Bibliography Summer 2000—Last updated

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Imhof, M. (1998). “What Makes a Good Listener? Listening Behavior in Instructional Settings.” International Journal of Listening 12: 1-11.

International Listening Association (1981). “Project listen.” International Listening Association Listening Post(August): 5.

Ironsmith, N. and G. J. Whitehurst (1978). “How children learn to listen: The effects of modeling feedback styles on children's performance in referential communication.” Developmental Psychology 14: 546-554.

Ishio, A. and M. Osaka (1994). “An approach to measure a listening span for preschool children.” Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology 42(2): 167-173.

Studied the efficiency of working memory capacity in 2 experiments. 79 preschool and school-age children (aged 5 yrs 10 mo to 6 yrs 11 mo) were administered 2 listening span tests (Ss listened to a set of semantically related or unrelated sentences and had to recall the 1st word of each sentence) and a memory span test. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Jackson, S. W. (1992). “The listening healer in the history of psychological healing. 144th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association: Benjamin Rush Award Lecture (1991, New Orleans, Louisiana).” American Journal of Psychiatry 149(12): 1623-1632.

Assesses the healer's listening as an aspect of the history of caring and curing, especially in psychological healing. Over the centuries listening has been crucial to healers bringing about healing effects for sufferers; yet, until the turn of the 20th century, the main focus was on vision and looking in the healer's knowing and understanding. Listening in depth and with empathy is a crucial element in healing, providing a soothing source for the sufferer. Despite the importance of both looking and listening, there remains a tension between the 2 modes that translates as a tension between science and humanism. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Jacobs, T. J. (1992). “Contemporary reflections on the analyzing instrument: Isakower's ideas of the analytic instrument and contemporary views of analytic listening.” Journal of Clinical Psychoanalysis 1(2): 237-241.

Notes that although in recent years there has been much interest in analytic listening and in the role that the analyst's subjective experience play in the analytic process, the seminal contributions of O. Isakower made in this area have been largely overlooked. Isakower's views are compared with prevailing notions about the analyst's functioning in the analytic hour. Isakower suggested that central to creative listening is the analyst's ability to attune him/herself to the analysand's level of regression. Without regression on both sides there can be no analytic process and without attaining a state of matched regression the analyst is not in a position to receive the bits and pieces of fantasy, memory, and imagery that arise as he/she listens and that give access to the analysand's unconscious. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Jensen, M. A. (1985). “Story awareness: A critical skill for early reading.” Young Children 41(1): 20-24.

Suggests that teachers of young children need to understand and be able to assess a child's story awareness in order to incorporate story awareness experiences into an overall curriculum that encourages literacy development. Enhancement of story awareness at home and how story awareness develops are discussed. In assessing story awareness, teachers might use several concentrated encounters, each of which relies on different cues. These are best conducted in a familiar, informal setting. Examples of informal encounters include (1) read or retell a favorite picture book story, (2) discuss a brief wordless picture book, (3) construct a story for a wordless picture book, (4) retell and recall a brief oral story, and (5) sequence story event pictures. Children's story experiences can be individualized by techniques such as having an adult or older child write down a child's story while the child dictates. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Johnson, C., L. Vinson, et al. (1989). “The effects of an instructor's use of hesitation forms on sudent ratings of quality, recommendations to hire, and lecture listening.” International Listening Association Journal 3: 32-43.

Johnson, D. W., R. T. Johnson, et al. (1985). “Oral interaction in cooperative learning groups: Speaking, listening, and the nature of statements made by high-, medium-, and low-achieving students.” Journal of Psychology 119(4): 303-321.

Explored some of the social interaction and cognitive processes that may mediate the relation between cooperation and achievement. Ss were 48 4th graders. 13 females and 11 males were assigned to a cooperative learning situation; 14 females and 10 males were assigned to an individualistic learning situation. There were 6 high-, 1 medium-, and 7 low-achieving students in each condition. They participated in the study for 55 min a day for 15 instructional days. Two observation schemes were used. The results for the cooperative situation were factor analyzed to determine the basic dimensions of oral interaction within cooperative learning groups. Five orthogonal factors were identified: Exchanging Task-Related Information, Elaborating on the Information, Encouraging Each Other to Learn, Disagreeing With Each Other's Conclusions, and Making Nontask Comments and Sharing Personal Feelings. The oral participation of Ss from different achievement levels was differentially related to achievement. Vocalizing was found to be more strongly related to achievement than was listening to other group members vocalize. Medium and low achievers especially benefited from cooperative learning experiences. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Johnson, K. (1951). “The effect of classroom teaching upon listening comprehension.” The Journal of Communication 1(May): 57-62.

Johnson, K. R. and H. D. Simons (1972). “Black children and reading.” Phi Delta Kappan 53(January): 288-90.

Josephs, L. (1988). “A comparison of archaeological and empathic modes of listening.” Contemporary Psychoanalysis 24(2): 282-300.

Argues that empathic interpretations by an analyst focus on the immediacy of experience, and "archaeological" interpretations focus on what is missing from experience, that of which the patient is unaware. Consequently, archaeological interpretations tend to alienate the patient from immediate experience and encourage the patient to speculate on what she/he might be failing to see within the self. In contrast, empathic interpretations, by remaining attuned to immediate experience, tend to enrich the patient's awareness of self through an augmentation of the patient's capacity for self-reflection. It is the patient's increased capacity for self-reflection rather than the interpretation of resistance to awareness that allows the unconscious to become conscious. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Kainer, R. G. (1984). “From ""evenly-hovering attention'' to ""vicarious introspection'': Issues of listening in Freud and Kohut.” American Journal of Psychoanalysis 44(1): 103-114.

In a paper first delivered to the Washington Psychologists for Psychoanalysis in April 1982, the author discusses (1) Freud's concept of evenly hovering attention by the therapist to better attend the unconscious processes of the patient, and (2) H. Kohut's vicarious introspection, the empathic knowing of the patient by the therapist. The phenomenon of listening involves the nature of what is being listened for, the determination of what is heard, what is evoked by the way in which one listens and responds, and the interrelationship of these phenomena. Freud's injunction to listen freely in evenly hovering attention to the patient can only be carried out as an ideal. A case example of an obsessive-compulsive female is presented to illustrate the importance of a belief system and its possible effect on listening. One of Kohut's cases is described to illustrate how the material listened for is important to vicarious introspection. Clinical examples from the present author's experience are presented to illustrate possible overlaps between Freud's and Kohut's applications of listening. It is concluded that analysis and continued self-analysis by the therapist are crucial to his/her understanding and application of successful listening processes with patients. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Karr, M. and R. W. Vogelsang (1990). “A comparison of the audio and video versions of the Watson-Barker listening test: Form a and b.” Journal of the International Listening Association 4: 165-179.

Keefe, W. F. (1970). “How to keep your workers happy: Listen to them and communicate.” Pulp and Paper 44(January): 139-141.

Keefe, W. F. (1971). “Give them your ears.” Sales Management 106(April 10): 68-9.

Kelby K. halone, A. D. W., Carolyn Coakley (1997). “Accounts of Effective Listening Across the Life-Span: Expectations and Experiences Associated with Competent Listening Practices.” International Journal of Listening 11.

Keller, P. (1969). “Major findings in listening in the past 10 years.” Journal of Communication 10(March): 29-38.

Kellog, M. “Sales force management: managing by shutting up.” Sales Management.

Kelly, A. M. (1977). “Playback strategies.” Teacher 95(September): 105-108.

Kelly, C. M. (1965). “An investiagaton of construct validity of two commercially published listening tests.” Speech Monographs 32: 139-143.

Kelly, C. M. (1967). “Listening: Complex of activities-and a unitary skill?” Speech Monographs 34(November): 455-66.

