Bibliography Summer 2000—Last updated

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Dillon, R. K. and N. J. McKenzie (1998). “The Influence of Ethnicity on Listening, Communication Competence, Approach, and Avoidance.” International Journal of Listening 12: 1-11.

DiMatteo, M. R., L. M. Prince, et al. (1979). “Patients' perceptions of physicians' behavior: Determinants of patient commitment to the therapeutic relationship.” Journal of Community Health 4(4): 280-290.

DiSalvo, V. (1980). “A summary of current research indentifying communication skills in various organizational contexts.” Communication Education 29: 283-290.

DiSalvo, V., D. Larsen, et al. (1976). “Communication skills needed by persons in business organizations.” Communication Education 25: 269-75.

DiVesta, F. and G. Gray (1982). “Listening and notetaking.” Journal of Educational Psychology 63: 8-14.

Dobrick, M. (1984). “Misunderstanding: An experimental study.” Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie 15(3): 211-223.

Proposes an integration between speech production and speech perception in order to deal with misunderstandings in communication. Two top-down hypotheses concerning conditions for misunderstanding in communication were examined experimentally within a dyadic design. Results indicate that good understanding cannot be expected unless the intentions held by the communicators are equal and the attributions of intentions are correct. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Doctor, E. A., M. A. Becker, et al. (1983). “Preliminary standardization of the Durrell Listening-Reading Series.” South African Journal of Psychology 13(4): 137-139.

A preliminary item analysis of the Durrell Listening-Reading series was carried out on 380 English-speaking, Standard 3 children in South Africa. This test is unique in that it provides comparable measures of reading and aural comprehension. Although Ss' performance compared favorably with that of American children, it would be necessary to adapt the test extensively in order to make it more suitable for South African usage. (Afrikaans abstract) (1 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Dole, J. A., S. A. Harvey, et al. (1984). “The development and validation of a listening comprehension test as a predictor of reading comprehension: Preliminary results.” Educational Research Quarterly 9(4): 40-46.

Reports the preliminary results of the development and validation of the Simon-Dole Listening Comprehension Test (SDLCT), a test designed to measure listening comprehension as a predictor of reading comprehension. The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) was administered to 321 kindergartners (aged 5-7.2 yrs) to measure knowledge of basic linguistic concepts. At the end of the 1st grade, 162 of the original Ss were administered a reading achievement test, the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. Analysis yielded a 1-factor solution, hypothesized to be a language comprehension factor that predicted significantly to 1st-grade achievement in reading comprehension. Results indicate a moderately strong relationship between the SDLCT and the BTBC. Data suggest that the SDLCT has potential value as a predictor of reading comprehension and as an indicator of a language comprehension ability needed for reading comprehension. Findings will be used as part of a longitudinal study to see if the relationship between listening and reading changes as children progress through school. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Dolman, J. (1934). “From the listener's point of view.” The Quarterly Journal of Speech 20: 203-206.

Donahue, M. L. and C. M. Pidek (1993). “Listening comprehension and paraphrasing in content-area classrooms.” Journal of Childhood Communication Disorders 15(2): 35-42.

Explores the use of oral paraphrase as an informal and versatile strategy for assessing and enhancing listening comprehension in mainstreamed students with language and learning disabilities. In light of the comprehension demands of content-area classrooms, paraphrasing can give students and teachers immediate feedback on students' ability to comprehend and orally reconstruct the lesson. Some approaches to assessing the listening comprehension demands of individual classrooms and using various dimensions of paraphrasing to enhance students' language comprehension and production skills in the context of content-area information are presented. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Doyle, A. (1978). “Listening to distraction: A developmental study of selective attention.” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 15: 100-115.

Duker, S. (1964). “What do we know about listening.” Journal of Communication 14: 245-248.

Duker, S. (1970). “Teaching listening: Recently developed programs and materials.” Training and Development Journal(May): 11-14.

Duker, S. and C. J. Petrie (1964). “What we know about listening: Continuation of a controversy.” Journal of Communication 14(December): 245-252.

Dunkel, P., G. Henning, et al. (1993). “The assessment of an L2 listening comprehension construct: A tentative model for test specification and development.” Modern Language Journal 77(2): 180-191.

