Bibliography Summer 2000—Last updated

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Stientjes, M. K. (1998). “A Study of Assessment Stimuli and Response Mode Effects.” International Journal of Listening 12: 1-11.

Stine, M., T. thompson, et al. (1995). “The impact of organizational structure and the supervisory listening indicators on subordinate support, trust, intrinsic motivation and performance.” International Journal of Listening 9.

Strickland, R. G. (1962). “The language of elementary school children: Its relationship to the language of reading textbooks and the quality of reading of selected children.” Viewpoints: Bulletin of the School of Education, Indiana University 38: 85-86.

Sullivan, J. E. and B. G. Rogers (1985). “Listening retention of third-grade pupils as a function of mode of presentation.” Journal of Experimental Education 53(4): 227-229.

Compared the listening retention of approximately 600 3rd grade students who had been exposed to a literature passage via 1 of 3 modes of presentation. Within each of 20 classrooms, Ss were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups in which the teacher read from a book, showed a filmstrip, or showed a film. In each presentation, identical words and pictures were used. Results from a listening retention test reveal statistically insignificant differences between teaching methods. Results from a statistical power analysis confirm that the 3 modes of presentation produced approximately equivalent effects on the listening retention of Ss. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Sund, R. B. (1974). “Growing through sensitive listening and questioning.” Childhood Education 51(2)(Nov-Dec): 68-71.

Sypher, B. D., R. N. Bostrom, et al. (1989). “Listening, communication abilities, and success at work.” Journal of Business Communication 26(4): 293-303.

Tapp, J. L. (1953). “Children can understand rumor.” Social Education 17(April): 163-64.

Taylor, C. W. (1964). “Listening creatively.” Instructor 73(February): 5, 103-4.

Taylor, K. K. (1976). “Auding and reading.” Research in the Teaching of English 10: 75-78.

Taylor, L. K., P. F. Cook, et al. (1988). “Better interviews: The effects of supervisor training on listening and collaborative skills.” Journal of Educational Research 82(2): 89-95.

Examined the effect of training upon the interpersonal skills of educational supervisors by observing principals' interviews with teachers. Four principals, aged 35-46 yrs, were trained in interpersonal skills. Four measures were made of quality of talk time for principals and the teachers, using the Allred Interaction Analysis teamed with a computer-assisted observation device. Ratings of key actions taught in training were made 4 times from videotaped interviews, and all principals and teachers were given structured interviews to determine their perceptions of the effectiveness of the training on supervisory performance. The quality of talk time improved for both principals and teachers after training. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Thames, K. and C. M. Rossiter (1972). “The effects of reading practice with compressed speech on reading rate and listening comprehension.” AV Communication Review 20(Spring): 35-42.

Thomas, K. J. and C. K. Cummings (1978). “The efficacy of listening guides: Some preliminary findings with tenth and eleventh graders.” Journal of Reading 21(May): 705-9.

Thomas, L. T. and T. R. Levine (1994). “Disentangling listening and verbal recall: Related but separate constructs?” Human Communication Research 21(1): 103-127.

Investigated the use of a recall-based measure of listening and tested alternative models of the relationship between recall ability and listening (isomorphic, confounding, and recall ability as antecedent to listening). 73 undergraduates were videotaped while interviewing a confederate, and the videotapes were coded for observable listening behaviors. Ss also completed a conversation-based listening test and a verbal recall test. Results indicate that, although related, listening and the ability to recall verbal stimuli were not isomorphic. The data were also inconsistent with a model specifying verbal recall ability as a confound of listening. A model stipulating verbal recall ability as antecedent to listening provided the best fit to the data. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Thomlison, T. D. (1987). “Contributions of Humanisitc Psychology to listening: Past, present and future.” Journal of the International Listening Association 1: 54-77.

Thompson, T. L. (1984). “The invisible helping hand: The role of communication in the health and social service professions.” Communication Quarterly 32(2): 148-163.

Toussaint, I. (1960). “A classified summary of listening - 1950-1959.” Journal of Communication 10(September): 125-34.