Kelly, C. N. (1963). “Mental ability and personality factors in listening.” The Quarterly Journal of Speech 49(April): 152-156.

Keltner, J. W. (1965). “Communication and the labor-management mediation process.” Journal of Communication 15, No.2(June): 64-80.

Kershner, J. R., R. L. Cummings, et al. (1990). “Two-year evaluation of the Tomatis Listening Training Program with learning disabled children.” Learning Disability Quarterly 13(1): 43-53.

Retested 26 of the original sample of 32 learning disabled children 2 yrs after participation in a study of the Tomatis Program (A. Tomatis, 1978), a process-oriented, neuropsychological training program. Retesting of the original sample by J. Kershner et al (1986) 1 yr after cessation of treatment revealed that placebo children were superior to treatment participants on a measure of auditory discrimination. Results of the 2-yr follow-up support previous conclusions and do not support the educational efficacy of the Tomatis Program. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Kertoy, M. K. and K. M. Goetz (1995). “The relationship between listening performance on the sentence verification technique and other measures of listening comprehension.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 20(3): 320-339.

Examined how well a sentence verification technique (SVT) correlated with other listening comprehension measures. 36 Canadian students, aged 12 yrs 4 mo to 14 yrs 1 mo, completed several listening comprehension tasks. The tasks were the SVT, to which Ss listened in order to verify the content of 4 expository passages; premise/inference stories, to which Ss listened in order to answer factual and interpretive questions about 4 stories; and the Test of Adolescent Language (TOAL--2) Listening Grammar Subtest which required Ss to select 2 sentences equivalent in meaning from sets of 3 sentences. Moderate correlations were shown for the SVT and the TOAL--2, as well as for the SVT and premise/inference stories. The SVT has potential as a diagnostic tool for assessing discourse level listening comprehension. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Kessner, C. (1985). “Assessing listening skills.” International Review of Applied Psychology 34(1): 127-135.

Constructed tests to measure choice of objectives, choice of conditions, and how Ss grasped sequence and information and followed oral instructions in listening tasks. 170 10-12 yr olds in Switzerland were presented 2 of 4 themes in the test situation. Analysis showed low correlations for all objectives used in the construction of the tests. It was not possible on the basis of the tests to determine the mean of different scores an S would obtain, even in the case where tests stemmed from a same objective and had a similar construction. No conclusions concerning a general listening skill could be drawn. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

King, A. (1991). “Improving lecture comprehension: Effects of a metacognitive strategy.” Applied Cognitive Psychology 5(4): 331-346.

In a self-questioning combined with reciprocal peer-questioning condition, 56 9th graders were trained to pose questions for themselves during classroom lectures; following the lectures, they used their questions to engage in reciprocal peer-questioning and responding. Students in a self-questioning only condition also engaged in self-questioning during the lectures and then answered their own questions; in a review condition, Ss discussed the lecture material in small cooperative groups; and in a control group Ss reviewed the lecture material independently. On postpractice and 10-day maintenance tests, Ss in the self-questioning with reciprocal peer-questioning and the self-questioning-only strategy groups showed lecture comprehension superior to that of participants in both the discussion review and control groups. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

King, A. (1994). “Autonomy and question asking: The role of personal control in guided student-generated questioning. Special Issue: Individual differences in question asking and strategic listening processes.” Learning & Individual Differences 6(2): 163-185.

30 university students (aged 21-33 yrs) in small groups used a question-asking strategy to guide their discussion of class material. Ss in a learner-controlled condition used thought-provoking generic question stems to guide them in generating their own questions, whereas Ss in an experimenter-controlled condition were provided with similar lecture-specific questions generated by students in the same course during the previous semester. Ss in both conditions posed their questions to their small-group peers and answered each other's questions. On tests of lecture comprehension, Ss who generated their own questions outperformed Ss provided with others' questions. Internals allowed to generate their own questions performed better on comprehension tests than internals provided with others' questions. Results suggest that learner control in guided questioning may be beneficial, at least for individuals with internal locus of control. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

King, P. and R. Behnke (1989). “The effect of time-compressed speech on comprehensive, interpretative, and short-term listening.” Human Communication Research 15: 428-443.

King, P. E. and R. R. Behnke (1989). “The effect of time-compressed speech on comprehensive, interpretive, and short-term listening.” Human Communication Research 15(3): 428-443.

Although contemporary theorists view listening as a multidimensional process, the preponderance of published empirical research on human comprehension of speeded speech is based on an outdated, unitary construct. In the present study, the impact of varying levels of time compression on 3 different types of listening was investigated with 120 undergraduates. Results indicate that comprehensive listening performance deteriorated significantly as speech compression levels increased, while interpretive and short-term listening performance remained stable until a high degree of time compression (60%) was reached. Explanations for these findings are advanced based on established differences between short- and long-term memory processes. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Kirkton, C. M. (1971). “NCTE/ERIC report: Classroom dramatics - developing oral language skills.” Elementary English 48(February): 254-61.

Kirshner, G. (1969). “Start where the child is - using television to teach the child.” Elementary English 46(November): 955-58.

Klee, L. E. (1949). “Larger horizons for the child: A fourth grade experiment.” Social Education 13(February): 69-71.

Klemmer, E. T. and F. W. Snyder (1972). “Measurement of time spent communicating.” Journal of Communication 22(June): 142-58.

Klin, A. (1991). “Young autistic children's listening preferences in regard to speech: A possible characterization of the symptom of social withdrawal.” Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 21(1): 29-42.

Speech exerts a prepotent attraction on the attention of normally developing infants, hence facilitating social engagement. This study examined whether this inborn reaction was at fault in 12 autistic children (chronological age (CA), 49-79 mo; nonverbal mental age (MA), 30-78 mo). Ss were given a choice between their mothers' speech and the noise of superimposed voices. A computerized device recorded the children's responses in their own homes. In contrast to 8 mentally retarded Ss (CA, 56-78 mo; MA, 42-58 mo) and 10 normally developing children (CA, 36-48 mo; MA, 38-53 mo), who showed the expected strong preference for their mothers' speech, autistic Ss actively preferred the alternative sound or showed lack of preference for either audio segment. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Klinzing, D. G. (1972). “Listening comprehension of pre-school age children as a function of rate of presentation, sex, and age.” Speech Teacher 21(March): 86-92.

Knippen, J. T. and T. B. Green (1994). “How the manager can use active listening.” Public Personnel Management 23(2): 357-359.

Active listening is where the listener takes an active role in the communications process by applying 4 techniques: restatement, summary, responding to nonverbal cues, and responding to feelings. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Konold, C. E. and J. A. Bates (1982). “The episodic/semantic memory distinction as an heuristic in the study of instructional effects on cognitive structure.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 7(April): 124-38.

Korsch, B. M., E. K. Gozzi, et al. (1968). “Doctor-patient interaction and patient satisfaction.” Pediatrics 42(5): 855-870.

Kraut, R. E., S. H. Lewis, et al. (1982). “Listener responsiveness and the coordination of conversation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43(October): 718-731.

Kufeldt, K. (1984). “Listening to children--who cares?” British Journal of Social Work 14(3): 257-264.

Presents verbatim comments of 40 children from 28 homes who were placed in social work care in Canada. Parents' poverty, lack of education, single marital status, alcoholism, and/or divorce contributed to the placement. Data on visiting with parents, contact between natural and foster parents, social workers, and involvement in research obtained in a larger study by the present author (1981) are included and used to reinforce the value of listening to children. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

LaBarbera, P. and J. MacLachlan (1979). “Time-compressed speech in radio advertising.” Journal of Marketing 43: 30-36.

