, r. 1837-1901; Empress of India 1876-1901) House of Hanover. The longest-reigning monarch in British history, she relinquished much of the remaining royal power, both to her husband Albert and to her favored prime ministers, Lord Melbourne, Robert Peel, and Benjamin Disraeli. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria largely went into seclusion, though she influenced the passage of the Reform Act of 1867, which doubled the number of Britons who could vote.

  5. William I (the Conqueror) (1028-1087, r. 1066-1087) House of Normandy. Duke of Normandy from 1035, he was promised succession to the throne by Edward the Confessor, but when Edward gave the throne to Harold II in 1066, William invaded England, killing Harold and defeating the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. An able administrator, he authorized a survey of his kingdom in the 1086 Domesday Book. By that time William had replaced Anglo-Saxon nobles and clergy with Normans and other continentals.

  6. Charles I (1600-1649, r. 1625-1649) House of Stuart. The last absolute English monarch, Charles ran into trouble almost immediately. His minister, the Duke of Buckingham, asked Parliament for money to fight costly foreign wars, and when Parliament balked, Charles had to sign the Petition of Right. From 1630 to 1641 he tried to rule solo, but financial troubles forced him to call the Short and Long Parliaments. His attempt to reform the Scottish Church was the last straw, as Parliament entered into the English Civil War. They defeated Charles, convicting him of treason and executing him. England became a Commonwealth with Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector.

  7. James I (1566-1625, r. 1603-1625) House of Stuart. At age one James succeeded his mother Mary as King James VI of Scotland. As the great-great-grandson of Henry VII, he claimed the English throne upon the death of Elizabeth I. James was the intended target of Catholic fanatic Guy Fawkes' failed Gunpowder Plot in 1605. A believer in absolutism, James dissolved Parliament from 1611 to 1621, favoring ministers Robert Cecil and the Duke of Buckingham instead. His rule saw English expansion into North America, through royal charter in Virginia and Puritan protest in Massachusetts.

  8. Richard III (1452-1485, r. 1483-1485) House of York. He was made Duke of Gloucester in 1461 when his brother Edward IV deposed the Lancastrian king Henry VI, as part of the Wars of the Roses. Upon Edward's death in 1483, Richard served as regent to his nephew Edward V, but likely had the boy murdered in the Tower of London that year. Two years later, Richard died at the hands of Henry Tudor's Lancastrian forces at Bosworth Field, ending the Wars of the Roses and beginning the reign of Henry VII.

  9. Elizabeth II (1926-present, r. 1952-present) House of Windsor. Representative of the modern ceremonial monarchy, she and her husband "Prince" Philip Mountbatten have traveled the globe representing British interests. Marital failures by her sons Charles (the Prince of Wales) and Andrew have plagued her reign.

  10. John Lackland (1167-1216, r. 1199-1216) House of Plantagenet. Though he tried to seize the crown from his brother Richard while the latter was in Germany, Richard forgave John and made him his successor. Excommunicated by the Pope for four years for refusing to accept Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury, John was also weak as a fighter, as French King Philip II routed him at Bouvines in 1214. A year later, England's barons forced John to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede, an event that marked the beginning of the development of the British constitution.

  11. Charles II (1630-1685; r. 1660-1685) House of Stuart. While Cromwell ruled the Commonwealth, Charles was crowned King of Scotland in 1651. After Cromwell died, Charles used the Declaration of Breda to restore himself to the English throne. He fought two lackluster wars against the Dutch, and needed protection from Louis XIV through the Treaty of Dover. His wife Catherine of Braganza produced no legitimate heirs, but this "Merry Monarch" has as many as 14 illegitimate children. Tolerant of Catholics, he dissolved Parliament over the issue in 1681 and refused to prevent his brother James from succeeding him.

  12. James II (1633-1701; r. 1685-1688) House of Stuart. The 1678 Popish Plot against Charles II would have elevated the Roman Catholic James to the throne, had it been real and not fabricated by Titus Oates. James's three years, however, did feature heavy favoritism toward Catholics, so much so that Protestants invited James's son-in-law William of Orange to rule England, deposing James in the bloodless Glorious Revolution. Exiled to Louis XIV's court, he made an attempt to regain his crown in 1690 but was routed at the Battle of the Boyne.