Trebilcock, E. L. (1970). “Can auding by kindergarten children be improved in a normal classroom situation through direct teaching of this skill?” Dissertation Abstracts 31: 687A.

Treisman, A. M. (1960). “Contextual cues in selective listening.” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 12: 246.

Tucker, W. (1925). “Science of listening.” 19th Century 97(April): 548.

Tushman, M. L. (1978). “Technical communication in R&D Laboratories: The impact of project work characteristics.” Academy of Management Journal 21(4): 624-45.

Tutolo, D. (1975). “Teaching critical listening.” Language Arts 52(November): 1108-12.

Tutolo, D. (1979). “Attention: Necessary aspect of listening.” Language Arts 56(January): 34-35.

Twohey, D. and J. Volker (1993). “Listening for the voices of care and justice in counselor supervision.” Counselor Education & Supervision 32(3): 189-197.

In feminist literature "voice" is a metaphor for self-definition (E. Ellsworth, 1989). The care voice expresses concerns about loving and being loved (L. M. Brown and C. Gilligan, 1990). The justice voice reflects a vision of equality, reciprocity, and fairness between persons (Brown and Gilligan, 1990). The authors discuss how supervisors of therapists can improve their understanding of gender-related communication problems and preferences by listening for the voices of care and justice in counseling supervision. A supervisory interaction between a female practicum student and a male supervisor is presented to illustrate how the voices of care and justice can conflict in counseling supervision. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Unknown (1952). “Listening - how?” English Journal 41(June): 318-19.

unknown (1954). “Have you tried listening?” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 30(March): 225-30.

Valdes, G., M. P. Echeverriarza, et al. (1988). “The development of a listening skills comprehension-based program: What levels of proficiency can learners reach?” Modern Language Journal 72(4): 415-425.

Assessed the listening comprehension levels of 196 university students who were exposed to a 4-semester Spanish-language comprehension-based program focused primarily on developing listening skills. Departmental listening examinations that were administered 3 times/term tested Ss' ability to comprehend disconnected discourse recorded on videotape by different speakers. The range of abilities tapped by these videotaped procedures included the ability to concentrate on long segments of uninterrupted speech and to comprehend and synthesize information as it was presented. Results indicate that these Ss acquired the ability to process spoken language very rapidly. Levels attained did not appear to reflect the hierarchical styles posited by the Actel Proficiency Guidelines. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Van Den Bers, E. (1982). “Index of distinctness--a measure of the intensity of cognitive preferences.” Journal of Educational Research 75(March-April): 197-203.

van der Meij, H. (1994). “Student questioning: A componential analysis. Special Issue: Individual differences in question asking and strategic listening processes.” Learning & Individual Differences 6(2): 137-161.

Reviews the literature on spontaneous student questioning, organized through a modified version of J. T. Dillon's (1988, 1990) componential model of questioning. Special attention is given to the properties of assumptions, questions, and answers. Each of these main elements are the result of certain actions of the questioner, which are described. Within this framework a variety of aspects of questioning are highlighted, focusing on the individual differences in question asking. The complex interactions between students' personal characteristics, social factors, and questioning are examined, and a number of important but neglected topics for research are identified. The views that are presented should deepen the understanding of student questioning and the role of questions in education of students. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Vann, J., R. Rogers, et al. (1987). “The cognitive effects of time-compressed advertising.” Journal of Advertising 16: 10-19.

Villaume, W. A. and J. B. Weaver, III (1996). “A factorial approach to establishing reliable listening measures from the WBLT and KCLT: Full information factor analysis of dichotomous data.” International Journal of Listening 10.

Vining, J. W. (1978). “Recapture the art of listening.” Business Education Forum 32(February): 29-31.

Vinson, L. R. and C. Johnson (1990). “The relationship between the use of hesitations and/or hedges and lecture listening: The role of perceived importance as a mediating variable.” International Listening Association Journal 4: 116-127.

Waack, W. (1987). “Appreciative listening: The aesthetic experience.” International Listening Association Journal 1: 78-86.

Wacker, K. G. and K. Hawkins (1995). “Curricula comparison for classes in listening.” International Journal of Listening 9.

