Paul, whose original name was Saul, was born a Roman citizen, although a Jew, in Tarsus [south central Turkey], an important city of Cilicia. He was a tentmaker. All the influences about him from the beginning—Jewish, Greek, Roman—contributed, apart from any consciousness or intention on his part to fit him for the work of his life.
His Conversion. As a young man, he sought out and persecuted Christians. The conversion of Saul is regarded as a miraculous event.
Near Damascus [Syria]
“At the height of Paul’s campaign of repression, he was confronted on the road to Damascus by the risen Christ.” (Who Was Who in the Bible)
Saw a Great Light
Saul Was Blinded
Was Led to Damascus
Fasted and Prayed
On one of his journeys on the way to Damascus, he saw a great light, was blinded by it, heard the rebuke of the Christ, and was led to Damascus where he fasted and prayed.
Ananias Sent to Him
A Christian disciple named Ananias was sent to Saul and baptized him, and from that point on he received his sight, his name was changed to Paul, and he preached Christ in the synagogues.
After Conversion. During his missionary, Paul made three specific journeys all around the area we know today as the Middle East. Subsequently, he spent time in Jerusalem, and lived the remainder of his years in Rome, mostly in prison.
Second Missionary Journey (50-52 AD)). At the beginning of the next journey came the memorable difference of opinion between Paul and Barnabas. Barnabas and Mark went to Cyprus. So, on Paul’s second missionary journey, from Antioch [Syria] through what we know today as southeastern Turkey, he journeyed to the Roman colony of Philippi [today’s Greek coast on the Aegean Sea] accompanied by Luke and Silas.
The Vision at Troas[W coast, Turkey],
The text and meaning of Acts 16 are both in dispute. According to the “North Galatian” view, Paul, Luke, and Silas now passed through the Phrygian and Galatic [Western Turkey]country after and because he was hindered by the Holy Spirit from going west into Asia to Ephesus [Izmir,Turkey]. This would be the occasion on which he first visited Galatia, and the Galatia now visited would be part of Asia Minor ethnographically as well as politically entitled to the name. They instead turned north and northwest, reaching the seaport of Troas. Here Paul was told in a vision to cross the north Aegean Sea and preach the gospel in Macedonia.
At Philippi[Greece], Lydia and jailor converted
It was here that Lydia was baptized, and invited Paul to come into her house. Paul continued to preach in Philippi and was jailed with Silas by the magistrates for teaching customs which were not lawful. Paul and Silas prayed and sang praises unto God, and a great earthquake shook the foundations of the prison, and all the doors were opened and the prisoners’ bands loosed. After converting the jailer, they continued their journey to Thessalonica, Berea, and Athens [all cities in Greece].
Athens. Sermon on Mars Hill
Some of the brethren went with him as far as Athens. “The idols in Athens stirred Paul’s Semitic soul to its depth.” (Abingdon Commentary) Here the apostle delivered that wonderful discourse reported in Acts 17. He gained but few converts in Athens.
Corinth Vision,--Church founded
He soon took his departure and went to Corinth [SW of Athens], where he became acquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, and where Timothy joined him. The two epistles to the Thessalonians—and these alone—belong to the present missionary journey.
Ephesus,--a Brief Visit
The ship in which he sailed from Corinth touched at Ephesus, and he had time to enter the synagogue and talk with the Jews, but though he promised to return, he could not stay.
The Return to Antioch
He returned to Antioch [inland, Turkey]. Much of his history is found in his letters to those communities.
Third Missionary Journey (53-58 AD)
On the third missionary journey, several brethren were associated with him in this expedition, the bearers, no doubt, of the collections made in all the churches for the poor at Jerusalem.
Visits Galatia and Phrygia
His companions were sent on by sea, and probably the money with them, to Troas, where they were to await Paul. He went round by way of Philippi, where Luke joined him, to Troas where the incident of Eutychus occurred, and thence to Assos [slightly SW of Troas; today Troy]. He completed his third journey by going to Miletus [SW coast of Turkey]; through Rhodes [island, S of Turkey] and Patars [S coast of Turkey], to Tyre [N coast of Israel]; and finally through Cæsarea [coastal city of Israel] to Jerusalem.