Proposes a tentative framework/model in which various aspects of listening comprehension assessment are considered that need to be addressed when constructing a test of listening comprehension proficiency in a 2nd language. The model specifies the person, competence, text, and item domains and components of assessment, focusing on factors that relate to the purpose, object, and agent of assessment. Specific aspects of the model include the text/task/difficulty dimension, cognitive operations, response category, item type, leveling variables, the person/competence/ability dimension, and behavior type. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Dunkel, P. A. (1986). “Developing listening fluency in L2: Theoretical principles and pedagogical considerations.” Modern Language Journal 70(2): 99-106.

Discusses the importance of developing listening fluency in the acquisition of a 2nd language. Foreign or 2nd language teachers must provide students with task-oriented listening activities based on recent psycholinguistic studies of speech processing and the practices of fluent listeners. (0 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Durrell, D. D. (1969). “Listening comprehension versus reading comprehension.” Journal of Reading 12(March): 455-460.

Durrell, D. D. and H. A. Murphy (1953). “The auditory discrimination factor in reading readiness and reading disability.” Education 73: 556-60.

Dutkiewicz, D. (1989). “Comprehension and retention of a radio story by low vision children.” Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 83(3): 174-176.

30 low-vision (LV; visual acuity <20/70 but >20/200) children (aged 10-13 yrs) and 30 normal-vision controls (aged 10-11 yrs) in Poland listened to a 30-min, tape-recorded radio story and then were tested for comprehension and retention. Questionnaire results show that the process of comprehending and retaining the story was essentially similar in both groups. However, LVs remembered significantly more details than controls. Conversely, controls understood the story's action better, especially in the area of classifying the characters as real or supernatural. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Early, M. (1954). “Suggestions for teaching listening.” Journal of Education 137(December): 17-20.

Ebel, R. L. (1976). “The paradox of educational testing.” Measurement in Education 7(4): 1-7.

Ediger, M. (1976). “The pupil as a listener.” Reading Improvement 13(Winter): 249.

Ellermeyer, D. (1993). “Improving listening comprehension through a whole-schema approach.” Early Child Development & Care 93: 101-110.

Describes a working model for improving listening comprehension within the classroom. This model attempts to integrate the concepts of whole language and schema theory into what may be thought of as a whole-schema approach (WSA). The WSA is a teacher-facilitated approach that leads students to selecting and using existing schema within a whole language environment for the improvement of listening comprehension. The process involves 5 steps: predicting, fact finding, categorizing, student transillustrating, and student sharing. The WSA attempts to provide teachers with 1 alternative to simply reading aloud to children and hoping that they grasp the content. Students should be taught how and when to call upon prior knowledge and how to organize it effectively in preparing to listen. Teachers of all grade levels and content areas should make listening an active part of the total curriculum. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Elley, W. B. (1989). “Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories.” Reading Research Quarterly 24(2): 174-187.

In 2 experiments, 13 classroom teachers in New Zealand read stories aloud to a total of 335 7- and 8-yr-olds and administered tests to determine the extent of the new vocabulary acquired by the Ss from the reading. Results show that oral reading constituted a significant source of vocabulary acquisition, regardless of whether the reading was accompanied by teacher explanations of word meaning. Follow-up tests showed that this incidental vocabulary learning was relatively permanent. The features that best predicted whether a word would be learned were the frequency of the word in the text, depiction of the word in illustrations, and the amount of redundancy in the surrounding context. (French, Spanish & German abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Elliott-Faust, D. J. and M. Pressley (1986). “How to teach comparison processing to increase children's short- and long-term listening comprehension monitoring.” Journal of Educational Psychology 78(1): 27-33.

Used 192 3rd graders to determine whether (a) training children to compare different parts of text improves detection of text errors and (b) self-controlled training of comparison produces more durable use of the strategy. 24 Ss were assigned to each of 8 conditions: 3 comparison-processing training conditions, 2 minimal-instruction conditions, 1 passive training condition, and 2 control conditions. Ss heard expository passages, some containing explicit errors, and were asked to judge passage sensibility. Results indicate that Ss taught to use a self-instructional routine specifying comparison of the 2 most recently presented sentences with each other and with the rest of the passage monitored comprehension immediately following training and 1 wk later better than did Ss given minimal training. Teaching the 2 types of comparison without self-instruction produced only short-term benefits relative to minimal training alternatives. Results are consistent with E. M. Markman's (see PA, Vol 63:3008) coactivation hypothesis and with metacognitive theoretical assumptions about how to produce strategy use. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Ellis, L. W. and D. J. Fucci (1992). “Effects of listeners' experience on two measures of intelligibility.” Perceptual & Motor Skills 74(3, Pt 2): Spec Issue 1099-1104.

