Brightest jewel in the crown of the British Empire



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Semester Test Review Key (2)
What colony of the British Empire was considered “brightest jewel in the crown of the British Empire” because of the source of cotton, tea, and silk?

India


What thinker is most closely associated with Socialism?

Robert Owen

What is a lasting effect of the European colonization of Africa?

Improved literacy and life expectancy

Reign of 63 years. Britain experienced industrial, cultural, political, and scientific change under her rule. What British monarch is described?

Queen Victoria

How was the British government able to maintain control of its empire during the 18th and 19th centuries?

Naval Power

Why were child labor conditions permitted to exist in Britain during the 1800s?

Children were a cheap supply of labor

Which action directly contributed to the beginning of the Scientific Revolution in the 16th century in Europe?

Scholars published new theories about astronomy

The scientific research of Marie Curie has contributed most to?

Airport Security

According to the Communist Manifesto, which social class was exploited by capitalism?

Workers


Adam Smith: Capitalism:: Karl Marx: Communism
Using a quote, what does “European oppression” refer to?

Imperialism

How did Imperialism impact China?

European nations and the United States exercised a “sphere of influence over China that resulted in improved trade without military invasion

What was not a long term effect of the Industrial Revolution on society?

Children became permanent parts of the work force

The colonization of Africa by France, England, and Belgium had a great political and cultural impact on Africa. Countries were arbitrarily formed regardless of native tribes, communities, or cultures. Native people were seen as inferior and Europeans made efforts to force European religions upon them and teach them European ways.

This summary describes cultural development in what civilization?

Sub-Saharan Africa

What is not an idea concerning free enterprise in the “Wealth of Nations?”

Free markets are controlled by the government
As a result of discrimination in factories, women demanded reforms to?

Labor policies

Why was the location of the Suez Canal most important to the British during Industrialization?

The canal gave then quicker access to colonies in Africa and Asia

What is a correct cause and effect for the way that free enterprise affected the Industrial Revolution?

Increased demand for manufactured goods-factory systems to produce goods quickly

How did Social Darwinism affect the spread of European Imperialism?

It increased due to a sense of superiority among Europeans

What was a major effect of the development of the steam engine?

Coal production increased

How did economic freedoms during the Industrial Revolution contribute to a better quality of life?

Higher wages, choice of jobs and food and supplies were more available.

Who said “Finally we shall place the Sun himself at the center of the Universe?”

Copernicus


Be able to complete a graphic organizer about the Russian Revolution.
How was Simon Bolivar influenced by the American and French Revolutions?

He adopted Enlightenment Ideals and began revolutions against Spanish authority.


Why did the British government consider control of Egypt critical to the British Empire?

It meant control of the Suez Canal in order to have quicker access to colonies in the Empire.


The ideas behind the development of a democratic-republic form of government and the Bill of Rights in North America can BEST be attributed to?

John Locke


Know the significance of Thomas Jefferson, John Calvin, William Blackstone and William Wilberforce.
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau-

Inspired much of the philosophy behind the American and French Revolutions.


Be familiar with the French, German, Russian and American Revolutions.
What characteristic is always true of a limited monarchy?

It must obey the laws of government.


Know the significant canals (Suez, Panama etc.)
The social and political disorder of the French Revolutions led to?

Napoleon gaining power and spreading conflict throughout Europe.


What was one result of the ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence?

The growth of the European democratic movements.


The political revolutions of this era would not have been possible without?

Support of the Common People.


In the revolutions of America, France, and England, the revolutionary soldier fought primarily for which democratic principle?

Popular Sovereignty.


Know the different forms of government: Communism, Monarchy, Fascism, and Theocracy.
Which principle of the Declaration of Independence most influenced the French Revolution?

Government should guarantee certain basic human rights.


Which of the following was the most important effect on Latin America as a result of the American and French Revolutions?

Independence movements began against colonial rule.


What is a difference between the American Revolution and the French Revolution?

French Revolution brought social and economic reorganization.


What was NOT a cause of the French Revolution?

Censorship of the press.


What was NOT a characteristic of the revolutions of this time period?

Fighting for religious freedom.


Which weakness of Napoleons Empire prevented him from controlling most of Western World?

Napoleons navy could not control the seas.


Which document most directly influenced the writers of the Declaration of Independence of the Rights of Man?

Declaration of Independence.


Know how secret alliances contributed to World War I.
Know the social, economic, and political effects on Germany after World War I.
Identify the events that start World War I and II.
How did nations act to reduce the possibility of future wars after World War I and II?

Establishment International Organizations.


How did the alliance system contribute to the outbreak of conflict in Europe?

Nations pledged to intervene if allies were attacked.


Which action of the German government during World War I contributed to a communist revolution in Russia?

Transporting Lenin in secret to Russia.


Which of the following did NOT contribute to the global depression of the 1930s?

Increased demand for automobiles.