In Jerusalem (@60 AD)
Seized by the Romans
After appearing before the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem, and before Felix and Festus at Cæsarea, he was compelled to protest against injustice and delay (he had been a prisoner fully two years) by exercising his right as a Roman citizen to appeal to the emperor. To the imprisonment belongs the group of letters to Philemon, to the Colossians [Turkey], to the Ephesians [Turkey], and to the Philippians [Greece].
Voyage to Rome (@62 AD)
After appearing before the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem, and before Felix and Festus at Cæsarea, he was compelled to protest against injustice and delay (he had been a prisoner fully two years) by exercising his right as a Roman citizen to appeal to the Emperor. The voyage to Rome is told by an eye-witness.
On the island of Melita “Paul’s writings are not literary epistles, but occasional letters, written to particular churches about particular problems.” (Harper’s Dictionary) “Those who accept the pastoral Epistles (I and II Timothy, Titus) as genuine believe Paul was released from his first imprisonment in Rome (II Tim 4:16-17) and made another journey in the East.” (Ibid)
Paul was a controversial figure in his lifetime, even within the Christian movement. In accordance with early Christianity, he accepted slavery without criticism, and he assumes the property right of a slave-owner; but he recognizes the slave as a brother in Christ, to whom is due not merely forgiveness but Christian fellowship. He had many opponents who disagreed with his interpretation of the message of Jesus. In the closing years of his life, when imprisonment prevented him from moving about freely, Paul’s opponents were able to make headway with their rival interpretations. However, Paul became a venerated figure. His letters, together with the Gospels, became the foundation of the Christian movement.
[Tim’uh thih] (“honored by God”)
TIME LINE: @50-60 AD
Eunice (Jewess mother) = Greek father
Timothy Timothy was a young associate who was Paul's friend, disciple, companion, and “beloved and faithful child in the Lord,” in many of his journeys. Timothy is associated with Paul in the prescripts of at least four of the apostle’s letters: I Thessalonians, II Corinthians, Philemon, and Romans; additionally he is mentioned as joint sender in those four as well as two other of Paul’s epistles: II Thessalonians and Colossians.
He was born in Asia Minor. His Jewish mother, Eunice, and his grandmother, Lois, are mentioned as eminent for their piety. We know nothing of his father but that he was a Greek gentile.
He is first brought into notice at the time of Paul's second missionary journey on his second visit to Lystra, where Timothy probably resided, and where it seems he was converted during Paul's first visit to that place. The apostle having formed a high opinion of his "own son in the faith," arranged that he should become his companion, and took and circumcised him, so that he might conciliate the Jews. He was designated to the office of an evangelist, and went with Paul in his journey through Phrygia, Galatia, and Mysia; also to Troas and Philippi and Berea. Thence he followed Paul to Athens, and was sent by him with Silas on a mission to Thessalonica.
“When, with Silvanus (Silas), Timothy joined Paul in Corinth, he was the bearer of good news: the Thessalonians remained steadfast in “faith and love,” and they longed to see Paul (I Thess 3:6). ” (HarperCollins Dictionary)
He passes now out of sight for a few years. “According to Acts, Paul’s next major campaign in the East was located at Ephesus (Acts 18:18-20:1).” (Ibid) Timothy is again noticed with the apostle at Ephesus, whence he is sent on a mission into Macedonia. He accompanied Paul afterwards into Asia, where he was with him for some time. When the apostle was a prisoner at Rome, Timothy joined him, where it appears he also suffered imprisonment. From Rome, Paul sent Timothy to Philippi to bring back word of the congregation that had supported the apostle so faithfully over the years.