Assessed the effects of listeners' experience on listeners' responses to recording identification in writing and magnitude-estimation scaling measures of the intelligibility of speech. Ss were 20 women, of whom 10 were experienced listeners with advanced degrees and training in speech-language pathology. Stimuli were 9 audiotaped speech samples. Experienced and inexperienced listeners did not differ significantly in magnitude-estimation scaling or written identification tasks. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Elrod, M. M. (1983). “Young children's responses to direct and indirect directives.” Journal of Genetic Psychology 143(2): 217-227.

Theories in the philosophy of language suggest that the comprehension of indirect requests is a more difficult process than understanding direct requests and involves inferring the intention of the speaker. The present research challenges this accepted theoretical view. 25 girls and 23 boys, 3.2-6.3 yrs of age, were tested on their comprehension of 2 types of directives: (a) nonconventional indirect directives (NID), those not of the imperative form that omit the desired action and agent of action; and (b) conventional directives (CD); those of the imperative form. ANOVA demonstrated that Ss responded as appropriately to NID as they did to CD. A correlational analysis yielded neither convergent nor discriminant validity for 2 constructs, understanding NID and understanding CD. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Emmert, P., V. Emmert, et al. (1993). “An analysis of male-female differences on listening practices feedback report.” Journal of the International Listening Association(Special issue): 43-55.

Engleber, I. N. (1990). “Listening research and instruction in Australia.” International Listening Association Journal 4: 105-115.

Falconer, C. W. (1984). “Listening in family psychotherapy.” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 29(2): 112-114.

Contends that the tool of listening is of vital importance in supervising and practicing family psychotherapy. Two case examples are given to illustrate how it is possible to miss a dimension of family functioning by tuning out family members. Beginning therapists need to be encouraged to see what the family is doing and to listen to what they say, what they mean, how what they say is related to the repetitive sequences of action, and to family myths. (French abstract) (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Falker, F. (1991). “Business management: Coaching to improve employee performance.” Club Mgnt 70/2(March): 20-21.

Farrant, A. W. (1976). “Boss, are you listening?” Supervision 38(September): 9.

Farrell, M. and S. H. Flint (1967). “Are they listening?” Childhood Education 43(May): 528-29.

Fessenden, S. (1955). “Levels of listening--a theory.” Education 75(January): 34-35.

Feyten, C. M. (1990). “Listening ability and foreign language acquisistion: Defining a new area of listening.” International Listening Association Journal 4: 128-142.

Feyten, C. M. (1991). “The power of listening ability: An overlooked dimension in language acquisition.” Modern Language Journal 75(2): 173-180.

Examined the existence of relationships between (1) listening ability (LA) and overall foreign language (FL) proficiency; (2) LA and FL listening comprehension skills; and (3) LA and FL oral proficiency skills in 36 French students and 54 Spanish students from a summer intensive language program. Results suggest a positive relationship between LA and FL acquisition. Significant relationships were also found between LA and overall FL proficiency, between LA and FL listening comprehension skills, and between LA and FL oral proficiency skills. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Fichtner, M. (1983). “Listen!” The State Magazine, Columbia, South Carolina(August 7): 10.

Field, P. (1970). “Don't talk, listen!” Business Management 39(October): 39-40.

Findahl, O. and B. Hoijer (1981). “The problem of understanding and memorization of real events.” Bulletin de Psychologie 35(11-16): 749-758.

Describes research on the comprehension of broadcast news, focusing on a long-term research project in this area. Problems of news comprehension are identified indicating that an understanding of broadcast news depends on several factors including content interaction between context and a listener's knowledge and experience, and factors of presentation. In order to get at the most important characteristics of the process of understanding real events, it is necessary that they be studied in the actual context in which they took place. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Fisher, J. and M. Harris (1974). “Notetaking and recall.” Journal of Educational Research 67: 291-292.