Lane, P. K. and M. S. Miller (1972). “Listening: Learning for underachieving adolescents.” Journal of Reading 7(April): 488-91.

Larson, J. W. (1983). “Skills correlations: A study of three final examinations.” Modern Language Journal 67(3): 228-234.

Examined whether significantly high correlations exist among language skills in 115 college students of French, German, and Spanish, as measured by final examinations of 2nd-yr courses. Results indicate a fairly high degree of correlation among speaking, listening, writing, and reading. However, there is insufficient support for eliminating a particular subtest of the examination. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Lasky, E. Z., B. Jay, et al. (1975). “Meaningful and linguistic variables in auditory processing.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 8: 570-77.

Lasser, M. (1973). “Sound activities.” Media and Methods 10(December): 20-1.

LaVergne, M. (1989). “ Strategies for developing listening skills in the foreign language classroom.” The Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Newsletter: 36-37, 60.

Lawson, A. E. (1982). “Formal reasoning, achievement, and intelligence: An issue of importance.” Science Education 66(January): 77-83.

Lazarus-Mainka, G. and M. Arnold (1987). “Implicit strategies in dual-task situations: Speaking-listening and sorting.” Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie 34(2): 286-300.

Studied strategies for coping with the dual task of verbal communication and sorting and factors influencing dual-task performance. Human subjects: 72 normal male and female German adolescents and adults (university students). The Ss were divided into pairs, with 1 S providing verbal communication to the other S who was engaged in a sorting task. The listener/sorter was asked to repeat the verbal information under experimental conditions varying with regard to the difficulty of verbal and sorting tasks. Speech loudness and intelligibility, articulation time, and recall- and sorting-task performance were assessed under different experimental conditions. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Lazarus-Mainka, G. and L. Leushacke (1985). “The stressful effect on speaker and listener during a verbal exchange in a noisy environment.” Psychologie und Praxis 29(3): 107-115.

Discusses stresses to both speaker and listener during verbal exchanges in noisy surroundings that adversely affect communication intelligibility, forcing the speaker to raise the volume of his/her utterances while articulation tempo and word quantity decrease. A study of this type of impaired communication interaction was conducted with 12 speaker-listener couples (freshmen psychology students) exposed to various levels of noise while the speaker read a story to the listener. The listener was instructed to ask the speaker to repeat misunderstood passages and to repeat the contents of the story to the speaker. A questionnaire on Ss' self-reported reactions indicated various degrees of confusion and stress commensurate with noise level. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

le Bouedec, B. (1985). “The comprehension of simple stories through successive summaries.” Psychologica Belgica 25(1): 33-46.

Examined the comprehension of simple stories through successive summaries. 72 Ss were divided into 4 experimental groups in which they either summarized an original story or read the summaries written by Ss who heard the original stories and summarized those summaries. Analysis of these summaries showed that the propositions present in a summary corresponded to the important parts of the original story. Probabilities that a proposition would be in a summary written from a summary were high if it was a high-level proposition. Low-level propositions diminished progressively. Ss determined the propositions that gave coherence to the story right away, and new propositions were found to be a synthesis of several propositions of the story. Results show that to summarize a story is to elaborate a new structure containing fewer inferred propositions. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Leathers, D. (1979). “The impact of multichannel message inconsistency on verbal and nonverbal decoding behaviors.” Communication Monographs 46: 88-100.

Leonard, J. J. (1971). “Spoken heard.” Personnel Journal 50(January): 51-55.

Leverentz, F. and D. Garman (1987). “What was that you said?” Instructor 96(April): 66-70.

Lewis, M. H. and N. L. Reinsch, Jr (1988). “Listening in organizational environments.” Journal of Business Communication 25:3(Summer): 49-67.

Lewis, T. R. (1958). “Listening.” Review of Educational Research 28: 89.

Lieb, B. (1960). “How to be influenced discriminatingly.” Today's Speech 8(April): 24-26.

Liehr, P. (1992). “Uncovering a hidden language: The effects of listening and talking on blood pressure and heart rate.” Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 6(5): 306-311.

Listening and talking are essential to social interaction and especially to successful nursing interventions. Human life and health experiences are defined within the context of dialog, talking with, and listening to others. Therapy progresses as therapist and client talk with and listen to each other. While the cardiovascular changes occurring during talking have been extensively documented, those that occur during listening have not been studied. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in 109 healthy Ss (aged 21-67 yrs) while they listened and talked. Talking resulted in significant increases in both BP and HR. While also significant, increases during listening were of a lesser magnitude. Cardiovascular changes were affected by the order of the dialog activities (talking or listening first) and by gender. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Lippke, R. L. (1974). “Improving students' listening skills.” Speech Teacher 23(January): 53-6.

Lippman, L. G. (1988). “Use of slow renditions to facilitate piano proficiency in young musicians.” Journal of the International Listening Association 2: 133-140.

Lissa, Z. (1965). “On the evolution of musical perception.” J AES Art Crit 24(Winter): 273-286.

Lobdell, C. L., K. T. Sonoda, et al. (1993). “The influence of perceived supervisor listening behavior on employee commitment.” Journal of the International Listening Association 7: 92-110.

Long, D. R. (1989). “Second language listening comprehension: A schema-theoretic perspective.” Modern Language Journal 73(1): 32-40.

Suggests that scripts are an essential component of language comprehension and that research is needed to determine how and why script-based comprehension is important to 2nd-language (L2) comprehension. It is noted that during the 1970s, cognitive psychology began to focus on the individual as an active processor of linguistic input and that most current knowledge about comprehension has been borrowed from other disciplines (e.g., cognitive psychology). Discussion focuses on the relationship between world knowledge and 1st-language listening comprehension as well as L2 listening research. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Lowenthal, B. (1985). “Listening to the special student.” Academic Therapy 21(1): 51-54.

Outlines practical suggestions for becoming a better listener to the youngster with language delay or other verbal expression impairment. Suggestions include the following: (1) Be interested and attentive. (2) Stimulate a conversation and then listen patiently. (3) Develop the skill of reflecting the feelings expressed in the speech of the handicapped youngster. (4) Watch for nonverbal messages. It is concluded that communication skills are influenced by good models. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Lucas, S. (1983). “Skills: Listening is a learned art.” Working Woman August: 45.

Lumley, F. H. (1933). “Rates of speech in radio speaking.” The Quarterly Journal of Speech 19: 393-403.

Lundgren, R. E. and R. J. Shavelson (1974). “Effects of listening training on teacher listening and discussion skills.” California Journal of Educational Research 25(September): 205-18.

Lundsteen, S. W. (1968). “A model of the teaching-learning process for assisting development of children's thinking during communication.” Journal of Communication 18: 412-35 (a).

Lundsteen, S. W. (1969). “Research in critical listening and thinking: A recommended goal for future research.” Journal of Research and Development in Education 3(Fall): 119-33.

Lundsteen, S. W. (1970). “Manipulating abstract thinking as a subablitity to problem solving in a problem solving context of an english curriculum.” American Educational Research Journal 7(May): 373-96.

Lundsteen, S. W. (1976). “Research review and suggested directions: Teaching listening skills to children in the elementary school, 1966-1971.” Language Arts 53(March): 348-51.

Lundsteen, S. W. (1977). “On developmental relations between language learning and reading.” The Elementary School Journal 77: 192-203.

Lundsteen, S. W. and L. Goode (1981). “Listening: An integrated approach to developing learning skills.” Learning Years(January): 61-63+.

Lynch, J. J. (1985). “Listen and live.” American Health 4(April): 39-43.

MacLachlan, J. (1980). “Time-compressed commercials.” Video Systems(July): 20-23.

MacLachlan, J. (1982). “Listener perception of time-compressed spokespersons.” Journal of Advertising Research 18: 11-15.

