Big picture themes: Chapter #1: New World Beginnings

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BIG PICTURE THEMES: Chapter #1: New World Beginnings (pages 4 – 24)

1. The New World, before Columbus, there were many different Native American tribes. These people were very diverse. In what’s today the U.S., there were an estimated 400 tribes, often speaking different languages. It’s inaccurate to think of “Indians” as a homogeneous group.

2. Columbus came to America looking for a trade route to the East Indies (Spice Islands). Other explorers quickly realized this was an entirely New World and came to lay claim to the new lands for their host countries. Spain and Portugal had the head start on France and then England.

3. The coming together of the two world had world changing effects. The biological exchange cannot be underestimated. Food was swapped back and forth and truly revolutionized what people ate. On the bad side, European diseases wiped out an estimated 90% of Native Americans

IDENTIFICATIONS: Chapter #1: New World Beginnings (pages 4 – 24)

1. Marco Polo

Italian explorer; spent many years in China or near it; his return to Europe in 1295 sparked a European interest in finding a quicker route to Asia.

2. Montezuma
Aztec chieftan; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Soanush were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.

3. Christopher Columbus
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.

4. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

In 1494 Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the new world, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain got the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east.

5. Mestizos
The Mestizos were the race of people created when the Spanish intermarried with the surviving Indians in Mexico.

6. Spanish Armada
"Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.

7. "Black legend"
The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease while the English did not. It is a false assertion that the Spanish were more evil towards the Native Americans than the English were.

8. Conquistadores
Spanish explorers that invaded Central and South America for it's riches during the 1500's. In doing so they conquered the Incas, Aztecs, and other Native Americans of the area. Eventually they intermarried these tribes.

9. Joint stock company
These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Ex. London Company and Plymouth Company.

10. Encomienda system
The Spanish labor system in which persons were help to unpaid service under the permanent control of their masters, though not legally owned by them.


BIG PICTURE THEMES: Chapter #2 The Planting of English America (pp. 25 – 42)

1. Jamestown, VA was founded with the initial goal of making money via gold. They found no gold, but did find a cash crop in tobacco.

2. Other southern colonies sprouted up due to (a) the desire for more tobacco land as with North Carolina, (b) the desire for religious freedom as with Maryland, (c) the natural extension of a natural port in South Carolina, or (d) as a “second chance” colony as with Georgia.

IDENTIFICATIONS: Chapter #2: The Planting of English America (pp. 25 – 42)

A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; Pocahontas' brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.

John Rolfe

Rolfe was an Englishman who became a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia. He is best known as the man who married the Native American, Pocahontas and took her to his homeland of England. Rolfe was also the savior of the Virginia colony by perfecting the tobacco industry in North America. Rolfe died in 1622, during one of many Indian attacks on the colony.

Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."

James Oglethorpe
Founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his interest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.

John Smith

John Smith took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, "people who do not work do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.

House of Burgesses

The House of Burgesses was the first representative assembly in the New World. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgesses. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America.

“Slave Codes" 1661
In 1661 a set of "codes" was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.

A person who was granted charters of ownership by the king: proprietary colonies were Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware: proprietors founded colonies from 1634 until 168 . A famous proprietor is William Penn.
Indentured Servant

Indentured servants were Englishmen who were outcasts of their country, would work in the Americas for a certain amount of time as servants.
“Starving Time”
The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.

Act of Toleration
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.

Iroquois Confederacy
The Iroquois Confederacy was nearly a military power consisting of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Senecas. It was founded in the late 1500s.The leaders were Degana Widah and Hiawatha. The Indians lived in log houses with relatives. Men dominated, but a person's background was determined by the women's family. Different groups banded together but were separate fur traders and fur suppliers. Other groups joined; they would ally with either the French or the English depending on which would be the most to their advantage.


BIG PICTURE THEMES: Chapter #3: Settling the Northern Colonies (pages 43 – 65)

1. Plymouth, MA was founded with the initial goal of allowing Pilgrims, and later Puritans, to worship independent of the Church of England. Their society, ironically, was very intolerant itself and any dissenters were pushed out of the colony.

2. Other New England colonies sprouted up, due to (a) religious dissent from Plymouth and Massachusetts as with Rhode Island, (b) the constant search for more farmland as in Connecticut, and (c) just due to natural growth as in Maine.

3. The Middle Colonies emerged as the literal crossroads of the north and south. They held the stereotypical qualities of both regions: agricultural and industrial. And they were unique in that (a) New York was born of Dutch heritage rather than English, and (b) Pennsylvania thrived more than any other colony due to its freedoms and tolerance.

IDENTIFICATIONS: Chapter #3: Settling the Northern Colonies (pages 43 – 65)

Anne Hutchinson
A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset (now Portsmouth, R.I.)

Roger Williams He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.

William Bradford A pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."

William Penn English Quaker;" Holy Experiment"; persecuted because he was a Quaker; 1681 he got a grant to go over to the New World; area was Pennsylvania; "first American advertising man"; freedom of worship there

John Winthrop John Winthrop immigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."

