Beringia Hunters and Gatherers



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Chapter 1 Study Guide
Section 1 - The Earliest Americans
First Native Americans
-Came from Asia 12,000 – 30,000 yrs. ago across Bering Strait (Beringia)

-Hunters and Gatherers, spread out in constant search of food; no stability


Domestication & Agriculture (Farming) - taming and breeding of plants and animals to be used for human needs – finally brings about a more stable lifestyle and permanent villages emerge. Soon different cultures (a shared way of life) spread throughout North America and into Central and South America.
Civilizations -(complex cultures) began to emerge by as early as 1200 B.C. as result of agriculture.
5 components of a civilization



  1. cities that are centers of trade

  2. specialized jobs

  3. organized government & religion

  4. record keeping

  5. advanced tools


Hohokam and Anasazi – (400 B.C. -1400 A.D.)

-lived in what is today Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico.

-They adapted to their environments by using a system of irrigation to bring

water from up to hundreds of miles away through canals to water crops.


Iroquois – group of tribes who lived in the Eastern Woodlands

-adapted to surroundings by using slash and burn method of farming. They

cut down trees so sunlight could reach crops and burned the trees so ashes

could enrich the soil.





Section 2 – Societies of West Africa and Europe
West Africa
Several kingdoms in West Africa (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai) became very powerful from around 700 to the 1500’s as traders of salt and gold passed through. Taxes on these goods brought large revenues.
Islam – takes over as main religion of W. Africa as Muslim (followers of Islam)

traders come from the north.



  • the prophet, Muhammad, founded Islam in the 600’s

  • one God (Allah) and holy book (Koran)

By 1400’s, Europeans begin to come to Africa for trade



Europe
Middle Ages - (400’s – 1300’s) - difficult times, social and political instability,

and lots of warfare


Feudalism – develops to bring security and stability to Europeans


  • Kings give land to lords (nobles) in exchange for military service and

protection of those living and working on the land, known as serfs (peasants)

Crusades – (1096) – European Christians engaged in a series of wars to take back

the Holy Land from the Muslims in southwest Asia.


-ultimately failed to hold onto Holy Land, but changed lives of Europeans
-led to later desire for trade in Asia for goods such as silk, gems, and spices

that were noticed during the Crusades (nice clothes, bling, and good grub)

Bubonic Plague – began in 1347- caused over 25 million deaths throughout Europe

and helped bring about end of feudalism as peasant workers were dying off. Led to Renaissance, because people began to think more deeply about the meaning of life.


Renaissance (Rebirth) - 1300’s -1600 – period of increased interest in Europe in learning, sciences, literature, and the arts.
ReformationMartin Luther led a movement in the early 1500’s to “reform” the Catholic church and remove the corruption taking place. It led to a split of the church and the emergence of Protestantism.


Section 3 - Early European Explorers
Portugese Expeditions
By 1400’s, Italy had monopolized (controlled) trade w/ Muslims in Asia.
-Gained lots of wealth and power

-Controlled trade routes to Asia via Mediterranean Sea


The Boot” controlled “The Booty”

-Other European nations saw riches and profits gained by Italy and wanted a piece of the action, and begin to search for alternate routes to Asia (non-Mediterranean)



Prince Henry (the Navigator), of Portugal, sponsors voyages to find other trade routes to Asia in mid-1400’s.

-Bartolomeu Dias (1488) - Cape of Good Hope -Southern tip of Africa


-Vasco da Gama (1498) – Around Cape of Good Hope and then north to

Indian Ocean and east to India (in Asia)

-Portugal enjoys riches and wealth brought from their discoveries, and other

European countries want to find their own trade routes to Asia.



Christopher Columbus
Convinced that he can get to Asia (Japan & India) traveling westward across the Atlantic Ocean, especially since he believed the world to be round.


  • Looked for sponsors, promising riches (silk, gems, tapestries, & spices) in return




  • King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella of Spain agree (w/ reluctance) b/c they desire riches from trade and to spread Christianity.



  • Set sail in 1492 on Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria




Columbus (cont.)
On October 12, 1492, Columbus and crew land on isle in Caribbean Sea
-Thinks it is Orient isles in Asia, “The Indies,” and calls (Taino) inhabitants “Indians”
-Names isle “San Salvador” and claims for Spain, and also claims Hispaniola for Spain
-No idea he had discovered a whole “New World,” but died thinking he

had found new route to Asia.


-Only goal he really achieved was successfully navigating Atlantic Ocean.


Results of Columbus Voyages
-Atlantic could be crossed and led to “New World” (Americas) and

brought Spain great wealth and power.


-With Spain’s successes, England & France, the French, who are still in

Europe today, and other European nations want a “piece of the pie” and

begin to send expeditions to the New World.


Chapter 1 Study Guide
Section 1 - The Earliest Americans
First Native Americans
-Came from Asia 12,000 – 30,000 yrs. ago across ________________________

-_________________&________________ spread out in constant search of food; no stability


-______________________________ taming and breeding of plants and animals to be used for human needs – finally brings about a more stable food supply and lifestyle causing permanent villages to emerge. Soon different cultures (a shared way of life) spread throughout North America and into Central and South America.
___________________________ -(complex cultures) began to emerge by as early as 1200 B.C. as result of agriculture.

5 components of a civilization

1. ________________that are centers of trade

2. specialized _________________

3. organized _______________________& religion

4. __________________ keeping

5. advanced _______________

Hohokam and Anasazi - lived in what is now Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico.
-They adapted to their environments by using a system of __________________ to bring

water from up to hundreds of miles away through canals to water crops.


Iroquois – group of tribes who lived in the Eastern Woodlands

-adapted to surroundings by using __________________________ method of farming.

They cut down trees so sunlight could reach crops and burned the trees so ashes

could enrich the soil.





\

Section 2 – Societies of West Africa and Europe
West Africa
Several kingdoms in West Africa (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai) became very powerful from around 700 to the 1500’s as traders of _________& _________ passed through. Taxes on these goods brought large revenues.
______________ – becomes main religion of W. Africa as Muslim traders come from north
- the prophet, __________________, founded the religion in the 600’s
- one God, called _______________ and a holy book known as the _______________

- By 1400’s, Europeans begin to come to Africa for trade



Europe
_____________________ - (400’s – 1300’s) - difficult times, social and political

instability, and lots of warfare


_____________________ – develops to bring security and stability to Europeans
- Kings give land to lords (nobles) in exchange for military service and protection of

those living and working on the land, known as serfs (peasants)

__________________– (1096) – European Christians engaged in a series of wars to

take back the Holy Land from the Muslims in southwest Asia.


- ultimately failed to hold onto Holy Land, but changed lives of Europeans
-Led to later desire for trade in Asia for goods such as silk, gems, and spices

that were noticed during the Crusades (nice clothes, bling, and good grub)

________________________ – began in 1347- caused over 25 million deaths throughout

Europe and helped bring about end of feudalism as peasant workers were dying off.

Led to Renaissance, because people began to think more deeply about the meaning of life.
_________________________ (Rebirth) - 1300’s -1600 – period of increased interest in

Europe for learning, sciences, literature, and the arts.


__________________________Martin Luther led a movement in the early 1500’s to “reform” the Catholic church and remove the corruption taking place. It led to a split of the church and the emergence of

__________________________________.

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