MacLachlan, J. and P. LaBarbera (1978). “Time-compressed commericals.” Journal of Advertising Research 18: 11-15.

MacNeil, R. (1983). “Is television shortening our attention span.” New York University Education Quarterly 14(Winter): 2-5.

Margolis, H. (1991). “Listening: The key to problem solving with angry parents.” School Psychology International 12(4): 329-347.

Emphasizes what to listen for and how to use this information to problem solve with parents in conflict with school personnel in the context of the system mandated in US schools for students classified as eligible for special education. When interacting with parents, school personnel should listen for fears, areas of agreement and disagreement, assumptions and self-defeating thought patterns, perceptions of power, and signs of understanding. They should listen to assess the stage of group development and the parents' understanding of problem-solving processes. Used in combination with nonjudgmental reflective listening, respect for parents' feelings, and a belief that each can learn from the other, the information obtained through informed listening can help resolve disputes. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Margulies, A. (1985). “On listening to a dream: The sensory dimensions.” Psychiatry 48(4): 371-381.

Argues that in searching for the latent meaning of dreams, therapists often bypass the unique subjective reality of the dreamer and the therapist's own listening and imaginative processes. The sensory dimensions of a dream specimen of a male client who had once experienced a severe manic psychosis are explored to suggest that phenomenology as a descriptive endeavor can be complementary to traditional psychodynamic approaches and can lead to a renewed empathic appreciation of another person's inner world and the therapist's continual struggle to enter into that reality. A dream is considered a personal experience that is necessarily constructed from a completely subjective vantage point rather than as a rebus of symbols awaiting a textual translation in hermeneutic fashion. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Marks, E. and G. A. Noll (1967). “Procedures and criteria for evaluating reading and listening comprehension tests.” Educational and Psychological Measurement 27(Summer): 335-48.

Marsnik, N. (1993). “The impact of gender on communication.” Journal of the International Listening Association(special issue): 32-42.

Martinez, M. and N. Roser (1985). “Read it again: The value of repeated readings during storytime.” Reading Teacher 38(8): 782-786.

Investigated how 4-yr-old children's responses to literature changed with increasing familiarity with a story. In 1 case study, stories were read to a 4-yr-old at home, and in another study, stories were read to a nursery school class. Adults read 6 stories that were initially unfamiliar to Ss a total of 3 times. To analyze the changes in Ss' responses when listening to unfamiliar and familiar stories, the Ss' talk was classified according to form (whether the talk was a question, comment, or answer) and focus (whether the talk was directed toward the story's title, characters, events, details, setting, language, or theme). Results indicate that as the Ss had more opportunity to listen to a story, their range of responses increased. They appeared to have more opportunity to clarify, to fill gaps, and to make connections. In effect, the Ss gained increased control over stories they heard more than once. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Masur, E. F. (1978). “Preschool boys' speech modifications: The effect of listeners' linguistic levels and conversational responsiveness.” Child Development 49(September): 924-27.

Matalene, H. L. (1984). “The interactionism of the ancient regime: Or, why does anybody ever bother to listen to anybody else?” College English 46(1): 23-31.

Matter, J. F. (1990). “Listening comprehension in a new perspective.” Communication & Cognition 23(4): 305-316.

Characterizes listening comprehension in terms of what happens when people listen to spoken language and the nature of the acoustical signal. Problems confronting non-native listeners are addressed, and the relationship between auditory and visual word recognition is explored. If written word forms help recognize spoken word forms and vice versa, the 2 should not be disconnected as is often done in classroom practice. Instead, students should be provided with the correct spelling of words from the start so that the visual and auditory images of the words can reinforce each other. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Maude, B. (1973). “How to listen.” Times Educational Supplement 3024(May 11): 77.

McClain, B. (1985). “Can hidden messages help us control ourselves?” The Montgomery Journal 17(January): B6.

McComb, K. B. and F. M. Jablin (1984). “Verbal correlates of interviewer empathic listening and employment interview outcomes.” Communication Monographs 51(4): 353-371.

Analyzed the audio- and videotapes of 49 actual employment screening interviews conducted at a university placement center to determine the relationships among certain interviewer verbal behaviors, applicants' perceptions of their interviewers as empathic listeners, and actual interview outcomes (receiving/not receiving a 2nd interview offer). Analyses revealed that the frequency with which interviewers made interruptive statements was significantly and negatively associated with applicants' perceptions of empathic listening. However, screening interviews from which 2nd interview offers were eventually made were not differentiated either by applicants' empathic listening perceptions or interviewers' empathic listening behaviors from interviews from which no offers were forthcoming. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McCroskey, J. C. (1984). “Communication competence and performance.” Communication Education 31: 1-8.

McDevitt, T. M. (1990). “The influences of speakers' characteristics and mothers' informal listening instruction on children's evaluations of messages.” Learning & Individual Differences 2(3): 353-369.

Examined age of speaker and mothers' informal instruction about listening as influences on children's evaluations of orally presented messages. 80 2nd and 4th graders listened to 1 of 4 speakers (2 women and 2 9-yr-old girls) presenting essays on videotape. Ss were asked for their evaluative responses to the essays, some of which were internally inconsistent; mothers of the Ss were asked what they would say to their children in hypothetical listening situations. Children reported more inconsistencies with adult speakers than with child speakers. Mothers' tendency to use communicative feedback that drew explicit attention to the communicative activity was positively associated with childrens' detection scores for the 2nd graders, but not for the 4th graders. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McDevitt, T. M. (1990). “Mothers' and children's beliefs about listening.” Child Study Journal 20(2): 105-128.

36 mothers and their 7- and 9-yr-old children were questioned on their concepts of listening. Mothers were asked to describe an instance of good listening by their children and the methods that promoted listening development. Children also took part in a comprehension-monitoring listening task. Mothers stressed eye contact and socially appropriate actions more than did children. Children stressed attending and being still and quiet. Mothers believed children should listen more carefully and ask questions when confused; children more often selected other responses. Mothers who felt that children should use intellectual resources in listening and seek immediate resolution to misunderstandings, and who encouraged a variety of components of listening in their children, had children who performed well on comprehension-monitoring and who held similar beliefs. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McDevitt, T. M. (1990). “Encouraging young children's listening.” Academic Therapy 25(5): 569-577.

Considers methods to improve the listening competencies of children, especially learning disabled children. Developmental research is presented on children's beliefs about listening, and recommendations are offered for enhancing listening (e.g., the importance of modeling good listening). (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McDevitt, T. M., C. A. Ewers, et al. (1991). “Mothers' beliefs about listening: Implications for children's comprehension and conceptions of listening.” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 12(4): 467-489.

44 mothers offered their beliefs about listening and methods for encouraging listening in their 3- to 5-yr-old children. Children's comprehension performance and conceptions of listening were also obtained. Mothers perceived themselves as the primary agents responsible for children's development of basic listening competencies, such as figuring out the main point of what someone said to them, not interrupting others, and asking a question of the speaker when confused. Children who had strong comprehension skills had mothers who believed that listening is a complex set of activities, emphasized their own responsibility in ensuring that their children develop basic listening competencies, stressed comprehension processes and question asking in their conceptions of listening and in their techniques for enhancing children's listening, and began reading to their children at an early age. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McDevitt, T. M. and M. Oreskovich (1993). “Beliefs about listening: Perspectives of mothers and early-childhood teachers.” Child Study Journal 23(3): 153-172.