Fitch-Hauser, M., D. A. Barker, et al. (1990). “Receiver apprehension and listening comprehension: A linear or curvilinear relationship?” The Southern Communication Journal 56(Fall): 62-71.

Fitch-Hauser, M. and A. Hughes (1987). “A factor analytic study of four listening tests.” International Listening Association Journal 1: 129-147.

Fitch-Hauser, M. and M. A. Hughes (1987). “A factor analytic study of four listening tests.” Journal of the International Listening Association 1: 129-147.

Fitch-Hauser, M. and M. A. Hughes (1988). “Defining the coginitive process of listenig: A dream or reality.” Journal of the International Listening Association 2: 75-88.

Fitch-Hauser, M. and M. A. Hughes (1992). “The conceptualization and measurement of listening.” International Listening Association Journal 6: 6-22.

Fletcher, J. and P. D. Pumfrey (1988). “Differences in text comprehension amongst 7-8-year-old children.” School Psychology International 9(2): 133-145.

Compared the effectiveness of the 3 receptive language modes (oral reading, silent reading, and listening) using 36 7-8 yr old children. Passages at 2 levels of the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (NARA) were used as texts. Reading attainment, sex, order and mode of presentation, and form of text were compared with NARA comprehension scores. The Level 1 reading task did not discriminate effectively between different attainment groups. However, at both Levels 1 and 2 of the NARA, results demonstrated significant differences between the mode groups, with the silent reading group performing more poorly than either the oral reading or listening groups. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Floyd, J. J. and R. G. Reese (1987). “Listening theory in modern rhetorical thought.” Journal of the International Listening Association 1: 87-102.

Forester, J. (1980). “Listening: The social policy of everyday life (critical theory and hermeneutic in practice).” Social Praxis 7(No. 3/4).

Foulke, E. (1968). “Listening comprehension as a function of word rate.” Journal of Communication 18: 198-206.

Fowler, C. A. and D. J. Dekle (1991). “Listening with eye and hand: Cross-modal contributions to speech perception.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance 17(3): 816-828.

Three experiments investigated the "McGurk effect" whereby optically specified syllables experienced synchronously with acoustically specified syllables integrate in perception to determine a listener's auditory perceptual experience. Experiments contrasted the cross-modal effect of orthographic on acoustic syllables presumed to be associated in experience and memory with that of haptically experienced and acoustic syllables presumed not to be associated. The latter pairing gave rise to cross-modal influences when Ss were informed that cross-modal syllables were paired independently. Mouthed syllables affected reports of simultaneously heard syllables (and vice versa). These effects were absent when syllables were simultaneously seen (spelled) and heard. The McGurk effect does not arise from association in memory but from conjoint near specification of the same casual source in the environment--in speech, the moving vocal tract producing phonetic gestures. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Fowler, C. A. and J. Housum (1987). “Talkers' signaling of "new" and "old" words in speech and listeners' perception and use of the distinction.” Journal of Memory & Language 26(5): 489-504.

Conducted 5 experiments with a total of 111 college students to examine talkers' utterances of words produced for the 1st time in a monologue (new words (NWs)) or for the 2nd time (old words (OWs)), using samples of speech obtained from radio broadcasts. Results show that Ss distinguished OWs by shortening them. OWs were less intelligible than NWs presented in isolation, but probably were not less identifiable in context. Listeners identified NWs and OWs as such and used information that a word was old much as they would use an anaphor to promote retrieval of the earlier production in its context. It is concluded that talkers may attenuate their productions of words when they can do so without sacrificing communicative efficacy and that OWs can be reduced because they are repetitions of earlier presented items and because of their contextual support. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Francis, V., B. M. Korsch, et al. (1969). “Gaps in doctor-patient communication.” The New England Journal of Medicine 280: 535-540.

Franco, J. J. (1987). “Teaching customer service staff to listen.” Credit World 75: 32-35.

Frase, L. T. (1970). “Boundary conditions for mathemagenic behaviors.” Review of Educational Research 40(June): 337-47.

Freemon, B., V. F. Negrete, et al. (1971). “Gaps in doctor-patient communication: Doctor-patient interaction analysis.” Pediatric Research 5: 298-311.

Friedman, H. L. and R. L. Johnson (1968). “Compressed speech correlates of listening ability.” Journal of Communication 18(September): 207-18.