“The position of Timothy appears to have been that of apostolic deputy, and it is not surprising that Paul wrote to him a special letter with regard to his task.” (Westminster Bible Dictionary)
During the apostle's second imprisonment he wrote to Timothy, asking him to rejoin him as soon as possible, and to bring with him certain things which he had left at Troas, his cloak and parchments. According to tradition, after the apostle's death he settled in Ephesus as his sphere of labor, and there found a martyr's grave.
Leishman, Thomas L., “Paul’s Pastoral Epistles,” Christian Science Journal (May 1942), p. 101.
--The Apostle Paul’s two letters to Timothy and one to Titus are commonly referred to as the “Pastoral Epistles,” because they pay much attention to the duties of Christian pastors or ministers.
• Many scholars contend that at the close of Paul’s two years of semicaptivity at Rome (Acts 28:30), he was brought to trial and acquitted, and was thus free to continue his active ministry.
---Moreover, an ancient tradition has it that it was during the course of a visit to Laodicea at this period that Paul composed his first letter to Timothy, who had been left by the apostle in charge of the church at Ephesus (I Tim 1:3), an important and responsible position for so young a man (cf. 4:12).
Mann, Frances Mack, “Called of God,” Christian Science Journal (October 1908), p. 402.
--One of the most important lessons taught by Paul to his beloved Timothy was that every man is called of God to eternal life, and that the attainment of this knowledge constitutes his individual work.
• The call to the Adam man was, is, and ever will be, "Have you overcome a personal sense of life as in matter by the spiritual perception of Life as God?"
---This call of Truth is heard by each one when
the call of the world ceases to hold his attention.
• It is impossible to heed both voices at the same time.
---When the call of Truth becomes paramount, its
first effect on the individual is that it leads him to self-examination.
• If this is followed up by obedience to Truth, there comes a great love for Truth, and a sincere desire to help his fellow-man.
Cook, George Shaw (CSB, Lecturer, 1st Reader, Associate Editor, Editor, and Normal Class Teacher), “The Will of God,” EDITORIAL, Christian Science Sentinel (22 May 1937), p. 750.
--There can be no worthier desire than to know and do the will of God; and Christian Science shows one that God’s will is
always loving and kind.
• It may be said, then, that the earnest sincere longing to know the will of God is essential to pray.
• In order to know what God’s will is, it is necessary first to know what God is—to learn something of His nature.
invariably and infallibly wise.
Equipped with Examples of Faith (II Tim 3: 8-11, 13-17)
“I Tim 6:3-16 countered an initial description of false teachers with Timothy, the man of God, as a soldier ready to do battle for the faith. This section marks a similar transition from the false teachers to Timothy, man of God, as ‘[perfect, thoroughly furnished]’ (3:17).” (Eerdmans Commentary)
Jannes and Jambres
[Jan’iz] and [Jam’briz]
“Although their names are not mentioned in the OT, they were likely two of the Egyptian magicians who opposed Moses (Ex 7:11,22; 8:7,18,19; 9:11). According to Jewish tradition, they pretended to become Jewish proselytes, instigating the worship of the golden calf, and were killed with the rest of the idolaters (Ex 32). Paul’s choice of them as examples may indicate the false teachers at Ephesus were practicing deceiving signs and wonders.” (MacArthur Commentary)
Nelson, H.W., “Not Magic, but Understanding,” Christian Science Sentinel (18 July 1903), p.728.
--Many strangers come to our churches, expecting to learn a magic word, a set form of words, a creed, which will give to them the art of healing.
• This expectation is entirely unauthorized, and they are really harboring thoughts pertaining to a primitive order of superstition.
---The healing as practised by Christian Scientists, though only incidental to the
Science of Christianity, is very necessary since it is a proof of right apprehension and true discipleship.
• By thus proving they carry out one of the commands of the Master, and at the same time demonstrate to humanity their understanding of Christian Science.
---There is not any mystery in this practice; the ability to heal is really a growth
upward in one's human consciousness, due to an appreciation of the eternal fact that God's eyes are too pure to behold iniquity.
