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Cavalieri, P. and P. Singer, Eds. (1993). The Great Ape Project: Equality Beyond Humanity. New York, St. Martins Press.
This collection of articles presents a wealth of information on great apes, and why we as humans should be considered a part of this group which also includes gorillas, chimpanzees and orang-utans. Articles include texts describing long term research projects on great apes in the wild, on teaching them sign language, on their mental capacities, on the physical similarities between all members of the great ape category, on the definition of personhood, the current status and treatment of great apes, and what these topics say about the moral and legal status of great apes. This is an interesting book full of amazing facts about great apes that is also quite provocative ethically.
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This article is an excellent case study analyzing the different perspectives on a proposed quarry on a small island in Scotland. Barton finds that different interpretations of the environment, shaped by cultural and historical contexts of individuals greatly influence opinions on the quarry. Barton identifies different perspectives of space, time, and what should be sustained as the critical differences among the diverse stakeholders. He proposes that a reform of the planning process is needed to give more power to the people of these islands and the freedom to develop and implement development agendas. However, he also acknowledges that local people often are not aware of, or concerned about global effects of local projects, and so he suggests that there should be an increased level in local public participation in the planning process. Finally, he advocates for the increase in resources available to the region so they will not have to rely on the outside world for jobs or decision making. Again, this article is an excellent example of the diverse positions various groups can have on one issue, with an insightful analysis as to causes of these differences.
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This article outlines four positions related to the environment and sustainable development in Costa Rica. Environmentalists for nature focus on ecological goals and environmental care which they propose to achieve using intervening authority. The environmentalists for profit focus on economic goals and plan to value nature economically through globalization. Alternative environmentalists focus on spiritual motives and want to liberate themselves from western influences through radical populism. Environmentalism for the people focuses on humanitarian goals that could be reached through idealist grassroots organizations.
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Redclift, M. R. and C. Sage (1994). Strategies for sustainable development: local agendas for the Southern Hemisphere. Chichester; New York, J. Wiley & Sons.
Chapter two, "Sustainable Development, Economics, and the Environment," is an incredibly helpful resource. This chapter suggests that the various ways that the terms "sustainability" and "sustainable development" have been used have helped promote the use of these terms. In particular, the normative/active and positive/passive juxtapositions in meanings of sustainability allow these terms to bridge the gap between the scientific concept of sustainability and the moral force necessary for social action and change. This chapter also assesses modernity's role in setting the stage for concepts of sustainability through the ideas of progress, and modernity's ability to legitimate its own practices. Thus, the authors claim that sustainable development is a product of modernism and also answers its problems. Ambiguities that arise when sustainability, a concept grounded in biology, is used are addressed as are the strengths and grave shortcomings of environmental ethics. These problems are shown to provide the shakiness at the core of the concept of sustainable development. Values are discussed, but generally in environmental terms. The chapter ends with a call to "develop a broader and deeper foundation of a realist policy agenda and one which does not subtract 'interests' from its calculus."
Other chapters include an assessment of the interlinking problems of consumption and production and several case studies of sustainable development issues in southern countries. For example, a study of the historical development of the political economy in the Philippines demonstrates how development and environmental concerns have united. A study of land degradation in northern Ghana suggests that 1) local people understand and know about the relationship between environmental degradation and their needs, but must focus on short-term survival rather than long-term preservation. 2) Indigenous peoples have a substantial amount of technical environmental knowledge that must be taken into account when assessing the sustainability of practices in the area and setting new goals and policies. 3) Local people have a commitment to tree planting and resource management, and since they are the ones able to make changes, they must be supported monetarily and legally. Assessments of Mexico, and the coca raising in Bolivia suggest that local people often distrust government sustainability projects due to past mismanagement and failures, and that strengthening the possibility of adequate rural livelihoods prevents migration to the cities and overworking the land. For example, when people must go to cities to work, they do not have time to weed fields, and so they use chemical pesticides, which eliminate fodder for animals and fuel sources, thus depleting the resources of women and children left behind on farms.