50 early-childhood teachers and 44 mothers of children aged 3-5 yrs offered their beliefs about listening and methods for encouraging listening in children. Mothers and teachers held similar views about the components of good listening for children. However, they reported different limitations when discussing children's difficulties with listening, and each group believed that they were most responsible for ensuring that children developed basic listening competencies. Mothers and teachers displayed disparities in their reports of how they encouraged children's listening and how they responded to occasions when children were confused. The level of education of teachers in child development/early childhood education was associated with the nature of their beliefs about listening. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McDevitt, T. M., E. P. Sheehan, et al. (1994). “Conceptions of listening, learning processes, and epistemologies held by American, Irish, and Australian university students.” Learning & Individual Differences 6(2): 231-256.

48 American, 39 Irish, and 52 Australian students completed surveys on listening and related constructs. Ss were asked about their conceptions of good listening, difficulties encountered while listening and methods for solving these problems, typical demeanors while listening, reasons for asking and not asking questions, their levels of motivation, ranking of achievement in comparison to peers, personal epistemologies, and the learning processes used. Ss cited a variety of features of good listening, problems and methods of solving them, and reasons for asking and not asking questions. Some aspects of listening were associated with learning processes, such as question asking and elaborative processes, while listening comprehension processes and superficial, behavioral aspects of listening were independent of general epistemologies and learning processes. Cultural differences were obtained in listening, learning, and epistemology composites. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McDevitt, T. M., E. P. Sheehan, et al. (1991). “Self-reports of academic listening activities by traditional and nontraditional college students.” College Student Journal 25(1): 478-486.

169 undergraduates (aged 16-54 yrs) offered self-reports of their typical listening demeanors in college classrooms, the difficulties they experienced as listeners, and the solutions they adopted to overcome these difficulties. Nontraditional Ss (aged 25+ yrs) more often reported engaging in positive listening actions than did traditional Ss (aged <25 yrs). Traditional Ss also reported more difficulties with listening. There were some differences in the specific solutions the 2 groups employed: attending and listening more carefully were important to traditional Ss, while asking questions of the professor was important to nontraditional Ss. Ss' reluctance to ask questions is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McDevitt, T. M., N. Spivey, et al. (1990). “Children's beliefs about listening: Is it enough to be still and quiet?” Child Development 61(3): 713-721.

Examined children's conception of listening (LST) and their performance as listeners (LERs). 48 7-, 9-, and 11-yr-old children were interviewed for their concepts of good LST, beliefs about appropriate actions for confused LERs to take, attributions of responsibility for an LER's confusion, reports of how speakers and LERs feel during communication breakdown, and ability to detect inconsistencies during a comprehension-monitoring task (CMT). Older Ss relied less on behavioral orientation and more on attempts to comprehend and other criteria in their definitions of good LST. Ss believed that appropriate LST responses depend on the situation. With age, Ss reported more complex negative emotions for LERs and speakers experiencing a breakdown in understanding. Ss recalled incongruent material more than congruent material on the CMT. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McGregor, G. (1983). “Listeners' comments on conversation.” Language & Communication 3(3): 271-304.

Analyzed the comments of 16 invited listeners (eavesdroppers) on 5 min of a taped extract of conversation. Results show that a considerable variety of observations were made by some eavesdroppers, while others had little or nothing to say. Comments suggest that the naive, native hearer has the ability to recover situation from text and to ""interpret'' the verbal behavior of others. It is concluded that the skill of the hearer is fundamental to the understanding of conversational activity. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McKay, M. J. (1988). “Extended wait-time and its effect on the listening comprehension of kindergarten students. National Reading Conference (1987, St. Petersburg, Florida).” National Reading Conference Yearbook. No 37: 225-233.

Studied the effect of extended teacher wait-time (ETWT) on the listening comprehension of 120 kindergartners. Ss were equally divided into 2 groups: the ETWT (3-5 sec) and the typical wait-time (<2 sec). Results indicate that ETWT had a significant and positive effect on listening comprehension instruction. The quantity and quality of verbal interactions improved, and achievement increased. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McKenzie, N. J. and A. J. Clark (1995). “That all-in-one concept: How much must listening research include?” International Journal of Listening 9.

McKibben, M. L. (1982). “Listening, study skills and reading: Measuring and meeting college freshman needs in the 1980's.” .

McMahon, M. A. and J. D. Subtelny (1981). “Simultaneous listening, reading, and speaking for improvement of speech.” Volta Review 83(4): 206-214.

Recorded the oral readings and spontaneous speech of 22 hearing-impaired adults before and after they received 28 hrs of group instruction. Written language samples were also obtained. The speech samples were analyzed to secure ratings and measures of intelligibility. The writing samples and transcriptions of the spontaneous speech samples were analyzed and compared relative to grammatical acceptability. Results indicate that the intelligibility of oral reading and spontaneous speech was significantly improved as a consequence of training. However, no significant improvement in grammatical acceptability of spoken English was observed. The improvement in intelligibility appears to have resulted from a favorable modification in the articulatory and prosodic features of speech, rather than from any noticeable changes in the grammatical correctness of the utterance. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

McShane, E. A. and E. L. Jones (1990). “Modifying the environment for children with poor listening skills. Special Issue: Curriculum modification.” Academic Therapy 25(4): 439-446.

Presents general considerations, described as things to keep in mind when working with students with poor listening skills. Specific activities are given to facilitate and enhance listening skills in these children. The authors also present listening activities that can be done with the whole class to help develop good listening skills. Through the use of specific activities that enhance listening skills as well as some general modifications of the auditory environment, the teacher can help the poor listener function more effectively in the classroom. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Meng, K. (1992). “Narrating and listening in kindergarten. Special Issue: Narrative development in a social context.” Journal of Narrative & Life History 2(3): 235-252.

Presents results of a longitudinal study of the narrative (NT) development of German-speaking kindergarten children. NT units were obtained from about 15 Ss at age 3, 4.5, and 6 yrs while eating, playing, going to the bathroom, and working. A major leap in NT development was noted in Ss from the 3-yr to the 4.5-yr or 6-yr stages. The main difference was that 3-yr-olds did not plan extended event presentations and did not expect them from other children. Thus, special initiation and closing phases were not necessary in the transition from normal talk to NT units and back to normal talk. Also, older Ss had developed a considerable understanding of the obligation of reportability and truth and were able to signal their own perspective by content-bound and paralinguistic and by some linguistic procedures. Between 4.5 and 6 yrs, Ss progressed in signaling temporal relations and were more supportive in the roles of narrator and listener. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Miller, L. C., R. E. Lechner, et al. (1985). “Development of conversational responsiveness: Preschoolers' use of responsive listener cues and relevant comments.” Developmental Psychology 21(3): 473-480.

Examined how the use of responsive listener cues (e.g., head nods, uh-hums, yesses, gazes, smiles) and relevant comments changes over the preschool years by videorecording 33 children (aged 29-67 mo) as they listened to an adult speaker talk about his experiences. Older Ss used more head nods and spent more time talking, smiling, and gazing than did younger Ss. In addition, age was significantly correlated with use of relevant comments but not the use of irrelevant comments. Furthermore, the Ss who used more responsive nonverbal cues tended to also engage in more responsive verbal behaviors. The relationship between the development of nonverbal and verbal behaviors is discussed. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Miller, M. J., B. Brehmer, et al. (1970). “Communication and conflict reduction.” International Journal of Psychology 5(2): 75-87.

Miller, N. (1976). “Speed of speech and persuasion.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34(October): 615-624.

Miller, S. D. and D. E. Smith (1990). “Relations among oral reading, silent reading and listening comprehension of students at differing competency levels.” Reading Research & Instruction 29(2): 73-84.

