Britain’ initial attempt to open up trade w/China; Chinese deny trade partnership

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~ Macartney Mission -> Britain’ initial attempt to open up trade w/China; Chinese deny trade partnership

~ Self-strengthening movement  led by Empress Dowager Cixi; attempt to help reform and modernize China

~ Opium War & Treaty of Nanjing

~ Allowing spheres of influence in China (Ger., Fra., Britain, Russia, Japan, USA, etc…)

~ Were approached by foreign powers looking to open trade to these closed countries

~ Both are ultimately infiltrated by foreigners

~ However, China was more by force (they hated the Opium trade) & Japan was more by necessity

~Both sign unequal treaties

~ Japan initially closed like China

~ Com. Matthew Perry forcibly opens up trade with Japan (Treaty of Kanagawa)

~ Decline of Samurai/Shogun; rise of the Emperor

~ Meiji Restoration – leads to modernization of country


~Opium War  China attempts to stop the British forced Opium trade into China

~ Treaty of Nanjing – China forced to sign unequal treaty after defeat in Opium War

~ China still trades Silk, Tea, porcelain, etc…

~ China allows spheres of influence to countries – allows the foreigners to have exclusive trading privileges

~ Open Door Policy

~ Both countries allow foreign trade and influence in their countries

~ However, China is overrun by foreigners and foreign trade; lack of control of the economic side of their country & Japan independently seeks for modernization and allows foreigners to help positively develop the country

~ Chinese economy weakens & does not modernize

~ Japanese economy strengthens and does modernize

~ Meiji Restoration – leads to Japan selectively borrowing from foreigners (foreigners invited to help modernize or reform the country – Think the Last Samurai movie)

~ Foreigners introduce industrialization – leads to Japan becoming a producer of goods

~ Rise of the merchant class

~Zaibatsu (strong economic business partnerships)


~ Taiping Rebellion – Chinese upset by too much foreign influence allowed by the Chinese govt. – deadly; needs foreign intervention to stop

~ Boxer Rebellion (1900) – led by group of disgruntled Chinese – they want to kick out foreigners who have too much influence in China

~ Rebellions both took place; China the rebellions were more violent/deadly and focused on the expulsion of the foreigners; in Japan it was to restore the shogunate

~ The quality of life improved for the Japanese; but not the Chinese

~ Satsuma Rebellion – attempt to restore the original Shogunate government and rid Japan of the Emperor

~ Ideas of the west are praised

~ Western culture becomes trendy

~ Goal is for Japan to become civilized and enlightened

  1. Compare the reactions to foreign interference of any two of these states: China, Japan, Ottoman Empire, Southeast Asia, and India.

  1. (600-1450 CE) Compare the impact of the Mongol Empire on cultures and institutions in any 2: Eastern Europe, Middle East, and East Asia.

  1. (1450-1750) Compare economic systems and commerce of any two nations, one European and one non-European during the Early Modern Age.

  1. (1750-1900) Compare the causes and phases on the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain or the United States with Russia or Japan.

  1. (1750-1900) Compare and contrast any two colonial empires including methods of government, economic development, and social changes: France, Great Britain, United States, Russia, and Japan.

  1. (1750-1900) Compare the process of modernization as opposed to Westernization in any two non-European nations in the 19th or 20th century.

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