~British Conquest~ Siege of Louisbourg and Capture of Quebec

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~British Conquest~

Siege of Louisbourg and Capture of Quebec

  • Louisbourg had to be captured first because it guarded the St. Lawrence River which led to Quebec

  • British fleet blockaded the harbour (siege)

  • The French at Louisbourg surrendered

  • The following spring the British, led by General Wolfe, went up the St. Lawrence River

  • Once again they conquered the French, a very strong opponent led by Montcalm

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham

  • There was a farmer’s field behind the French fortress known as the Plains of Abraham. The British General Wolfe saw this as an opportunity for a sneak attack

  • The British carried out the mission. At midnight 4400 soldiers snuck onto shore to the Plains of Abraham

  • The French were caught off guard. They woke up to British soldiers in battle position just outside the city gates

  • Both generals were killed and the French turned and fled and eventually surrendered once again

Pontiac’s War against the British

  • Chief Pontiac was the leader of the Odawa

  • He convinced several First Nations to join together to drive the British out of Ohio River Valley

  • They captured 7 out of 10 English Forts

  • Many First Nation were allied with the French. When the British defeated the French, that did not mean they defeated their First Nations allies. Pontiac reminded them of this

  • His acts of war made the British realize that they had to pay attention to the demands of the First Nations

Treaty of Paris

  • This Treaty finally ended the conflict between the French and the British

  • The French gave up all of their claims in North America except for two tiny islands off the coast of Newfoundland called Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. They also got a sugar-producing island in the Caribbean

Royal Proclamation of 1763

  • Britain issued this proclamation to establish lasting peace in North America

  • Canadiens were expected to assimilate, losing their language and culture

  • In New France, now the province of Quebec, the institutions and laws changed from French to British

  • Catholics were NOT allowed to hold positions in government

  • Settlers from the Thirteen Colonies were encouraged to move into Québec

  • Peace with the First Nations was created by establishing a “proclamation line”, which separated the Thirteen Colonies from “Indian Territory”. A huge area of land was set aside for the First Nations

Quebec Act of 1774

  • The Canadiens had too strong of a sense of identity to just be “made British”

  • British needed to keep their colony loyal to Britain. In order to do this they decided to recognize the Canadiens’ rights that had been taken away by the Proclamation

  • Bilingualism is introduced to Canada! (Canada now has two official languages.) Now both groups could speak their own language freely. They could also now express their culture and traditions

  • This was a foundation for peace

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