83 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders read orally and silently and listened to grade appropriate passages, then answered literal and inferential questions (M. L. Woods and A. J. Moe, 1977). For poor readers, listening comprehension was equal to oral reading comprehension and both were superior to silent reading comprehension. For average readers, listening comprehension was equal to silent and both were superior to oral. For good readers, oral comprehension was equal to silent and both were superior to listening. Discussion focuses on how this study's findings are similar to conclusions drawn from cross-modality and self-regulated learning research. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Milne, J. and E. G. Johnson (1985). “Modification of children's speech as a function of the perceived intellectual capacity of the listener.” Journal of Mental Deficiency Research 29(3): 225-231.

Examined the speech of 40 children (mean age 9.37 yrs) under the listener conditions of speech to a younger child and to a retarded child of the same sex and similar chronological age, relative to initial speech to a peer. Listeners comprised 15 additional primary-grade Ss, 15 kindergartners (mean age 5.82 yrs), and 15 mildly mentally handicapped Ss (mean age 9.9 yrs). Verbal utterances during the communication task were tape-recorded, transcribed, and coded. Results show that modification, as indexed by an increase in quantity of speech and in semantic coherence, was observed in speech to a retarded listener but not to a younger listener, suggesting that the intellectually handicapped Ss were perceived as being less competent listeners. The effect is interpreted as a result of an active integration program in a particular school setting and is seen to offer promise for the limited integration of the mildly disabled. (4 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Mitrani, J. L. (1993). “Deficiency and envy: Some factors impacting the analytic mind from listening to interpretation.” International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 74(4): 689-704.

Examines aspects of an unconscious process developing within the mind of an analyst, a process that affects both the way in which an analyst listens to a patient's material and the interpretations subsequently formulated. The article highlights the problem of an analyst's misuse of theory as a protection against unbearable feelings of psychic pain, evoked by what is perhaps the most essential tool of psychoanalysis: the analyst's emotional contact with the patient's early experiences in infancy. Both the deficiency theory and the concept of primary envy are called into question. Some of the most recent works of post-Kleinians are reviewed. Clinical examples, both from the author's own experience and from previously published material, are considered as illustrative of some factors that may impact on the mind of the psychoanalyst from listening and interpretation. (French, German & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Moe, J. (1984). “The status of listening at UW-Stevens Point: A pilot report.” Journal of the International Listening Association: 25.

Monaghan, R. R. and J. G. Martin (1968). “Symbolic interaction: Analysis of listening.” Journal of Communication 18(June): 127-30.

Moore, D., D. Hausknecht, et al. (1986). “Time-compression, response opportunity, and persuasion.” Journal of Consumer Research 13: 85-99.

Moray, N. (1959). “Attention in dichotic listening: Affective cues and the influence of instructions.” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 11(February): 56-60.

Morgan, V. and S. Pearson (1994). “Social skills training in a junior school setting.” Educational Psychology in Practice 10(2): 99-103.

Describes a social skills training group designed to improve students' skills in listening, friendship, assertion, conflict resolution, cooperation, and having fun. Year 3 and Year 4 students in the UK participated in 6 1-hr sessions after school, and rather than sticking strictly to a behavioral method, the authors introduced elements of activities that were closer to drama-therapy. Pre- and post-project questionnaires were given to teachers and students to evaluate the course. Teachers indicated that 6 of 8 children showed positive behavioral changes, and all children made at least 2 positive comments about the course. Additionally, after the course, children required fewer prompts to say something positive about themselves, and 2 of the 6 children were able to mention specific things they would like to change about themselves. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Morganstern, N. A. (1977). “Teacher, are you listening?” School and Community 64(November): 24.

Mosberg, L. and D. Johns (1994). “Reading and listening comprehension in college students with developmental dyslexia.” Learning Disabilities Research & Practice 9(3): 130-135.

Investigated the relationship between reading comprehension (RC) and listening comprehension (LC) in University of Delaware students diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (DD). Ss were 16 dyslexic students (13 males, 3 females) in the experimental group (EG) and 16 normal-reading students (8 males, 8 females) in the control group (CG). LC test material was adapted from 2 videotape lectures from the St. Edward's University Directed Listening Skills Project (P. T. Newton, 1984). RC tests were typed transcripts of the videotapes. The only significant difference between groups was in the time required to complete the tests. Given sufficient time, DD students can perform at comparable levels with NRSs. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Murphy, G. (1949). “We also learn by listening.” Elementary English 26(March): 127-128, 157.

Naka, M. and T. Muto (1983). “The effects of contextual information on understanding indirect requests.” Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology 31(3): 195-202.

Investigated the effects of contextual information about the speaker's goal and condition and about the hearer's condition and attitude on understanding the ""illocutionary force'' and the content of indirect requests. In Exp I, Ss were presented with contextual information, an indirect representation of a request, and then a direct representation of the request. Ss had to decide if the illocutionary force of the indirect and direct requests was the same. In Exp II, Ss were presented with successive pieces of contextual information regarding a request and were required to guess the content of the request. Responses and RTs were recorded in both experiments. Information about the speaker's goal and the hearer's attitude was useful in understanding illocutionary force, whereas information about the hearer's attitude and the condition of both speaker and hearer had the greatest effect on the understanding of the content of requests. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Nangea, N. K. (1978). “Do you have an executive ear?” Supervisory Management 23(August): 36-9.

National Assessment of Educational Progress (1978). “Pilot study explores speaking, listening skills.” National Assessment Newsletter 11: 4.

Nelson, H. (1948). “The effect of variation of rate on recall by radio listeners.” Speech Monographs 15: 173-180.

Neville, M. H. and A. K. Puch (1974). “Context in reading and listening: A comparison of children's errors in cloze tests.” British Journal of Educational Psychology 44(November): 224-32.

Nichols, R. (1948). “Factors in listening comprehension.” Speech Monographs 15: 154-163.

Nichols, R. (1951). “Needed research in listening communication.” Journal of Communication 1: 48-59.

Nichols, R. G. (1957). “Listening is a 10 part skill.” Nation's Business 45: 56-58.

Nichols, R. G. (1961). “Do we know how to listen? Practical helps in a modern age.” The Speech Teacher 10(March): 118-24.

Nichols, R. G. (1972). “Listening is good business.” Management of Personnel Quarterly 1: 2-10.

Nichols, R. G. (1987). “Listening is a 10-part skill.” Nation's Business(September): 40.

Nichols, R. G. (1987). “Manipulation versus persuasion.” Journal of the International Listening Association 1: 3-14.

Niehouse, O. L. (1986). “Listening: The other half of effective communications.” Management Solutions 31(August): 26-29.

Nixon, J. and J. West (1989). “Listening-the new competency.” The Balance Sheet 70(January/February): 21-22.

Norton, D. and W. R. Hodgson (1974). “Intelligibility of black and white speakers for black and white listeners.” Language and Speech 16(July-September): 207-210.

Nugent, W. R. and H. Halvorson (1995). “Testing the effects of active listening.” Research on Social Work Practice 5(2): 152-175.

Four experiments examined the short-term affective outcomes of differently worded active listening (AL) statements. 29 graduate students in social work, 12 staff members from a family service agency, and 14 family service agency volunteers participated in scenarios testing 2 different types of AL. In the 1st AL type, the response is either neutral with respect to a client's interpretation of an event or situation or implies the existence of alternate interpretations. The 2nd type presupposes the accuracy or correctness of a client's interpretation of an event or situation. Results replicate across experiments, dependent measures, across client situations and affect, and across experimenters; and suggest that differently worded AL responses may lead to different short-term client affective outcomes. AL statements of the 2nd type may cause clients to feel more intense levels of anger, anxiety, and/or depression than AL statements of the 1st type. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

O'Hair, M., D. O'Hair, et al. (1988). “Enhancement of listening skills as a prerequisite to improved study skills.” Journal of the International Listening Association 2: 113-120.

