The topic chosen for this bibliographic/pathfinder assignment is Cesar Chavez and the Chicano Movement. Cesar Chavez was a first generation American born near Yuma, Arizona on March 31, 1927. After his parents lost their farm during the Great Depression, Cesar and his family began working as migrant workers. Although Chavez only obtained a formal education up to the 8th grade, he led the movement for migrant rights in America, founding the United Farm Workers of America. The Chicano movement of the 1960’s arose from issues that Chavez fought against, such as farm worker’s rights, and voter and political rights of Mexican Americans. The term “Chicano” originates from this movement of Mexican Americans who did consider themselves neither Mexican nor American, thus, supporters of this cause refer to themselves as Chicano/Chicana.
The audience for this bibliography/pathfinder would be students or educators in Mexican American cultural studies courses or for students, educators or researchers studying the topic of Cesar Chavez and the Chicano Movement as a research assignment. This pathfinder will be designed for both undergraduate students in introductory courses and for the skilled educator who is searching for resources about these two topics.
In 1962, Chavez founded the United Farmworkers of America, and at the same time, the Chicano Movement began. The time range considered for this project will include resources from this time period, which is at the height of the movement. The resources provided here will include an emphasis on Mexican American heritage, and Spanish and English speaking people. Spanish language resources will only be considered if they contain English translations. Resources collected about Chavez and the Chicano movement will span from the 1960’s to the present. Some of the resources included in this bibliography were written just after Chavez’s death in 1993, for example, and, and other resources were published during Chavez’s lifetime are also included due to their relevance to the topic. I have provided resources from both Texas Woman’s University as well as the San Antonio Public Library. Many of the resources included in this bibliography are available online from the TWU library Research webpage.
D. Selection criteria
A. GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS/DESCRIPTIONS
(Brief overview of the subject)
Cesar Chavez (1927-1993) was a migrant worker right’s activist who advocated for peaceful union organizing and established the United Farm Workers of America. Chavez often fasted in order to draw attention to poor migrant work conditions and gained recognition for his efforts both during and after his lifetime. Chavez died in April 1993 and is survived by his wife, children and grandchildren.
While the subjects of both Cesar Chavez and the Chicano Movement are often included in similar studies and contain similar information (books about the Chicano movement will often include Chavez as a leader in the movement), not all of the titles will list both topics. The resources provided here are provided to both include and to expand on both topics.
B. SUBJECT HEADINGS
Cesar Chavez and the Chicano Movement
C. CALL NUMBERS
The call numbers listed are available at the Texas Woman’s University (TWU) library and the San Antonio Public Library. Students should explore these resources and locations for more information about Cesar Chavez and the Chicano Movement.
Texas Woman’s University (catalog: http://www.twu.edu/library/)
HD1527.C2 D37 1971
HD6509.C48 D38 1998
E184.M5 A2 G657 1975
Z8164.9 .F63 1974
Z1361.M4 T36 1979
E184.M5 B43 2011
LC2688.H8 S26 2001
E184.M5 R588 2009
San Antonio Public Library (catalog: http://sapl.sat.lib.tx.us/)
Latino 331.8813 Chavez
331.8813 CHAVEZ BIOGRAPHY
Latino 230.2092 Chavez
REF 031 Wor
305.86872 BEBOUT 2011
LATINO 305.48868 BLACKWELL 2011
LATINO 305.868 MARISCAL
D. EXISTING BIBLIOGRAPHIES
Z8164.9 .F63 1974
Fodell, Beverly. 1974. Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers; a selective bibliography. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
This 1974 bibliography is a revised version, lists resources about both Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers and is published by the Archives of Labor History and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University.
The United Farmworkers Organization. 2013. Selective Bibliography – Cesar Chavez, 1967-1997. http://www.ufw.org/_page.php?menu=research&inc=history/08.html
This online selective bibliography lists resources about Cesar Chavez and is organized by date from 1967 to 1997. From listings of FBI resources to plays and thesises and lists eighty three resources overall.