Wales, M. K. (1987). “The effect on reading comprehension and on listening comprehension of two different methods of teaching comprehension (reading vs. listening) to seventh grade students.” .

Walker, K. L. (1997). “Do You Ever Listen?: Discovering the Theoretical Underpinnings of Empathic Listening.” International Journal of Listening 11.

Wallen, J. (1983). “Listening to the unconscious in case material: Robert Langs' theory applied.” Smith College Studies in Social Work 53(2): 126-156.

Langs (1978) emphasizes the importance of therapist openness to the unknown and the pathological in the patient. However, he also stresses the need to validate empathic and intuitive responses before they are used in intervention because the therapist's subjective responses may stem largely from countertransference-based needs. Consistent with his reservations about the usefulness of noncognitive elements of listening, Langs advances a more systematic, conscious strategy for listeners that directly addresses the questions of what to listen for, how and when to intervene, and how to determine if the therapist has been listening well. Transcript material from 2 therapy sessions with a 21-yr-old woman is used to illustrate the application of this strategy in terms of identifying types of communication, specific and general themes, adaptive context, and interventions. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Wallner, N. K. (1974). “The development of a listening comprehension test for kindergarten and beginning first grade.” Educational and Psychological Measurement 34(Summer): 391-96.

Walsh, G. (1970). “Leader must respond to feeling and content.” College University Business 49(October): 62-64.

Watson, K. W. and L. L. Barker (1988). “Listening Assessment: The Watson-Barker Listening Test.” The Journal of the International Listening Association 2: 20-31.

Watson, K. W. and L. L. Barker (1990). “Comparisons of the ETS national teachers examination listening model with models used in two standardized listening tests.” Journal of the International Listening Association 5: 36-50.

Watson, K. W., L. L. Barker, et al. (1995). “The listening styles profile (LSP-16): Development and validation of an instrument to assess four listenting styles.” International Journal of Listening 9.

Watson, K. W. and L. R. Smeltzer (1984). “Barriers to listening: Comparison between students and practitioners.” Communication Research Reports 1(1): 82-87.

Compared 14 barriers to listening (e.g., ambiguous message, difficulty with nonverbal behaviors) as perceived by 114 college students and 106 business practitioners. Ss were asked to indicate their perceptions of the seriousness of the barriers. A rank order correlation indicated that the 2 groups were not significantly related. Mean rankings were significantly different between the 2 groups on 11 of the 14 barriers. It is concluded that a difference in the perceived importance listening barriers exists for students and practitioners and that different instructional methods may be needed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Watts, F. N. (1983). “Strategies of clinical listening.” British Journal of Medical Psychology 56(2): 113-123.

Uses psychological theories of comprehension processes to discuss some problems that confront the clinician in seeking to comprehend patients' accounts of their problems. Comprehension will be systematically deficient, both because of limitations in patients' awareness and because of the effects of the communication situations. Patients may omit information, make ambiguous statements, present material out of chronological order, and include information of minor importance. Clinical listening has been related to cognitive style. The effects of experience on clinical listening by psychotherapists are also powerful. Several useful strategies of listening are: (a) attention to patients' exact language, (b) heuristic strategies, (c) selective tuning, (d) relating information to emerging formulations, and (e) evenly suspended attention. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Weaver, C. H. (1987). “Someone should do something about that (A comment about listening reasearch).” Journal of the International Listening Association 1: 29-31.

Weaver, R. L., H. W. Cotrell, et al. (1985). “Imaging: A technique for effective lecturing.” Journal of Mental Imagery 9(4): 91-107.

Defines imaging, relates it to lecturing, and describes 7 methods of imaging that lecturers can use and the benefits of the process including increased interest, learning, involvement, and creativity. Why imaging is not commonly used by lecturers is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Weaver, S. W. and W. L. Rutherford (1974). “A hierarchy of listening skills.” Elementary English 51(November-December): 1146-50.

Weinberg, W. A., A. McLean, et al. (1989). “Comparison of reading and listening-reading techniques for administration of SAT reading comprehension subtest: Justification for the bypass approach.” Perceptual & Motor Skills 68(3, Pt 1): 1015-1018.

The Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) Reading Comprehension subtest was administered to 36 learning disabled children in Grades 7 through 9 who were classified as either good or poor readers. Using the standardized method of administration, these Ss all scored below the normative (50th percentile) level of performance, and the poor readers scored substantially lower than good readers. When the S was allowed to listen and read silently, however, while the test material was read aloud, both poor and good readers showed significantly improved performance. This improvement supports the argument that a "bypass approach" to education of poor readers that includes listening-reading tasks might greatly enhance their learning and performance in school-related reading tasks. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Weinberg, W. A., A. McLean, et al. (1989). “Comparison of paragraph comprehension test scores with reading versus listening-reading and multiple-choice versus nominal recall administration techniques: Justification for the bypass approach.” Perceptual & Motor Skills 69(3, Pt 2): 1131-1135.

100 White learning-disabled students (aged 5 yrs 9 mo to 15 yrs 2 mo) were divided into 4 groups of poor readers (PRs) and 4 groups of good readers (GRs) to compare the influence of 2 reading-input methods and 2 methods of information-retrieval in relation to poor and good reading scores on the Gilmore Oral Reading Test. GRs' performance was not affected by listening or by testing method. Multiple-choice testing improved PRs' performance independent of input method, supporting arguments for a bypass approach to PRs' education. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Weinrauch, J. D. and J. R. J. Swanda (1975). “Examining the significance of listening: An exploratory study of contemporary management.” The Journal of Business Communication 13, No.1(Fall): 25-32.

Wetstone, H. S. and B. Z. Freidlander (1974). “The effects of live, tv, and audio story narration on primary grade children's listening comprehension.” Journal of Education Research 68: 32-35.

Wheatley, E. W. (1970). “Glimpses of tomorrow.” Sales Management 104(May 1): 41.

Wheeless, L. (1971). “Some effects of time-compressed speech on persuasion.” Journal of Broadcasting XV: 415-420.

White, A. (1985). “Meaning and effects of listening to popular music: Implications for counseling.” Journal of Counseling & Development 64(1): 65-69.

Summarizes the major changes in popular music that have been associated with youth cultures of specific periods and presents evidence regarding the interplay of popular music and its listeners. The effects of popular music are discussed with reference to the interplay with industry, artists and composers, the role of radio, and lyrics. The evidence indicates that young people reaching uncertainly to responsibility, striving to form self-identities, and questioning authority and the establishment are the most likely to adopt whatever new music form comes along. The choice of a substream music may be an indication of apartness, alienation, or conformity indicative of the client's present inner state. It is suggested that counselors can gain access to the world of subscribers to popular music by keeping informed about the sounds and sights of that music. (64 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

White, E. J. (1986). “Hearing and listening disorders: Classroom identification.” Journal of Reading, Writing, & Learning Disabilities International 2(3): 231-236.

Discusses selected auditory problems that often remain undetected in young children. Afflicted children may be misdiagnosed as learning disabled and may eventually exhibit behavioral problems. Auditory problems discussed are high frequency hearing loss, unilateral hearing loss, fluctuating conductive hearing loss, and auditory processing deficiency. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

White, S. (1989). “Backchannels across cultures: A study of Americans and Japanese.” Language in Society 18(1): 59-76.

Frequency of listener responses, called backchannels, was studied in English conversations within and across 2 cultural groups: 10 American women from the midwestern US and 10 Japanese women who were born and raised in Japan. Ss were 18-37 yrs old. Findings reveal that backchannels of several types are displayed far more frequently by Japanese listeners. This appears related to greater use by Japanese of certain discourse constructions that favor backchannels and to Japanese culture. Japanese listening style remains unchanged in cross-cultural conversations, but Americans alter listening style in the direction of their non-native interlocutors. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Wiksell, W. (1946). “The problem of listening.” The Quarterly Journal of Speech 32: 505-508.

Wilkinson, A. (1969). “Listening and the discriminative response.” California English Journal 5(December): 7-20.

Williams, S. S. (1974). “Building listener accountability.” Speech Teacher 23(January): 51-3.

Wilson, T. (1988). “Listening: More than meets the ear.” FWTAO Newsletter(June): 37-40.