O'Heren, L. and W. E. Arnold (1991). “Nonverbal attentive behavior and listening comprehension.” Journal of the International Listening Association 5: 86-92.

Okabayashi, H. (1991). “Teaching English as a second language: Listening and pause.” Psychologia: an International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 34(4): 227-231.

A study was conducted to improve the listening comprehension skill of Japanese university students learning English. Two experiments examined (1) whether a pause could improve the listening comprehension level and (2) whether sound discrimination ability for a single word could affect the listening comprehension level for a sentence. 85 university students listened to words spoken with and without a pause (Exp 1), and 40 university students listened to sentences spoken with pauses before and after training sessions (Exp 2). Results indicate that (1) sound discrimination ability directly affected the listening comprehension level for a sentence, and (2) a pause-inserted training method could affect the level of listening comprehension only for a training situation. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Okun, S. K. (1975). “How to be a better listener.” Nation's Business 63(August): 59-60.

Olsen, J. (1966). “How to help your pupils pay attention.” Grade Teacher 84(Spetember): 148+.

Orr, D. (1968). “Compressed speech.” Journal of Communication 18(3).

Orr, D. B. and W. R. Graham (1968). “Development of a listening comprehension test to identify educational potential among disadvantaged junior high school students.” American Educational Research Journal 5(March): 167-80.

Ortony, A. (1978). “Remembering, understanding and representation.” Cognitive Science 2: 53-69.

Osorio, L. C. (1993). “The analyst's mind: From listening to interpretation.” Revista Brasileira de Psicanalise 27(1): 21-42.

Explores the complex workings of the analyst's mind in the interactional analyst-analysand context. The psychic space that corresponds to the space between listening and interpretating, which L. C. Osorio calls "analytic space," (AS) is always shared by analyst and patient. Clinical vignettes illustrate this theme. AS is considered as a transitional space between transference and countertransference; as locus of interface between analyst's and patient's unconscious systems; also, as a space for sheltering and synchronization of the emotions shared by analyst and patient, indispensable for the emergence of insights and the subsequent working throught. AS can also become a storage space for the analyst's conflictual residues and, consequently, a locus of possible generation of iatrogenic disturbances in the analytic function. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Ostermeier, T. H. (1989). “Auditory illusions and confusions: Impact on listening.” Journal of the International Listening Association 3: 44-55.

Ostermeier, T. H. (1991). “Fast talkers and speeding listeners: Television/radio commercials.” Journal of the International Listening Association 5: 22-35.

Ostermeier, T. H. (1993). “Listening as a theme of a corporate annual report.” Journal of the Wisconsin Commuication Association 24: 48-61.

Ostermeier, T. H. (1994). “Perception of nonverbal cues in dialogic listening in an intercultural interview.” Journal of the International Listening Association 8(Special Issue): 64-75.

Ostermeier, T. H. (1995). “Meaning differences for nonverbal cues: Easier or more difficult for the intercultural listener.” Intercultural Communication Studies 1: 19-40.

Overton, J. A. and D. G. Bock (1986). “A study of the development, validation, and application of the construct of listening reluctance.” Journal of the Illinois Speech Teachers Association 38: 31-41.

Paley, V. G. (1986). “On listening to what the children say.” Harvard Educational Review 56(2): 122-131.

Describes a method for studying the young child in the classroom that involves a new teaching approach in which, rather than declaring children's comments and answers as right or wrong, teachers allow children to make discoveries through their own observations and discussions. The evolution of the method and its effect in the classroom are discussed. (0 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Palmer, B. C., M. F. Sharp, et al. (1991). “The effects of music and structured oral directions on auding and reading comprehension.” Journal of the International Listening Association 5: 7-21.

Pankow, E. (1974). “Listening games.” Instructor 83(April): 79.

Papa, M. J. and E. C. Glenn (1988). “Listening ability and performance with new technology: A case study.” Journal of Business Communication 25(Fall): 5-15.

Parkin, A. J., A. Wood, et al. (1988). “Repetition and active listening: The effects of spacing self-assessment questions.” British Journal of Psychology 79(1): 77-86.

Evaluated the practical application of repetition effects in a classroom setting. 52 continuing education students listened to a short passage; at various points in the passage Ss were required to answer a self-assessment question (SAQ) that referred to an item of information in the immediately preceding portion of the text. Each SAQ was then repeated either immediately or after 1, 2, or 4 min. After 3 hrs, Ss were given an unexpected recall test. Recall accuracy increased as a function of lag between presentation and repetition of SAQs. Increasing the lag between an SAQ and its target information did not affect subsequent delayed recall. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Parks, S. (1987). “Experiments in appropriating a new way of listening.” Journal of Analytical Psychology 32(2): 93-115.

Explores the growing interest on the part of Jungian analysts in the work of R. Langs and reports 3 case experiments using his communicative-interactional analytic method. It is suggested that Langs's contributions meet a significant need in contemporary psychoanalysis to close the developmental lag between theory and practice and that Langs shares with Jung an appreciation of the unconscious mind. The basic components of Langs's method are examined, including (1) his method of validating the analyst's intervention, (2) his concepts used to organize the observations of the interaction between analyst and patient, and (3) his concept of the secure frame generating the bipersonal field occupied by the participants. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Parrott, L. J. (1984). “Listening and understanding.” Behavior Analyst 7(1): 29-39.

Argues that the activities involved in mediating reinforcement for a speaker's behavior constitute only one phase of a listener's reaction to verbal stimulation. Other phases include listening and understanding what a speaker has said. It is contended that the relative subtlety of these activities is reason for their careful scrutiny. Listening is conceptualized as a functional relation obtaining between the responding of an organism and the stimulating of an object. A current instance of listening is regarded as a point in the evolution of similar instances, whereby an individual's history of perceptual activity may be regarded as existing in his/her current interbehavior. Understanding reactions are more complex than listening reactions due to the preponderance of implicit responding involved. Implicit responding occurs by way of substitute stimulation, and an analysis of the serviceability of verbal stimuli in this regard is made. Understanding is conceptualized as seeing, hearing, or otherwise reacting to actual things in the presence of their names alone. It is concluded that unless some attempt is made to elaborate on the nature and operation of listening and understanding, the more apparent reinforcement mediational activities of a listener are merely asserted without an explanation for their occurrence. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Patterson, C. J. (1978). “Teaching children to listen.” Today's Education 67(April): 52-3.

Pearson, P. D. and L. Fielding (1982). “Research update: Listening comprehension.” Language Arts 59: 617-629.

Perras, M. T. and A. R. Weitzel (1981). “Measuring daily communication activities.” Florida Speech Communication Journal 9: 19-23.

Perrine, R. M. (1993). “On being supportive: The emotional consequences of listening to another's distress.” Journal of Social & Personal Relationships 10(3): 371-384.

In a laboratory setting, 52 undergraduates individually talked with a confederate who enacted a distressed role. The confederate's response was manipulated to signal improvement or no improvement. Responses of the S were categorized as supportive (i.e., primarily listening or providing encouragement) or active (i.e., primarily problem solving). Ss' affect, goal accomplishment, and feelings of responsibility were assessed. Three factors were significantly related to an increase in the S's anger and sadness: (1) when the confederate did not improve, (2) when the S relied on supportive responses, and (3) when Ss perceived that they had not accomplished their goal. The more responsible Ss felt for solving the problem the more negative affect they experienced when the confederate did not improve. Whatever the confederate's response, Ss who relied on problem solving felt that they had helped more than did Ss who relied on listening. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Pezdek, K. and E. F. Hartman (1983). “Children's television viewing: Attention and comprehension of auditory versus visual information.” Child Development 54(4): 1015-1023.