E184.M5 A2 G657 1975
Gómez-Quiñones, Juan, and Albert Camarillo. 1975. Selected bibliography for Chicano studies. Los Angeles: Chicano Studies Center.
This selected bibliography complied by Juan Gomez-Quinones and Albert Camarillo
Z1361.M4 T36 1979
Tatum, Charles M. 1979. A selected and annotated bibliography of Chicano studies. Lincoln, Neb: Society of Spanish and Spanish-American Studies.
This Chicano studies bibliography was compiled by Charles M. Tatem, and is published by the Society of Spanish and Spanish-American Studies. This book is the second edition of tis bibliography.
The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedia Dictionary of the English Language. Deluxe Edition. New York: Lexicon Publications, 1992.
Chavez, Cesar Estrada (1927- ), U.S. labor leader of Mexican-American farm workers.
Chicano Movement – a movement in California led by Cesar Chavez whose main purpose was to win better conditions for Mexican American agricultural workers, by protracted strikes.
Chicano/Chicana – U.S. resident of Mexican descent
The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedia Dictionary of the English Language contains brief definitions of both Chavez and the Chicano movement, describing Chavez as a Mexican-American labor leader for farm workers. The Chicano movement was described here as a movement that originated with Chavez’s own movement toward Mexican American civil rights.
Hyper Dictionary. 2013. Accessed December 1, 2013.
United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927)
Hyperdictionary provided a brief and straight forward description of Cesar Chavez here, as he is described as a union leader in the United States who organized farm workers. Although this resource is available online, it does not contain a year of death, which should be included as an up to date resource. This resource does not include a definition for Chicano or Chicano movement.
Palmowski, Jan. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. : Oxford University Press, 2008. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199295678.001.0001/acref-9780199295678.
This brief dictionary definition is as lengthy as some mini-encyclopedia biographies. This definition of Chavez contains his labor union accomplishments and setbacks as well. Also listed in this dictionary are links to the words Chicano and Teamster’s Union.
REF 031 Wor
The World Book Encyclopedia 2000. v3 C-Ch p.389. Chicago: World Book, 2007.
This short passage about Cesar Estrada Chavez contains a brief biography of Chavez which includes a photograph along with recommended additional resources, and see also suggestions. This biography includes his non-violent causes including the California grape boycott.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. "Cesar Chavez," accessed December 01, 2013, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/108132/Cesar-Chavez.
This academic resources provides a brief biography, two images and one video of the union organizer. The encyclopedia biography is brief, but contains links to the National Farm Workers Association, the Teamsters Union, the United Farm Workers of America and Saul Alinsky.
Boyer, Paul S., ed. The Oxford Companion to United States History. 2004. Oxford University Press. Accessed December 3, 2013. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2229/search?siteToSearch=aup&q=cesar+chavez&searchBtn=Search&isQuickSearch=true
This mini-biography contains detailed information not frequently available in other resources, such as the year Chavez married and his military service. The resources for this article are from Jacques E. Levy’s 1975 Cesar Chavez, and Richard Griswold del Castillo and Richard A. Garcia’s 1995, Cesar Chavez: A Triumph of Spirit.
Oboler, Suzanne and Deena J. Gonzalez, ed. 2005. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States. Oxford University Press. Accessed December 2, 2013. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2229/view/10.1093/acref/9780195156003.001.0001/acref-9780195156003-e-145?rskey=xaGS6s&result=2
This very detailed encyclopedia entry contains detailed information about the Chicano movement which began with Mexican American activism during the Vietnam war, when they refused to be considered second class citizens.
G. INDEXES AND ABSTRACTS
The indexes listed below are provided online by Texas Woman’s University through their library and information sciences LibGuides.