Wilt, M. E. (1964). “Teach listening?” Grade Teacher 81(April): 51, 93-94.

Witkin, B. R. (1969). “Auditory perception- implications for language development.” Journal of Research and Development in Education 3(Fall): 53-68.

Witkin, B. R. (1990). “Listening theory and research: The state of the art.” Journal of the International Listening Association 4: 7-32.

Wolff, F. I. (1979). “A 1977 survey: General insights into the status of listening course offerings in selected colleges and universities.” North Carolina Journal of Communication 12: 44-52.

Wolters, N. C. and D. J. Schiano (1989). “On listening where we look: The fragility of a phenomenon.” Perception & Psychophysics 45(2): 184-186.

The role of eye position information has been the subject of some debate on the visual facilitation of auditory localization and attention. In one study, D. Reisberg et al (see PA, Vol 67:350) found that fixation position strongly influenced Ss' recall performance in a binaural selective-listening task. The present paper describes repeated failures to demonstrate the eye position effect in 72 undergraduates under conditions similar to those of the original study. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Wolvin, A. (1990). “Listening ten years later: The state of the art.” Journal of the International Listening Association 4: 5-6.

Wolvin, A. D. (1984). “Teaching teachers to listen.” Curriculum Review 23(February): 17-19.

Wolvin, A. D. and C. G. Coakely (1991). “A survey of the status of listening training in some Fortune 500 corporations.” Communication Education 40(April): 152-164.

Wolvin, A. D. and C. G. Coakley (1984). “Developing listening skills.” Effective Listening Quarterly 4(June): 1-4.

Wolvin, A. D. and C. G. Coakley (1990). “Listening 1990.” Listening Post 33(April): 7.

Wolvin, A. D. and C. G. Coakley (1994). “Listening Competency.” Journal of the International Listening Association 8: 148-160.

Wolvin, A. D., C. G. Coakley, et al. (1991). “An exploratory study of listening instruction in selected colleges and univerisities.” Journal of the International Listening Association 5: 68-85.

Wolvin, A. D., C. G. Coakley, et al. (1992). “Listening instruction in selected colleges and universities.” Journal of the International Listening Association 6: 59-65.

Wolvin, A. D., C. G. Coakley, et al. (1995). “A preliminary look at listening development across the life-span: Implications for understanding listening competence.” International Journal of Listening 9: 62-83.

Wolvin, A. D., C. G. Coakley, et al. (1995). “A preliminary look at listening development across the life-span.” International Journal of Listening 9.

Wood, N. L. and N. Cowan (1995). “The cocktail party phenomenon revisited: Attention and memory in the classic selective listening procedure of Cherry (1953).” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 124(3): 243-262.

Though E. C. Cherry (1953) examined the recall of information from an irrelevant spoken channel in selective listening, the relationship between attention and subsequent recall still has not been examined adequately. It was examined here in 4 experiments, 3 of which were designed to identify conditions under which some participants, but not others, would notice a change from forward to backward speech. Only participants who shifted attention toward the irrelevant channel during the backward speech later recalled hearing it. In those whose attention shifted, shadowing errors peaked dramatically about 15 s after the change. There was no evidence of direct or indirect memory for phrases presented in the irrelevant channel. The results contradict models of attention stating that listeners process task-irrelevant information extensively without diverting resources used in shadowing. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Wood, T. A., J. A. Buckhalt, et al. (1988). “A comparison of listening and reading performance with children in three educational placements.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 21(8): 493-496.

Tested 181 9-15 yr old children in 3 educational placements (learning disability, mild mental retardation, and regular education) with the Durrell Listening-Reading Series (DLRS). Ss with learning disabilities (LD), consistent with previous research, were less delayed in listening than in reading skills and scored higher than Ss in the mild mental retardation group but lower than the regular education group. There were no main or interaction effects for place of residence (urban or rural). Correlation coefficients indicated a stronger relationship between listening and reading scores for the LD Ss and the regular education group. No relationship was demonstrated between Verbal IQ scores and DLRS scores for the group of LD Ss. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Woods, D. L., S. A. Hillyard, et al. (1984). “Event-related brain potentials reveal similar attentional mechanisms during selective listening and shadowing.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance 10(6): 761-777.