  13. Henry II (1133-1189; r. 1154-1189) House of Plantagenet. The son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, he married Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152, and invaded England the following year, forcing Stephen of Blois to acknowledge Henry as his heir. While king he developed the common law and due process, but fought with Thomas (à) Becket over submission to the Pope; Henry had Becket executed in 1170 but performed penance at Canterbury. Eleanor and his four sons conspired with French king Philip II against Henry on several occasions.

  14. Richard I (the Lion-Hearted) (1157-1199; r. 1189-1199) House of Plantagenet. Third son of Henry II, he spent only five months of his reign in England. He went on the Third Crusade to Jerusalem, winning many victories in the Holy Land, but on his way back was captured and ransomed by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI. He also fought Philip II in Normandy, and died while defending his possessions in Aquitaine.

  15. Alfred the Great (849-899; r. 871-899) Saxon House. Actually just the King of Wessex in southwestern England, he expelled the rival Danes from the Mercian town of London in 886, eventually conquering most of the Danelaw territory. Alfred also kept England from the worst of the Dark Ages by encouraging his bishops to foster literacy; in addition, he translated Boethius, Augustine, and the Venerable Bede's works into Anglo-Saxon.

USA Presidents

President

Party

Term

Important Wars or Events

George Washington

Federalist

1789-1797

First President

John Adams

Federalist

1797-1801

XYZ Affair, quasi-war with France

Thomas Jefferson

Democratic-Republican

1801-1809

Louisiana Purchase

James Madison

Democratic-Republican

1809-1817

War of 1812

James Monroe

Democratic-Republican

1817-1829

Missouri Compromise

John Quincy Adams

Democratic-Republican

1825-1829

Tariff of Abominations

Andrew Jackson

Democrat

1829-1837

Indian Removal Act

Martin van Buren

Democrat

1837-1841

Aroostook War

William H. Harrison

Whig

1841

Died one month after inauguration

John Tyler

Whig

1841-1845

Texas Annexation

James K. Polk

Democrat

1845-1849

Mexican-American War

Zachary Taylor

Whig

1849-1850

Died of Cholera Morbus

Millard Fillmore

Whig

1850-1853

Fugitive Slave Act

Franklin Pierce

Democrat

1853-1857

"Bleeding Kansas"