90 5-yr-olds in 2 experiments viewed a videotape of Sesame Street and were asked comprehension questions. Equal numbers of Ss viewed the TV program with (a) toys available to play with (visual attention manipulation); (b) a record playing in the room (auditory attention manipulation); or (c) no toys or record available (control condition). All Ss viewed the same TV sequence, which consisted of (a) visual segments, (b) auditory segments, and (c) mixed modality segments. It was found that Ss effectively distributed their attention such that they could process auditory and visual information from TV while performing other activities. Further, Ss were sensitive to which segments required visual attention and which did not, and they were able to spontaneously adjust their pattern of visual attention appropriately. Results indicate that children utilize a fairly sophisticated cognitive processing strategy while watching TV. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Phipps, T. C. (1993). “Listen with your heart: Listening to people with disabilities.” Journal of the International Listening Association(special issue): 8-16.

Plattor, E. (1988). “Assessing listening in elementary and junior high schools: And examination of four listening tests.” Journal of the International Listening Association 2: 41-44.

Plourde, L. (1986). “Getting kids to be better communicators.” Learning '86 15(July/August): 1.

Porter, S. (1979). “Poor listening is big problem for businesses.” The Washington Star(November 14).

Potter, R. L. (1977). “Learning to listen: TV can help.” Teacher 95(November): 40.

Powell, J. T. (1986). “Stress listening: coping with angry confrontations.” Personnel Journal 65(May): 27-29.

Preiss, R. W. and L. R. Wheeles (1989). “Affective responses in listening: A meta-analysis of receiver apprehension outcomes.” Journal of the International Listening Association 3: 72-98.

Preiss, R. W. and L. R. Wheeless (1989). “Affective responses in listening: A meta-analysis of receiver apprehension outcomes.” Journal of the International Listening Association(Spring): 72-76.

Price, M. J. (1993). “Exploration of body listening: Health and physical self-awareness in chronic illness.” Advances in Nursing Science 15(4): 37-52.

Explored how 9 healthy and 9 chronically ill adults (asthma or multiple sclerosis) understand their body experience. Ss were interviewed and asked to keep a 6-wk diary. Significant statements were collated and analyzed for formulated meanings. The resultant body paradigm is defined as the person's explanatory model of who she/he is physically and is the result of past body experiences, shared body experiences of others while growing up, perceived circadian rhythms, and personal gnosis. Perception of energy patterns was central to both S groups, and chronically ill informants described adapting to a new body paradigm. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Purdy, M. (1991). “Listening and community: The role of listening in community formation.” Journal of the International Listening Association 5: 51-67.

Rankin, P. (1928). “The importance of listening ability.” English Journal 17: 623-30.

Rankin, P. T. (1926). “The measurement of the ability to understand spoken language.” Dissertation Abstracts 12 (1952): 847.

Rasmuson, T. J. (1987). “The effects of pausing and listening ability on retention of a spoken message.” International Listening Association Journal 1: 117-128.

Ratcliff, J. D. (1971). “I am joe's ear.” Reader's Digest(October): 131-34.

Raviv, A., A. Raviv, et al. (1991). “Psychological counseling over the radio: Listening motivations and the threat to self-esteem.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 21(4): 253-270.

Used help-seeking models to elucidate individuals' motivations for listening to radio counseling programs. Listening motivations for 2 different Israeli counseling programs were compared among 180 female listeners and callers to the programs. In addition, the degree of perceived threat to self-esteem associated with seeking help from a psychologist in a clinic as compared to a psychologist on the air was examined, as was the self-esteem of listeners and callers to the programs. Ss identified their motivation as receiving psychological information and help. Seeking help from a radio psychologist was found to be less threatening than turning to a psychologist in a clinic. The self-esteem of callers was lower than that of listeners. Results support the utility of psychological help-seeking models for research in the field of media psychology. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Reid, L. (1992). “Improving young children's listening by verbal self-regulation: The effect of mode of rule presentation.” Journal of Genetic Psychology 153(4): 447-461.

Conducted a study to enhance children's listening by promoting use of self-regulative skills and to examine the effects of mode of presentation of a comparison rule on listening skills. 42 kindergartners and 1st graders were involved in 2 rule-utilization sessions under 1 of 3 conditions: interrogative mode, declarative mode, or control. The 2 sessions were followed by 2 posttests in which Ss were not prompted to use the comparison rule. Ss who were exposed to the rule detected more ambiguous messages than did Ss in the control group during rule-utilization sessions, and the interrogative mode improved 5-yr-olds', but not 6-yr-olds', listening skills more than the declarative mode did. Thus, different modes of rule presentation have important effects in inducing self-monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Reuter, A. (1969). “Listening experiences: Instructional materials center dial-a-tape system advances learning.” Elementary English 46(November): 905-6.

Rhodes, S. C. (1985). “What the communication journals tell us about teaching listening.” Central States Speech Journal 36: 24-32.

Rhodes, S. C. (1987). “A study of effective and ineffective listening dyads using the systems theory principle of entropy.” International Listening Association Journal 1: 32-53.

Rhodes, S. C., K. W. Watson, et al. (1990). “Listening assessment: Trends and influencing factors on the 1980s.” International Listening Association Journal 4: 62-82.

Richards, J. C. (1983). “Listening comprehension: Approach, design, procedures.” TESOL Quarterly 17(June): 219-240.

Rickards, J. P. and C. B. McCormick (1988). “Effect of interspersed conceptual prequestions on note-taking in listening comprehension.” Journal of Educational Psychology 80(4): 592-594.

Participants in this study were asked either to take notes, answer inserted conceptual prequestions, or do both while listening to a factual-level passage of 800 words. Participants were also allowed either to overtly or covertly review their notes or questions prior to a free recall test. As expected, interspersed conceptual prequestions did produce deeper or more elaborate note-taking, with 25% of the questioned concepts appearing in the notes. In addition, such conceptual note-taking influenced recall as well, with 68% of the noted concepts and only 27% of the nonnoted concepts being present in the recall protocols. Note taking alone resulted in more shallow, literal, or paraphrased listing of passage material in the notes. Overt review of notes or conceptual questions did aid recall, and with such review, conceptual prequestions produced as many solicited concepts as did the combination of note-taking and conceptual prequestions. Finally, both the note-taking/conceptual prequestion combined condition and the conceptual prequestion overt review condition yielded more total recall than a listening-only control group. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Ridge, A. (1982). “K-12 listening curriculum for wisconsin.” unpublished.

Rieder, C. and R. Rosenthal (1994). “Speaking of women: Men and women talking, listening, and being talked about.” Journal of Social Behavior & Personality 9(3): 443-454.

Examined the ability of 6 female and 6 male undergraduates to extract verbal content from "noisy" channels of communication. Communicative distortions were created by content-filtering, a technique that makes the voice sound muffled and slightly distorted. Encoders included 20 female and 20 male undergraduates. Judges were significantly more accurate at decoding information from content-filtered audiotapes of person descriptions when the judges were the same sex as the speaker. In addition, the results revealed the critical role in communication of the sex of the person being talked about; speakers were easier to understand when talking about females than when talking about males. It appears that in communicatively taxing situations, there are important differences in the degree to which speakers' messages are understood. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

Ries, A. and J. Trout (1983). “The eye vs. the ear.” Advertising Age 54(March 14): M27-28.

Riter, C., P. Balducu, et al. (1982/1983). “Time compression: New evidence.” Journal of Advertising Research 22(December/January): 39-43.

Roberts, C. V. (1986). “A validation of the Watson-Barker Listening Test.” Communication Research Reports 3: 115-119.

Roberts, C. V. (1988). “The validation of listening tests: Cutting the Gordian knot.” Journal of the International Listening Association 2: 1-19.

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