Rowledge, L. R., R. S. Barton, et al. (1999). Mapping the journey: case studies in strategy and action toward sustainable development. Sheffield, Greenleaf.
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Carnoy, M. (1993). The New global economy in the information age: reflections on our changing world. University Park, Pa., Pennsylvania State University Press.
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Common, M. S., R. K. Blamey, et al. (1993). "Sustainability and Environmental Valuation." Environmental Values2(4): 299-334.
This article is an overview of environmental economics, and particularly discusses the techniques that economists use to value the environment. It discusses willingness to pay and willingness to accept studies, cost benefit analyses, travel cost methods, and contingent valuation studies. Damage avoidance, residual value, and substitute services are also mentioned. The author also discusses the accuracy and appropriateness of pseudo market valuation methods. The major problem with such procedures are that there have been no empirical studies to validate the evaluation methods.
Costanza, R., Ed. (1991). Ecological economics: the science and management of sustainability. New York, Columbia University Press.
Costanza, R. and H. E. Daly (1992). "Natural Capital and Sustainable Development." Conservation Biology6(1): 37-46.
Costanza, R. and L. Wainger (1991). Ecological economics: the science and management of sustainability. New York, Columbia University Press.
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Daly, H. E. and K. N. Townsend (1993). Valuing the earth: economics, ecology, ethics. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press.
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Friend, A., M. (1992). "Economics, ecology and sustainable development: are they compatible?" Environmental Values1(2): 1992.
Defining sustainable economic development as assuming that a long term relationship exists between supply and demand of natural resources, that waste is within the assimilating capacity of the biosphere, and that productivity gains are based on decreasing inputs to production and increasing the efficiency of consumption, Friend finds that sustainable economic development is not compatible with neoclassical economics. He critiques this viewpoint with the basic principles of environmental economics. Friend also spends a bit of time noticing that the roots of household economy, political economy and ecology have a common root of oikos, but that ideas used in each of these disciplines merge in the concept of sustainable development. With this analysis he seems to imply that the neoclassical economic perspective has strayed too far from its root meanings, and is far from a useful concept when aiming for sustainable development, and so must be revised. (This article is expressly NOT an article debating whether sustainable development is in fact possible in practice.)
Frumkin, N. (2000). Guide to economic indicators. Armonk, N.Y., M.E. Sharpe.
Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1971). The entropy law and the economic process. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press.
Goodland, R. and H. Daly (1993). "Why northern income growth is not the solution to southern poverty." Ecological Economicsgeneral(85-101).
Hawken, P. (1993). The ecology of commerce: a declaration of sustainability. New York, HarperCollins Publishers.
Henderson, H. (1990). "Beyond economics: new indicators for culturally specific, sustainable development." Development3/4: 60-68.
Henderson, H. (1991). Paradigms in progress: life beyond economics. Indianapolis, IN, USA, Knowledge Systems.
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International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD): IISDnet: Measurement and Indicators for Sustainable Development.
Jackson, T. and N. Marks (1999). "Consumption, sustainable welfare, and human needs -- with reference to UK expenditure patterns between 1954 and 1994." Ecological Economics28: 421-41.
Jacobs, M. (1995). "Sustainable Development, Capital Substitution and Economic Humility: A Response to Beckerman." Environmental Values4(1): 57-68.
This article is a part of an ongoing debate. I will review this piece when I have reviewed the earlier articles.
Lawn, P. A. (2001). Toward sustainable development: an ecological economics approach. Boca Raton, Fla., Lewis Publishers.
MacNeill, J., P. Winsemius, et al. (1991). Beyond interdependence: the meshing of the world's economy and the earth's ecology. New York, Oxford University Press.
McWilliams, D. A. (1994). "Environmental justice and industrial redevelopment: economics and equality in urban revitalization." Ecological Law Quarterly21(3): 705-783.