The "Elect"
A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of

people were predestined to go to heaven by God. This belief in the elect, or "visible

saints," figured a major part in the doctrine of the Puritans who settled in New England
during the 1600's.

Primary idea behind Calvinism; states that salvation or damnation are foreordained and unalterable; first put forth by John Calvin in 1531; was the core belief of the Puritans who settled New England in the seventeenth century.

Pilgrims Separatists; worried by "Dutchification" of their children they left Holland on the Mayflower in 1620; they landed in Massachusetts; they proved that people could live in the new world

New England Confederation
New England Confederation was a Union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that effected all four colonies.

Calvinism Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500's John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in Calvinist followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huguenots (French Calvinists) and Catholics, that tore the French kingdom apart.

Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community

Dominion of New England In 1686, New England, in conjunction with New York and New Jersey, consolidated under the royal authority -- James II. Charters and self rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system. The Dominion ended in 1688 when James II was removed from the throne.

The Puritans
They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages came in 1620 with the Pilgrims and in 1629, which was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.

Members of the Religious Society of Friends; most know them as the Quakers. They believe in equality of all peoples and resist the military. They also believe that the religious authority is the decision of the individual (no outside influence.) Settled in Pennsylvania.

Protestant Ethic
mid 1600's; a commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and pursuing worldly affairs.

Mayflower Compact 1620
A contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled.

Fundamental Orders
In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the first constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.

THEME #4 American Life in the Seventeenth Century

BIG PICTURE THEME: Chapter #4: American Life in the Seventeenth Century (pages 66 – 83)

1. The Southern colonies were dominated by agriculture, namely (a) tobacco in the Chesapeake and (b) rice and indigo further down the coast.

2. Bacon’s Rebellion is very representative of the struggles of poor white indentured servants. Nathaniel Bacon and his followers took to arms to essentially get more land out west from the Indians. This theme of poor whites taking to arms for land, and in opposition to eastern authorities, will be repeated several times (Shay’s Rebellion, Paxton Boys, Whisky Rebellion).

3. Taken altogether, the southern colonies were inhabited by a group of people who were generally young, independent-minded, industrious, backwoodsy, down home, restless and industrious.

4. A truly unique African-American culture quickly emerged. Brought as slaves, black Americans blended aspects of African culture with American. Religion shows this blend clearly, as African religious ceremonies mixed with Christianity. Food and music also showed African-American uniqueness.

5. New Englanders developed a Bible Commonwealth—a stern but clear society where the rules of society were dictated by the laws of the Bible. This good-vs-evil society is best illustrated by the Salem witch trials.

6. Taken altogether, the northern colonies were inhabited by a group of people who grew to be self-reliant, stern, pious, proud, family oriented, sharp in thought and sharp of tongue, crusty, and very industrious.

IDENTIFICATIONS: Chapter #4: American Life in the Seventeenth Century (pages 66 – 83)

William Berkeley
He was a British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed that he had favorites in his second term which led to the Bacon's rebellion in 1676 ,which he ruthlessly suppressed. He had poor frontier defense.

Headright system

A way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way and/or any plantation owner that paid an immigrants way; mainly a system in the southern colonies.

Indentured servants
Indentured servants Because of the massive amounts of tobacco crops planted by families, "indentured servants" were brought in from England to work on the farms. In exchange for working, they received transatlantic passage and eventual "freedom dues", including a few barrels of corn, a suit of clothes, and possibly a small piece of land

Stono Rebellion (1739)

The Spanish empire enticed slaves of English colonies to escape to Spanish territory. In 1733 Spain issued an edict to free all runaway slaves from British territory who made their way into Spanish possessions. On September 9, 1739, about 20 slaves, mostly from Angola, gathered under the leadership of a slave called Jemmy near the Stono River, 20 miles from Charleston. 44 blacks and 21 whites lost their lives. South Carolina responded by placing import duties on slaves from abroad, strengthening patrol duties and militia training, and recommending more benign treatment of slaves.

Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
An uprising of western Virginia planters against the Eastern Establishment headed by Sir William Berkeley, the royal governor. The Westerners, led by Nathaniel Bacon, resented both the social pretensions of the Berkeley group—which in turn considered the Baconites “a giddy and unthinking multitude”—and Berkeley’s unwillingness to support their attacks on local Indians. Bacon raised a small army, murdered some peaceful Indians, burned Jamestown, and forced the governor to flee. But Bacon came down with a “violent flux” and died, and soon thereafter Berkeley restored order.

Leisler’s Rebellion (1689-91)
After news of the abdication of James II had reached New York, Jacob Leisler, a local militia captain, proclaimed himself governor of the colony. He claimed to rule in the name of the new monarchs, William and Mary, and attempted without success to organize an expedition against French Canada during King William’s War. In 1691, after a governor appointed by King William had arrived in New York, Leisler resisted turning over power. He was arrested, tried for treason, and executed.

Halfway Covenant (1662)
A Puritan church document; the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

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