Pellman, Barbara J., “There Is No Resistance to Truth,” Christian Science Journal (September 1963), p. 473.
--Every student of Christian Science has undoubtedly, at one time or another, found himself face to face with what appears to be opposition or resistance to Truth, God.
• He hears it said that a certain individual is not receptive to Truth or that a certain condition of affairs is better left alone.
---Viewed from the standpoint of sense testimony, the foregoing may seem to be logical and sound conclusions.
--However, the truly progressive Christian Scientist cannot remain in the shallows of conservative belief but must venture forth into the depths of spiritual understanding.
• Here the inspiration of absolute Truth shows forth the forever fact that in the realm of infinite Spirit, which constitutes the actual and only, there is no resistance to Truth.
King James Version (KJV). Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1611 (1955 ed.)
Moffatt, James, A New Translation of the Bible. Harper & Brothers Publishers: New York, NY, 1922 (1954 ed.)
New English Bible, The (NEB). Oxford University Press: New York, NY, 1961 (1972 ed.).
New International Version (NIV): Student Bible. Zondervan: Grand Rapids, MI, 1986 (2002 ed.).
Schuller, Robert H. (ex.ed.), Possibility Thinkers Bible: The New King James Version (NKJV). Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville, TN, 1984.
Thompson, Frank Charles (ed.), The New Chain-Reference Bible. B.B. Kirkbride Bible Co: Indianapolis, IN, 1964.
Today’s Parallel Bible. Zondervan: Grand Rapids, MI, 2000.
Bible Paraphrased Interpretations
Peterson, Eugene H., The Message. NavPress: Colorado Springs, CO, 1993 (2002 ed.)
Phillips, J.B., The New Testament in Modern English. Macmillan Publishing Co.: New York, NY, 1972.
Barton, John and John Muddiman (ed.), The Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2001.
Black, Matthew and H.H. Rowley (eds.), Peake’s Commentary on the Bible.
Van Nostrand Reinhold (UK) Co., Ltd: London, ENG, 1962.
Buttrick, George Arthur (comm.ed., et al), The Interpreter’s Bible. Abingdon Press: New York, NY, 1953.
Dobson, Edward G. (cont. et al), King James Bible Commentary. Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville, TN, 1999.
Dummelow, The Rev J.R. (ed.), A Commentary on the Holy Bible. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc: New York, NY, 1975.
Dunn, James D.G. (gen.ed.), Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.: Grand Rapids, MI, 2003.
Eiselen, Frederick C. (ed.), The Abingdon Bible Commentary. Abingdon Press: New York, NY, 1929.
Henry, Matthew, Commentary on the Holy Bible (in six volumes), 1706.
Reprinted by MacDonald Publishing Co.: McLean, VA.
Landis, Benson Y., An Outline of the Bible Book by Book. Barnes & Noble Books: New York, NY, 1963.
Laymon, Charles M. (ed.), The Interpreter’s One-volume Commentary on the Bible. Abingdon Press: Nashville, TN, 1971.
MacArthur, John, The MacArthur Bible Commentary. Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville, TN, 2005.
Mays, James L. (gen ed.), HarperCollins Bible Commentary. Harper: San Francisco, CA, 2000.
Newsom, Carol A. and Sharon H. Ringe (eds.), Women’s Bible Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press: Louisville, KY, 1998.
Whiston, William (tr.), Josephus: The Complete Works. Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville, TN, 1998 (reprinted).
Achtemeier, Paul J. (ed.), The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary. Harper: San Francisco, 1996.
Brownrigg, Ronald, Who’s Who in the Bible. The New Testament. Bonanza Books: New York, NY, 1980.
Butler, Trent C., Ph.D. (gen.ed.), Holmon Bible Dictionary. Holman Bible Publishers: Nashville, TN, 1991.
Comay, Joan, Who’s Who in the Bible: The Old Testament. Bonanza Books: New York, NY, 1980.