Examined the properties of linguistic attention by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to probe stimuli mixed with dichotically presented prose passages. 12 17-32 yr old right-handed Ss either shadowed (repeated phrase by phrase) or selectively listened to a passage while ERPs were recorded from electrodes overlying midline sites, left-hemisphere speech areas, and corresponding areas of the right hemisphere. Mixed with each voice (a male voice in one ear, a female voice in the other) were 4 probe stimuli: digitized speech sounds ( but or /a/ as in father ) produced by the same speaker and tone bursts at the mean fundamental and 2nd formant frequencies of that voice. The ERPs elicited by the speech probes in the attended ear showed an enhanced negativity, with an onset at 50-100 msec and lasting up to 800-1,000 msec, whereas the ERPs to the 2nd formant probes showed an enhanced positivity in the 200-300 msec latency range. These effects were comparable for shadowing and selective listening conditions and remained stable over the course of the experiment. The attention-related negativity to the CVC probe ( but ) was most prominent over the left hemisphere; other probes produced no significant asymmetries. Results indicate that stimulus selection during linguistic attention is specifically tuned to speech sounds rather than simply to constituent pure-tone frequencies or ear of entry. (55 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Work, W. (1952). “Listening-how?” English Journal 41(June): 318-19.

Work, W. (1953). “Teaching listening comprehension.” Journal of Communication 3(November): 127-30.

Work, W. (1954). “Have you tried listening?” Journal of the American dietetic association 30(March): 225-30.

Work, W. (1957). “On listening-The role of the ear in psychic life.” Today's Speech 5(January): 12-15.

Work, W. (1961). “Listening with a modest ear.” Today's Speech 9(February): 1-3.

Work, W. (1978). “Listen, my children...” Communication Education 27(March): 146-52.

Zalanowski, A. H. (1986). “The effects of listening instructions and cognitive style on music appreciation.” Journal of Research in Music Education 34(1): 43-53.

Examined the effects of different listening instructions on music appreciation with 2 types of music and among Ss with right- vs left-hemisphere preference (the Your Style of Learning and Thinking test). Before listening to a selection of programmatic music, 60 undergraduates were divided into instructional groups: pay attention, form-free mental images, or follow a story program. With a selection of absolute music, 48 Ss were divided into 4 instructional groups: pay attention, form-free mental images, follow an abstract verbal program, or follow a concrete analytical program. Following the music, Ss rated their attention, enjoyment, and understanding of the music. A recognition test of both selections was conducted 1 wk later. Imagery instructions led to greatest enjoyment of both selections, while the story program led to greatest understanding of the programmatic music. Imagery was more beneficial for right-hemisphere Ss and the analytical program benefited left-hemisphere Ss more. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Zemlin, W., R. Daniloff, et al. (1968). “The difficulty of listening to time-compressed speech.” Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 11: 875-881.

Zimmerman, R. and W. E. Arnold (1990). “Listening behaviors of patients and physicians.” Journal of the International Listening Association.

Zimmerman, R. and W. E. Arnold (1990). “Physicians' and patients' perception of actual versus ideal physician communication and listening behaviors.” Journal of the International Listening Association 4: 143-164.

Zuczkowski, A. (1994). “Language and experience: Deep structures as linguistic models for listening and intervening in psychotherapy.” Gestalt Theory 16(1): 3-20.

Presents a theoretical framework for verbal communication that can be closely related to Gestalt phenomenology and theory and that can also be applied to Gestalt therapists as a linguistic pattern for listening to clients and intervening on their speech. The framework is based on R. Bandler and J. Grinder's (1975) linguistic model of linguistic model of listening and intervening in psychotherapy. This model is integrated with a simplified adaptation of the text theory developed by J. S. Petoefi (1973), which stated that the surface structure of any sentence is derived from and therefore can be brought back to a deep structure composed of 3 hierarchically organized propositions: performative, cognitive, and descriptive. The proposed integration would apply listening and intervening techniques to performative and cognitive propositions. (German abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

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