Wilson, H. W., 2103. Biography Index Past and Present. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/search/advanced?sid=0d10fee9-dd46-43de-97bc-2b9db491d2be%40sessionmgr115&vid=1&hid=112
Boolean Search inquiry: Cesar Chavez
Date range: 1900-2012
Updated 2012 sources revealed 1 periodical
Sources from the date range 1969-1993 revealed: 92 results
1 academic journal
An example of the results for this date range is listed below:
SOLKOFF, Joel. n.d. "Can Cesar Chavez cope with success?." New Republic 174, 13-17. Biography Index Past and Present (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost (accessed December 9, 2013).
Welt, W. S. n.d. "Cesar Chavez in the city of unions of UAWs, UFWs. Teamsters and exceedingly sour grapes." Biography News 1, 1106-1108. Biography Index Past and Present (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost (accessed December 9, 2013).
McCall, C. "Lettuce rots and a man dies as Cesar Chavez' dream strike turns nightmare." People Weekly 11, (n.d.): 24-27. Biography Index Past and Present (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost (accessed December 9, 2013).
EBSCO. 2013. Book Index with Reviews. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/search/advanced?sid=2bcb33ee-f6ab-4ffe-9568-46f8de8b627c%40sessionmgr111&vid=1&hid=112
Boolean Phrase: Chicano movement
Publication dates: 1974 to 2014
Results: 59 resources
The following academic abstracts were found using ProQuest’s Dissertation and Thesis Database, and online resource available through TWU libraries.
Casper, Ellen. A Social History of Farm Labor in California with Special Emphasis on the United Farm Workers Union and California Rural Legal Assistance (Cesar Chavez, Unionization, Services, Agricultural Labor Relations Act (California)). New School for Social Research, ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing, 1984. 8527072.
This dissertation, published during Chavez’s lifetime, focuses on the California union farm labor civil rights movement, which sought better working conditions for farm workers. Both the United Farm Workers Union and Cesar Chavez are emphasized in this report.
Jimenez, Edward Rucobo. "A Critical Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Cesar Chavez's Death." Order No. 1376154, California State University, Fresno, 1995. In PROQUESTMS ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text, http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/docview/304229094?accountid=7102.
This dissertation analyzes fifty newspaper articles following Cesar Chavez’s death in 1993. The dissertation was published in 1995, two years after Chavez’s death. The author analyzes the overall tone of each article by categorizing each as either a positive, negative, or neutral.
Hribar, Paul Anthony. "THE SOCIAL FASTS OF CESAR CHAVEZ: A CRITICAL STUDY OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, NONVIOLENCE, AND PUBLIC OPINION." Order No. 0529312, University of Southern California, 1978. In PROQUESTMS ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text, http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/docview/302929165?accountid=7102.
This dissertation was written during Chavez’s lifetime in 1978. Although this resources is not a
recently published dissertation, the resources listed in this dissertation may assist patrons to help
consider public opinion during Chavez’s lifetime.
Zompetti, J. P. (1998). Cesar chavez's rhetorical strategies of resistance. (Order No. 9827249, Wayne State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 169-169 p. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/docview/304453888?accountid=7102. (304453888).
This dissertation analyzes Cesar Chavez’s public speaking rhetoric from 1967-1971. Author J.P. Zompetti specifically focuses on Chavez’s emphasis on a non-violent and peaceful unionization in order to bring about social change.
Renteria, T. H. (1993). The culture of mexican-american professionals today: Legacy of the chicano movement. (Order No. 9309654, Stanford University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 294-294 p. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/docview/304075000?accountid=7102. (304075000)
This dissertation by T.H. Renteria focuses on the Chicano movement, the characters, and how many of these individuals in the movement moved on toward successful careers. Those Chicanos that were influenced by and involved in the 1960’s movement later became professional Chicanos.
H. JOURNALS OR PERIODICALS
Lucero, Jaime. 1999. "...Viva la causa!." Scholastic Action 23, no. 3: 6. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 1, 2013).
This Scholastic resource features a play titled “Viva la Causa” about the plight of Cesar Chavez. This resource provides an excerpt from the play as well as a helpful educator’s resource in the form of a quiz at the end of the play.