How did the U.S. government respond to the global depression in the 1930s?

President Roosevelt initiated a massive spending program.


Which characteristic of German society in the 1930s BEST demonstrates it was a totalitarian state?

A charismatic dictator controlled much of the mass media.


Which national leaders headed Allied governments during World War II?

Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin.


Which concern MOST contributed to President Truman's decision to drop an atomic bomb on both Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

To prevent U.S. casualties in an invasion of Japan.


Most concentration camps were located in what modern-day countries?

Germany and Poland.


In 1945, the Japanese navy had plans to attack the Panama Canal using a specially built submarine capable of launching a plane against a target. However, the war ended prior to the attack. Why did the Japanese government plan to attack and destroy the canal?

The canal was a center of trade and traffic for allied forces.


Which characteristic is always true of a totalitarian government?

Government controls most aspects of citizens lives.


How did European nations liberated by the United States in World War II benefit from American occupation?

Liberated nations were able to re-establish and strengthen democracy.


Which weapon of World War I resulted in trench warfare and high numbers of casualties?

Machine Guns


Developed in the years just prior to World War II, which medical innovation was responsible for reducing infections among wounded Allied soldiers?

Antibiotics
How did Albert Einstein contribute to the understanding of physics?

He devised a new understanding of space and time.


Why did the Japanese government act to create an empire on the Asian mainland during the 1930s?

Acquire a steady supply of raw materials.


How did President Wilson's "Fourteen Points" speech influence the peace after World War I?

The Treaty of Versailles only implemented his one point to form an international organization.


Which reason motivated Bolshevik leaders to form the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics in 1922?

To prevent nationalist revolutions by ethnic groups.


What was the major purpose of the Yalta Conference?

To determine the governments and borders of Europe after World War II.


Why was the German invasion of the Soviet Union a military disaster?

The harsh winter halted and devastated the German forces.


How did the U.S. respond to communist revolutions id Cuba and Nicaragua?

The U.S. used covert actions with in each country to undermine communist success.

Which factor most contributed to the creation of new nations in the decades immediately following Word War II?

Independence movements among the people within European colonies.

Which early Soviet leaders most contributed to the consolidation of communist power in the Soviet Union?

Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin

Which event at the conclusion of World War II initiated the Cold War?

The Soviet Union refused to permit self-determination in nations liberated from German control.

How did communist policies in China differ from communist policies in the Soviet Union?

Soviet communism emphasized industrialization while Chinese communism focused on agricultural workers.

What did the U.S. and Soviet Union race to build up?

Military arms, the Arms Race.

What happens after the SALT I Treaty is ratified in 1972?

Cold War Tensions decline.

Which Cold War leaders frequent condemnations of communism led to a 1981 attempted assassination widely believed to have been sponsored by the covert services of the Soviet Union?

Catholic religious leader Pope John Paul II

How have some Palestinians attempted to force changes to their political situation?

By conducting terrorism to raise international awareness for their demands.

How did President Reagan’s attitude contribute to the end of the Cold War?

It led to the collapse of the Soviet economy when the Soviet Union could no longer afford a large military to counter the military strength of the U.S.

Which Action most contributed to the establishment of Israel as an independent state in 1948?

Approval by the United Nations.

Why is conflict ongoing between most Arab states and Israel?

Most Arab states have never accepted the establishment of Israel.

How have decolonization and independence for many African nations after World War II affected their government and society?

Many of the newly independent nations have struggled with ethnic conflict and corrupt leadership.

How did the transition of Iran to an Islamic theocracy in 1979 result in a suspension of diplomatic relations with the U.S. that continues today?

Iran held American embassy officials hostage during the transition.


Why did the communist command economy of the Soviet Union collapse at the end of the 20th century?

The communist system provided little incentive to motivate workers or improve production efficiency.

Gandhi, Nelson Mandela and Oscar Romero all:

resisted political oppression.

How did the political division of post-war Germany heighten Cold War tensions?

Western allies maintained possession of the western half of the Berlin within the Soviet controlled portion of Germany.

The 1948 soviet blockade of the French, U.S., and Great Britain sectors led directly to?

Berlin Airlift.

The use of the Big Mac index by economists demonstrates?

The globalization of American products.

Why was the Nobel Prize for Peace awarded to a military force?

The United Nations Peacekeeping Forces reduce conflict between warring parties trying to achieve peace.

How did Mandela’s choice to stay in prison influence the government of South Africa?

It led to the government eliminating policies that promoted racial segregation.

How did European nations benefit from the Marshall Plan?

It helped nations re-establish free market practices and strengthen democratic government.

Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher and Golda Meir are similar in that?

They were national leaders who successfully governed in times of war and unrest.

Shari’a law influences government and society in some Muslim nations except by? Regulating trade among Muslim nations.

The use of napalm to burn away vegetation during the Vietnam War led to widespread protest in the U.S. because?



It had devastating and painful effects on the people who were hit by it.


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