Friedman, S. J. and T. N. Ansley (1990). “The influence of reading on listening test scores.” Journal of Experimental Education 58(4): 301-310.

Tested the hypothesis that as the amount of reading required for a listening test increases, the resulting score represents a confounding of reading and listening abilities. To investigate this hypothesis, 3 different sets of listening items accompanied by answer sheets requiring varying amounts of reading were administered to 792 3rd-8th grade students. Ss' listening scores increased and differed significantly from each other as more printed information was added to the answer sheet. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Fuller, D. S. and G. M. Quesada (1973). “Communication in medical therapeutics.” The Journal of Communication 23: 361-370.

Furness, E. L. (1957). “Listening: A case of terminological confusion.” Journal of Educational Psychology 48(December): 481.

Gade, P. A., J. V. Lambert, et al. (1984). “Incentive to listen: Training people to listen to time-compressed speech.” Human Learning: Journal of Practical Research & Applications 3(2): 97-107.

Examined 4 training methods for teaching 103 enlisted US Army personnel to effectively listen to pitch-normalized, time-compressed speech. Two of the methods, gradually increasing speech rate and listening continuously to fast speech, have been used extensively with equivocal results. The remaining 2 methods used an extrinsic reward contingent upon performance. Results show that the performance of Ss who received the incentive during training was superior to those who did not. The effect of the training incentive was evident in posttraining tests as well as during training. Results are discussed in relation to principles developed by B. M. Staw et al (see PA, Vol 65:9648) governing the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic incentives in the workplace. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Gade, P. A. and C. B. Mills (1989). “Listening rate and comprehension as a function of preference for and exposure to time-altered speech.” Perceptual & Motor Skills 68(2): 531-538.

Two experiments examined the effects of brief prior exposure to time altered speech on preferred listening rate and the rate listeners would select when asked to listen to rapid speech playback but with good comprehension. Ss were 79 Army enlisted personnel who had scored 100+ on the General Technical scale of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. The faster the rate of exposure speech, the faster the induced rate. Speech compressed to twice-normal rate led to a faster induced listening rate than exposure to speech expanded to half-normal rate. Normal rate speech was intermediate between twice-normal and half-normal rate. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Gall, M. D. (1970). “The use of questions in teaching.” Review of Educational Research 40(December): 707-21.

Gantt, W. N., R. M. Wilson, et al. (1974-75). “An initial investigation of the relationship between syntactical divergency and the listening comprehension of black children.” Reading Research Quarterly 10(2): 74-75.

Gauger, T. (1952). “The effect of gesture and the presence or absence of the speaker on the listening comprehension of eleventh and twelfth grade high school pupils.” Speech Monographs 19: 116-117.

Giansante, L. (1975). “Learning to listen.” Media and Methods 12(March): 24-5+.

Gibb, J. (1961). “Defensive communication.” Journal of Communication 11: 141-48.

Gilbert, M. B. (1986). “Do principals listen?” NFEAS Journal 3 (3): 115-120.

Gilbert, M. B. (1988). “Listening at work: Work at listening.” Shaping the Future 1 (1): 22-31.

Gilbert, M. B. (1988). “Listening in school: I know you can hear me-but are you listening?” Journal of the International Listening Association 2: 121-132.

Gilbert, M. B. (1989). “Perceptions of listening behaviors of school principals.” School Organisation 9 (2): 271-82.

Gilbert, M. G. (1985). “Sell with your ears.” American Salesman 30: 34-36.

Gillion, G. M. (1992). “Connecting the theoretical perspective and methodolgy of the Piagetian clinical interview to young children's listening.” International Listening Association Journal 6: 42-58.

Gilmor, T. M. (1989). “The Tomatis method and the genesis of listening.” Pre and Perinatal Psychology 4(Fall).

Glasser, T. L. (1975). “On readability and listenability.” ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 32(2): 138-42.

Glenn, E. (1989). “A content analysis of fifty definitions of listening.” Journal of the International Listening Association 2: 21-31.

Glenn, E. C., P. Emmert, et al. (1995). “A scale for measuring listenability: The factors that determine listening ease and difficulty.” International Journal of Listening 9.