Pawel, Miriam. 2013. "CHAVEZ'S JACKET." Smithsonian 41, no. 7: 41. MAS Ultra - School Edition, EBSCOhost (accessed December 9, 2013).
In this Smithsonian article, author Miriam Pawel discusses Chavez’s cause, with particular emphasis on his decision to create the eagle symbol for the United Farm Workers Organization.
Hudson, Audrey. 2012. "César Chávez House, Union HQ Named National Monument." Human Events 68, no. 39: 10. MAS Ultra - School Edition, EBSCOhost (accessed December 1, 2013).
This recent article published in 2012 exhibits Cesar Chavez’s legacy and how his achievements are still recognized and important to this day. This article details how Cesar Chavez’s home has been declared a National Monument.
I. BIOGRAPHICAL SOURCES
S9 Biographical Dictionary. 2013. Accessed November 27, 2013.
This biographical resource contains a photograph of Chavez, and is organized by a timeline of Chavez’s life from his birth to his death. Significant accomplishments are included, although this is not a thorough resource.
This short biography contains a quick fact sheet of information, a photograph and video and quotes from this civil rights activist. This features a mini-biography, highlighting Chavez’s career and accomplishments.
"Cesar Chavez." Newsmakers. Detroit: Gale, 1993. Biography in Context. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.
This biographical resource is the migrant worker rights activist’s obituary published in the Detroit Free Press on April 27, 1992, in the London Times on April 27, 1993, and in People magazine on May 10, 1993. This thorough biographical source lists Chavez’s accomplishments, as well as information about his family and childhood.
"César Chávez." Dictionary of Hispanic Biography. Gale, 1996. Biography in Context. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.
This brief but thorough biography details Chavez’s work as an activist, his organizing efforts, along with his fasting and non-violent methods of activism. This Gale resource contains a focus on Chavez’s initial union efforts and the publicity that it generated to the end of his life.
J. HANDBOOKS, DIRECTORIES, MANUALS, ALMANACS
This almanac was accessed from the Texas Woman’s University Library Research Resources
Infoplease 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013. http://www.infoplease.com/search?q=cesar+chavez&search=search&fr=iptn
This resource produced 120 results which includes biographies, dictionary resources, a timeline, feature articles, thesaurus and Hispanic heritage month resources.
Subject Handbooks and Manuals
This subject handbook/manual was accessed from the Texas Woman’s University Library Research Resources
Inspiration Peak. 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013. http://www.inspirationpeak.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?search=cesar+chavez&I2.x=0&I2.y=0&method=all
This resource provided the following Cesar Chavez quotes:
Quote: Once social change begins it cannot be reversed. You cannot un-educate the person who has learned to read. You cannot humiliate the person who feels pride. You cannot oppress the people that are not afraid anymore. – Cesar E. Chavez, American Farm Worker and Labor Leader
Quote: The fight is never about grapes or lettuce. It is always about people. Cesar E. Chavez, American Farm Worker and Labor Leader
This directory was accessed from the Texas Woman’s University Library Research Resources
National Park Service. 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013. http://www.nps.gov/cech/index.htm
The National Park Service Directory lists Cesar E. Chavez Park in Keene, CA and includes directions, teacher’s resources, history and other park information.
K. GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES
InfoPlease. 2013. Accessed November 25, 2013. http://www.infoplease.com/spot/cesarchaveztimeline.html
This infoplease timeline is a great starting point for searching for Cesar Chavez notable locations, beginning from his birthplace in Yuma, Arizona, to his marches from Delano, California to Sacramento.
See also: directory information which lists the newly declared Cesar Chavez National Monument.
L. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS
Federal Registry for Educational Excellence Beta. 2013. Access November 25, 2013. http://free.ed.gov/
The Federal Registry for Educational Excellence is an educational government resource which provides links to free online educational resources including links and lesson plans. Contributors to FREE include the Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration and the White House, as well as 63 other federal agencies. Resources provided in this contained lesson plans and other educator links.