Gehman, Henry Snyder (ed.), The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible. The Westminster Press: Philadelphia, PA, 1970.
Jacobus, Melancthon, D.D,, et.al (eds.), Funk and Wagnalls New Standrad Bible Dictionary. Funk and Wagnalls Co.: New York, NY, 1936 (Third Revised Ed.)
Metzger, Bruce and Michael D. Coogan (eds.), The Oxford Guide to Ideas & Issues of the Bible. Oxford University Press: New York, NY, 2001.
__________, The Oxford Guide to People & Places of the Bible. Oxford University Press: New York, NY, 2001.
Meyers, Carol (gen.ed.), Women in Scripture. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.: Grand Rapids, MI, 2001.
Peloubet, F.N., Peloubet’s Bible Dictionary. The John C. Winston Co: Philadelphia, PA, 1947.
Smith, William, LLD, A Dictionary of the Bible. Reprinted by Nelson Reference & Electronic: Nashville, TN, 1893 (1986 ed.).
Who Was Who in the Bible. Thomas Nelson: Nashville, TN, 1999.
www.bibletexts.com www.crosswalk.com, Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary.
www.crosswalk.com, Easton’s Bible Dictionary.
Handbooks Blair, Edward P., Abingdon Bible Handbook. Abingdon Press: Nashville, TN, 1975.
Bowker, John (ed.), The Complete Bible Handbook. DK Publishing, Inc: London, UK, 1998.
Halley, Henry H., Halley’s Bible Handbook. Zondervan Publishing House: Grand Rapid, MI, 1927 (1965 ed.)
Unger, Merrill F., Unger’s Bible Handbook. Moody Press: Chicago, IL, 1967.
Atlases, Maps, and Geography
DeVries, LaMoine F., Cities of the Biblical World. Hendrickson Publishers: Peabody, MA, 1997 (2nd Printing Aug 1998).
Frank, Harry Thomas (ed.), Atlas of the Bible Lands. Hammond Inc.: Maplewood, NJ, 1990.
Nelson’s Complete Book of Maps & Charts. Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville, TV, 1996.
Then and Now Bible Map Book. Rose Publishing: Torrance, CA, 1997.
Webster’s Geographical Dictionary. G. & C. Merriam co.: Springfield, MA, 1949 (1963 ed.).
Time Lines Bible Time-Line. Christian Science Publishing Society: Boston, MA, 1993.
Bible Time Line. Rose Publishing Inc.: Torrance, CA, 2001.
Miscellaneous Beebe, Mary Jo; Olene E. Carroll, and Nancy H. Fischer, Jesus’ Healings, Part 3. General Publications Bible Products, CSPS: Boston, MA, 2002.
Feiler, Bruce, Abraham: A Journey to the Heart of Three Faiths. William Morrow (HarperCollins Publishers Inc): New York, NY, 2002.
Kee, Howard Clark, et al, The Cambridge Companion to the Bible. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1997.
Keller, Werner, The Bible as History. William Morrow and Co.: New York, NY, 1964 (revised).
Mysteries of the Bible. The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc.: Pleasantville, NY, 1988.
Smith, Wilbur M., D.D. (ed.), Peloubet’s Select Notes on the International Sunday School Lessons. W.A. Wilde Co.: Boston, MA, 1943.
Snipes, Joan Koelle, Bible Study for Children. Bible Teaching Press: Shepherdstown, WV, 1999.
Tosto, Peter (ed.), Found Volumes, Version 2002 (software). www.foundvolumes.com: Marietta, GA, 2002.
Trench, R.C., Notes on the Parables of Our Lord. Baker Book House: Grand Rapids, MI, 1948.
Zondervan Bible Study Library 5.0., Family Edition (software). Zondervan: Grand Rapids, MI, 2003.
*The weekly Bible Lessons are made up of selections from the King James Version of the Bible and the Christian Science textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures by Mary Baker Eddy, who discovered Christian Science.