Mikesell, R. F. (1995). "The Limits to Growth: A Reappraisal." Resources Policy21: 127-131.
Mitchell, G., A. May, et al. (1995). "Picabue-- a methodological framework for the development of indicators of sustainable development." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology2(2): 104-123.
Munda, G. (1997). "Environmental Economics, Ecological Economics, and the Concept of Sustainable Development." Environmental Values6(2): 213-233.
Munda presents introductory article on sustainable development for the non economist that discusses the basic positions of neoclassical and environmental economists, as well as what sustainability is, including the fact that sustainability can not be discussed only from an economic or ecological point of view. Differing ideas of values and sustainability are also discussed.
Neumayer, E. (2003). Weak versus Strong Sustainability: Exploring the Limits of Two Opposing Paradigms. Northampton, MA, Edward Elgar.
This text compares weak and strong sustainability, particularly focusing on an economic point of view, including ways to measure the two kinds of sustainability. Weak sustainability assumes that man made and natural capital are substitutable for each other. The goal of weak sustainability is to keep the total amount of natural and manmade capital intact Advocates of strong sustainability argue that natural and manmade capital are not infinitely substitutable. Consequently, they hold that the stock of natural capital must be held constant and the stock of human capital must separately remain constant. To achieve this goal, renewable natural capital must be increased at the same rate that nonrenewable natural capital is decreased.
O'Neill, J. and C. L. Splash (2000). "Appendix: Policy Research Brief Conceptions of Value in Environmental Decision-Making." Environmental Values9(4): 521-536.
The author's stated goal is to "examine the limitations of current attempts to capture ethical values within existing economic instruments and consider how these limitations might be overcome." While this is a good overview of the limitations, the article is not long or detailed enough to give a good sense of how these limitations might be overcome.
Standard economic approaches assume several things about the decision making process as it pertains to individuals and their values. First, it is assumed that one's values express one's preferences. Secondly, these preferences are ordered, transitive, reflexive, complete and continuous. Third, the strength of one's preference for small changes in a stock of goods is expressed in their willingness to pay for their satisfaction. Fourth, people have "subjective probabilities about the likelihood of different possible outcomes." Fifth, people always act to obtain the greatest expected satisfaction of preferences. These assumptions are the basis of willing to pay or willing to accept methods of incorporating values into economics as well as hedonic pricing, the travel cost method, and contingent valuation. However, all of these assumptions may be questioned.
Another view of values in economics is that certain things, particularly environmental goods and services cannot be valued economically, for to do so can be taken to be a betrayal of moral commitment to a group such as one's future offspring, or to the environment itself. This perspective is not captured adequately in adjustments to the market listed above.
The authors recognize that environmental decision making is about more than mere economics, but also involves ethical commitments and perceptions of fairness. To address these dimensions of decision-making the authors suggest that processes of decision making must involve a variety of individuals and analytical tools. A few guidelines are suggested, but are not developed.
Parker, K. (1993). "Economics, Sustainable Growth, and Community." Environmental Values2(3): 233-245.
This article aims to provide a "regulative ideal of sustainable growth which is acceptable at the social level, and which encourages the development of genuine community." After discussing some basic economic principles, including growth and development, Parker investigates John Dewey's writings on the life of individuals. Working from Dewey's idea as the enjoyment of life as the true goal of the economic process, Parker moves to discussing how such a goal could be realized at the social level. He finds diversity of activities, and the sustainability of such activities to be important concepts to reach such a goal. Finally, he examines ethics and ecology as the basis for a conception of what concerns the good of the community.
The most interesting part of this work is the treatment of Dewey, as most of this article is not detailed enough to be very helpful in suggesting ways sustainable growth can be integrated in community life.
Pearce, D. W. (1994). Project and policy appraisal: integrating economics and environment. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; Washington, D.C.: OECD Publications and Information Centre [distributor].