The Library of Congress. 2013. Accessed November 25, 2013. http://www.loc.gov/search/?q=cesar+chavez
Search results for this inquiry resulted in 221 results, with 105 webpages, 77 articles of legislation, 27 books, 24 photos, prints or drawings, 4 archived websites, 4 films or videos, and two items of manuscript/mixed material.
Library of Congress: Chicano Rights Movement
The Chicano Rights movement inquiry in the Library of Congress webpage brought about 128 results which includes 100 webpages, 32 books, 11 legislations, 9 films or videos, and three manuscript/mixed materials.
See also: directory information which lists the National Park Service’s website for the Cesar E. Chavez National Monument.
Public Broadcasting System. 2011. Learning to be American and Chicano. Accessed November 20, 2013. http://video.pbs.org/video/1890992430/
The Mexican Revolution is the focus on this 20 video series, along with other Mexican American cultural topics. This series, hosted and directed by Lionel Sosa, features how the Mexican Revolution inspired the Chicano movement. This twenty six minute video features commentary from experts in the field of Mexican American culture.
Mayo, Alonso F., Bill Brummel, George Lopez, Danny Bolero, and Dan Wolfmeyer. Viva la causa the story of César Chávez and a great movement for social justice. Montgomery, Ala: Teaching Tolerance, 2008.
This documentary tells of the story of the struggle of Chicanos and the injustice they experienced at various points before the Chicano movement, and during the movement when Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta led the fight for civil rights.
Treviño, Jesús Salvador, Barry Nye, and Victor Millán. Yo soy Chicano. New York, NY: Cinema Guild, 2005.
This Public Broadcasting System, sixty-minute documentary details the fight for Mexican American or Chicano rights during the 1970’s. Interviews are conducted by Chicano leaders, Dolores Huerta, Reies Lopez Tijerina, Rodolfo Gonzalez and Jose Angel Gutierrez.
KPBS-TV (Television station : San Diego, Calif.), and Public Television Library. Chicano. Washington: Public Television Library, 1969.
In this 1969 documentary, four Chicano students living in San Diego, California document their experiences during the Chicano movement. Students: Alurista, Juan Valderrama, Carlos and Linda Le Gerrette.
N. MACHINE READABLE DATA BASES/DIGITAL MEDIA
EBSCOhost. America: History and Life. 2013. Accessed December 3, 2013. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/resultsadvanced?sid=96dda03c-ed8d-4d12-8935-f56bcf24cd18%40sessionmgr112&vid=2&hid=112&bquery=cesar+chavez&bdata=JmRiPWFobCZ0eXBlPTEmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZlJnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d
This resource lists publications from 1963 to 2013 and a search for Cesar Chavez includes 67 academic journals, 7 magazines, and four dissertations.
Search phrase: Chicano Movement
EBSCOhost. America: History and Life. 2013. Accessed December 3, 2013.
World Cat. 2013. Accessed December 3, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/search?qt=worldcat_org_all&q=cesar+chavez
World Cat provides resources that are listed by participating library in order of nearest library location. Patrons can access the available resources if they are a member of the listed library.
Results for Cesar Chavez: 3,271
Results for Chicano Movement: 2,757
Results can be narrowed down by format type which includes books, ebooks, audiobooks, and other various multimedia
VAST: Academic Video Online. 2013. Accessed December 3, 2013. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2442/
This resource contains videos which include transcripts for each video. A search produced 11 videos on Cesar Chavez including original film displaying events during migrant farm workers rights movements.
Chicano movement produced 16 video results.
See also: Biography Index Past and Present located in Indexes.
See also: ProQuest Dissertations and Abstracts listed under Abstract resources.
Cesar Chavez Foundation. 2013. Accessed November 15, 2013. http://www.chavezfoundation.org/
The Cesar Chavez Foundation continues the legacy of Cesar Chavez by assisting Spanish Speaking individuals to improve their education, receive affordable housing, and provide sustainable solutions for community problems.
The United Farm Workers. 2013. Accessed December 3, 2013. www.ufw.org
This website also includes a great resource of newly relevant resources, including links to the recent news coverage of President Barak Obama’s designation of the Cesar Chavez National Monument.