James Buchanan

Democrat

1857-1861

Dred Scott Decision; John Brown's Raid

Abraham Lincoln

Republican

1861-1865

Civil War; Emancipation Proclamation

Andrew Johnson

Republican

1865-1869

Vetoed lots of Reconstruction Acts

Ulysses S. Grant

Republican

1869-1877

Transcontinental Railroad, Battle of Little Big Horn

Rutherford Hayes

Republican

1877-1881

Army Appropriations Bill

James Garfield

Republican

1881

The Treaty of Washington

Chester Arthur

Republican

1881-1885

Washington Monument Dedicated

Grover Cleveland

Democrat

1885-1889

Presidential Succession Act

Benjamin Harrison

Republican

1889-1893

Pan-American Conference

Grover Cleveland

Democrat

1893-1897

Served two non-consecutive terms

William McKinley

Republican

1897-1901

Spanish-American War

Theodore Roosevelt

Republican

1901-1909

Panama Canal

William Taft

Republican

1909-1913

Sixteenth Amendment ratified

Woodrow Wilson

Democrat

1913-1921

World War I

Warren Harding

Republican

1921-1923

Teapot Dome Scandal, Charles Forbes Scandal

Calvin Coolidge

Republican

1923-1929

Sacco-Vanzetti; Kellogg-Briand Pact

Herbert Hoover

Republican

1929-1933

Great Depression

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Democrat

1933-1945

New Deal, World War II

Harry S. Truman

Democrat

1945-1953

Atomic bombs dropped; Cold War begins

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Republican

1953-1961

Rosenbergs executed; Geneva Convention

John F. Kennedy

Democrat

1961-1963

Bay of Pigs; Cuban Missile Crisis

Lyndon Johnson

Democrat

1963-1969

Civil Rights Act; Gulf of Tonkin- Vietnam

Richard Nixon

Republican

1969-1974

Watergate Scandal

Gerald Ford

Republican

1974-1977

Pulls final troops out of Vietnam

Jimmy Carter

Democrat

1977-1981

Camp David Accords

Ronald Reagan

Republican

1981-1989

Cold War ends; Iran-Contra Scandal

George H. W. Bush

Republican

1989-1993

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill; Persian Gulf War

Bill Clinton

Democrat

1993-2001

Battle of Mogadishu; NAFTA

George W. Bush

Republican

2001-2009

9/11; Operation Enduring Freedom

Barack Obama

Democrat

2009-

Current President

http://millercenter.org/president/obama/key-events

Heads of Government

Argentina

Cristina Kirchner

Australia

Kevin Rudd

Canada

Stephen Harper

China

Hu Jintao

Colombia

Alvaro Uribe

Cuba

Raul Castro

Czech Republic

Vaclav Klaus

Egypt

Husni Mubarak

France

Nicolas Sarkozy

Georgia

Mikheil Saakashvili

India

Manmohan Singh

Iran

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Iraq

Al-Maliki

Ireland

Mary McAleese

Isreal

Simon Peres / Benjamin Netanyahu

Italy

Silvio Berlusconi

Japan

Fakudo resigned, Foreign Minister Taro Aso predicted to become PM

Libya

Gadafi

Mexico

Felipe Calderon

North Korea

Kim Jong Il

Pakistan

Asif Ail Zardari

Philippines

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Russia

Dmitry Medvedev

Saudi Arabia

King Abdullah

South Africa

Jacob Juma

South Korea

Lee-Muyng Bak

Spain

PM-Zapatero

Sudan

al-Bashir

Syria

al=Assad

United Kingdom

Gordon Brown

Zimbabwe

Mugabe-Tsvangirai

Palestine

Hamas-Mashal, PIO-Abbas

Jordan

King Abudullah II

Brazil

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva






Amendments

Amendment #1- Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition

Amendment #2-Right to bear arms

Amendment #3-No one may be forced to house soldiers

Amendment #4-Protects against unreasonable search and seizure

Amendment #5-Rights of the criminally accused (indictment by grand jury, no double jeopardy,

no self-incrimination, due process of the law, eminent domain)

Amendment #6-Rights to a speedy trial by jury (speedy trial, impartial jury, informed of charges, right to an attorney)

Amendment #7-Rights to a jury trial in civil cases, more than $20-people sue over money/property

Amendment #8-No excessive bail, no cruel and unusual punishment

Amendment #9-People have other basic rights not listed in Constitution

Amendment #10-All powers not given to the federal government are left for the states to take

care of/decide

Amendment #11-Federal courts do not have jurisdiction in cases against a state

Amendment #12-Provides for separate elections for president and vice president

Amendment #13-Abolishes slavery

Amendment #14-Provides equality for all citizens; state governments must follow previously passed amendments

Amendment #15-All males have the right to vote

Amendment #16-Congress has the power to pass direct taxes, such as income tax

Amendment #17-Senators are to be elected by the voters in their state; governor fills state senator positions if position opens during a term

Amendment #18-Selling and drinking of alcoholic beverages is made illegal

Amendment #19-Gives women the right to vote

Amendment #20-Beginning of President, VP and Congress terms in office begins in January; presidential succession can take place before Presidential inauguration

Amendment #21-Selling and drinking of alcoholic beverages is made legal

Amendment #22-Presidents may serve no more than 2 terms or a total of 10 years

Amendment #23-District of Columbia is allowed presidential Electoral College votes

Amendment #24-Eliminates poll tax

Amendment #25-Provides for presidential succession and filling a vacant office of vice president,

if VP dies or his removed from office

Amendment #26-Lowers voting age from 21 to 18



Amendment #27-Congressional compensation increases may not take effect until after that congressional term is over



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