Goedecke, W. R. (1971). “Ihde's auditory phenomena and descent into the objective.” Philosophy Today 15(Fall): 175-80.

Gold, Y. (1973). “The importance of teaching listening skills.” Reading Improvement 10(Winter): 14-16.

Gold, Y. (1975). “Teaching listening? Why not?” Elementary English(March, 1975): 52421-2+.

Golen, S. and R. Boissoneau (1987). “Health care supervisors identify communication barriers in their supervisor-subordinate relationships.” Health Care Supervisor 6: 26-38.

Goode, S. (1987). “Driver must listen to sounds of accident.” Insight 3(August): 53.

Goodman, K. S. and Y. M. Goodman (1977). “Learning about psycholinguistic processes by analyzing oral reading.” Harvard Educational Review 77: 317-333.

Goolsby, T. M. and R. A. Lasco (1970). “Training non-readers in "listening achievement".” Journal of Learning Disabilities 3: 44-47.

Goss, B. (1982). “Listening as information processing.” Communication Quarterly 30: 304.

Goss, B. (1991). “A test of conversational listening.” Communication Research Reports 8(1-2): 19-22.

Constructed a self-report listening test and conducted a multiple discriminant analysis with 208 participants who were given an 18-item test measuring their listening skills in conversations. The analysis demonstrated that 12 items accounted for 100% of the variance. A shorter version of the test is proposed as a useful tool for studying listening. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Gotkin, L. G. and F. Fendiller (1965). “Listening centers in the kindergarten.” Audiovisual Instruction 10(January): 24-26.

Grant, J., G. Elias, et al. (1989). “An application of Palincsar and Brown's comprehension instruction paradigm to listening.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 14(2): 164-172.

Investigated whether 8 Year 7 primary school students with listening comprehension difficulties (aged 12-13 yrs) could be taught to use more efficient listening strategies, using the activities and instructional techniques proposed by A. S. Palincsar and A. L. Brown (see PA, Vol 75:12096). Instructional procedures involved Ss' emulation of behaviors (i.e., question generating, summarizing, predicting, clarifying) modeled by the teacher. Results reveal that Ss in the intervention group made significant gains in comprehension when compared with the performance of 8 nonintervention controls. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Gratz, E. W. (1973). “Goal: Maxi-listening.” English Journal 62: 268-71.

Graybill, D. (1986). “A multiple-outcome evaluation of training parents in active listening.” Psychological Reports 59(3): 1171-1185.

Examined the effects of reflective counseling on parental active listening, using the parents of 32 4th-8th graders who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 counseling groups or a no-treatment control group. The counseling groups, which met for 6 2-hr sessions, were taught active listening skills. Results show that parents showed decreases in anxiety and increases in confidence, knowledge of how to respond to children's feelings, and active listening. There were no changes in children's attitudes or behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Gupta, W. and C. Stern (1969). “Comparative effectiveness of speaking vs. listening in improving spoken language of disadvantaged young children.” The Journal of Experimental Education 38(Fall): 54-57.

Haakenson, R. (1976). “Art of listening.” Internal Auditor 33(August): 32-40.

Hadar, U., T. J. Steiner, et al. (1985). “Head movement during listening turns in conversation.” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 9(4): 214-228.

Investigated head movement during listening turns in conversation of 5 Ss (aged 20-30 yrs). Head movement during conversation was monitored by polarized light goniometry and recorded alongside speech and a signal proportional to peak amplitude of sound waves (peak loudness). Kinematic properties of Ss' head movements (i.e., amplitude, frequency and cyclicity) differentiated conversational functions. They were function-specific: symmetrical, cyclic movements were employed to signal yes, no, or equivalents; linear, wide movements anticipated claims for speaking; narrow linear movements occurred in phase with stressed syllables in the other's speech (synchrony movements); and wide, linear movements occurred during pauses in the other's speech. It is suggested that the findings bear on the relation between the signaling of communicative intentions and the synchronization of interactional rhythm. The former appears to determine the timing and tempo of responses such as yes or no while the latter determines the regulation of synchrony movements. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Hall, W. S. and R. O. Freedle (1973). “A developmental investigation of standard and nonstandard English among black and white children.” Human Development 16: 440-64.

Halley, R. D. (1975). “Some suggestions for the teaching of listening.” Speech Teacher 24(November): 386-389.

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