A resource guide for documentation using primary sources of those experienced the for the farm workers movements. This online resource provides essays, manuscripts, media, such as music and videos and a discussion board.
A. Evaluate your search strategy
While searching for resources for this bibliography, I first began by evaluating the reference sources that we have used in this course from weekly module folders. In particular, I also used resources from the TWU Library website under “research sources,” and researched these materials in my school library as well. Although my subject terms listed the words Chicano movement and Cesar Chavez and the Chicano movement, it was efficient enough to use only Cesar Chavez or Chicano Movement as separate entries, as many of the articles included both subjects. Both the Chicano Movement and Cesar Chavez are similar topics, as Cesar Chavez was a leader in the Chicano Movement.
Some results listed from the course documents or the TWU resources were not always efficient, nor did they always provide results, but some of the listings in both the TWU library and also on other websites contained other helpful links and information. For example, the government website for FREE (www.free.ed.gov) provided information and links to other government agencies.
While some of the resources in this bibliography were completed using print materials, although many of the resources listed were found online through the TWU links. I intended for the audience to make use of both print and online resources as well. While enrolled in online courses at TWU, I found that many resources can and will be available online, and they can also provide great readily available materials such as the films converted to electronic format that feature events and images from the 1960’s Chicano movement.
B. General evaluation of the sources available for this topic
(consider comprehensiveness of sources, ease of use, availability)
Researching this topic contained a vast amount of resources for a student in search of a bibliography regarding this topic. Each topic can also be more focused if necessary to include sub-topics such as: Cesar Chavez’s legacy, Cesar Chavez’s peaceful protest, Cesar Chavez’s Ghandi influence, the Chicano Movement leaders, the Chicano Movement’s impact today other Chicano movement leaders of Mexican American civil rights or even Chicano feminism.
Although many resources are provided through databases and catalog searching, the Chicano Movement itself seems to lack its own prominent website to discuss its continuing legacy. Resources are instead scattered across academic resources, Public Broadcasting System videos and in academic journals.
While completing this assignment I realize how strong the Cesar Chavez legacy is to provide such plentiful resources. While some of the resources such as the databases require more “digging,” there were many resources that contained a great deal of readily available information. Lengthy research is necessary on the part of each student in order to conduct a thorough report, which is a standard requirement of all university students. Students would do well here to investigate some of the Books in Print or WorldCat databases for many more available resources in both print and electronic format.
This bibliography alone proves how valuable reference librarians are in comparison to google or any other search engine. Results from search engine inquiries are often displayed but not sorted, organized by these categories, or include a summary of each resource, and they would not have provided such valuable (and reliable) resources such as the archived videos displaying the historic events in both Cesar Chavez’s life and in the Chicano Movement.
C. If you were to do this type of project again, what would you do
If I were to complete this project again, I would keep all of the sources that are required to complete this project in one location for easy access to these reference sources. I was sometimes unsure about the reference sources that I was searching for, and I often considered a search for resources a difficult to find to ensure that I wasn’t looking up information from resources that weren’t allowed for this project. Referring back to these resources in the blackboard was sometimes a navigation task on its own. A general scope or overview of the bibliography project would be helpful in the beginning of the course in order to collect information as we go along, as this is an important assignment for librarians in training to accomplish and fully understand as a student who has not completed a bibliography in the past.
Some relevant websites produced no results, such as quotation resources, but others produced an abundance of results that required filtering. Some resources were published around the time of events, and some are updated to continue to discuss the legacy of both the Chicano movement and Cesar Chavez. The organization of this bibliography is important and the outline provided is a great template to use because all subjects need to be considered. I would encourage all librarians to use a similar format when creating bibliographies.
Overall this is a great assignment that all students should be required to complete before experiencing full librarianship in the same way that it is important to develop a collection and a collection policy in MLS courses because it is a great introduction into real life reference librarianship. I am grateful that this is a requirement that I can experience prior to graduation.