Boles U. S. History 2nd Semester Review Answers

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Boles U.S. History 2nd Semester Review Answers

  1. Articles of Confederation

  2. It was too weak: Congress could not tax, raise an army, or regulate trade. No executive branch.

  3. Northwest Ordinance

  1. Population of 5,000 free white males to become a territory

  2. Form a legislature for the territory

  3. Elect a delegate to the U.S. Congress (no vote)

  4. Population of 60,000

  5. Apply for statehood

  6. Submit a constitution to Congress

  7. Enter Union

  1. Three Fifths Compromise

  2. Great Compromise

  3. Senate

  4. Electoral College: The Framers of the Constitution didn’t trust direct democracy.



Democratic Republicans

J. Adams & A. Hamilton


T. Jefferson & J. Madison

Strong federal government

Federal Government

Weaker, with strong states


Interpret Constitution



National Bank






Foreign Ally


New England

Area of Support

South & West

  1. Elastic; the government can expand its power to do anything “necessary and proper” for the nation.

  2. Tariffs make foreign goods (imports) more expensive, so domestic goods are cheaper.

  3. The Alien and Sedition Acts were laws that outlawed criticizing the government and made it more difficult for immigrants to become citizens.

  4. President John Adams

  5. There was a tie in the Electoral College between two candidates, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.

  6. Marbury vs. Madison

  7. Judicial Review

  8. He bought the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon and France for $15 million.

  9. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark

  10. A statement from the U.S. government telling other nations that the western hemisphere is no longer open to colonization and that interference in the western hemisphere would be considered a threat.

  11. European nations

  12. The war caused a disruption in trade with Europe so America had to produce many goods on its own.

  13. Industrialization – transforming from an agricultural to manufacturing society

  14. Urbanization – population movement from rural to urban (from farms to cities)

  15. Telegraph, Steam engine, steamboat, steel plow… railroads, canals, and roads

  16. Eli Whitney

  17. The cotton gin made it more efficient to grow and pick cotton, which led to the expansion of plantations and slavery.

  18. Democratic

  19. The forced relocation of Native American tribes (mainly the Cherokee) off their homeland and on to reservations in the West.

  20. The belief or argument that states can reject a federal law if it believes it is unconstitutional or harmful.

  21. Missouri Compromise: Proposed by Henry Clay

    1. Missouri enters the Union as a slave state, Maine enters as a free state.

    2. Slavery is banned north of the parallel 36 30’

  22. Cherokee; the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee but Andrew Jackson ignored the ruling and forced the Cherokee to relocate anyway.

  23. They threatened to secede because they believed the tariffs hurt the South and helped the North.

  24. The belief that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic to Pacific Oceans.
    - Achieved in 1846 with the acquisition on Oregon.

  25. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    1. Rio Grande is border between U.S. and Mexico

    2. U.S. “buys” the Mexican Cession for $15 million

  1. Mexican War

  2. Gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill which led to the Gold Rush.

  3. Abolitionist and supporter of women’s rights; published a newspaper in Boston called The Liberator.

  4. Conductor on the Underground Railroad; a series of routes out of the South to freedom in the North.

  5. Women’s rights activist; organized the Seneca Falls Convention.

  6. Escaped slave who fought for abolition and women’s rights.

  7. Escaped slave who became a brilliant public speaker on abolition. Also published his auto-biography and a newspaper called the North Star.

  8. Compromise of 1850

    1. Texas/ New Mexico border is settled

    2. New territories will use popular sovereignty to determine slave or free

    3. California enters Union as a free state

    4. Slave trade outlawed in Washington D.C.

    5. Fugitive Slave Act

  1. All escaped slaves can be captured and returned to their plantation and/or owner.

  2. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriett Beecher Stowe

  3. Popular Sovereignty

  4. Violence between proslavery and antislavery forces lasted several years after the Kansas-Nebraska Act

  5. Republican Party: stop the expansion of slavery

  6. Dred Scott Case

    1. Dred Scott is a slave and therefore cannot sue anyone in court

    2. Slaves are considered property so slavery cannot be limited by Congress

  1. John Brown wanted to start a slave uprising that would spread across the South so he captured the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. John Brown’s plan failed and all his men were killed or captured. Brown was captured, put on trial, and sentenced to death by hanging.

  2. Southern states believed Lincoln would immediately abolish slavery, even though he promised he would not do so.

  3. The first shots of the Civil War were fired at Fort Sumter (in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina)

  4. and 52.

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