By 1960 the situation in Cuba had become deeply troubling; Premier Fidel Castro had seized American-owned oil refineries and businesses, nationalized the country's major industries, and became good friends with the Soviet Union. Soviet loans, arms, and advisors came to help Castro govern Cuba. President Dwight D. Eisenhower decided something needed to be done about this situation, so he ordered Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Director Allan Dulles to secretly train thousands of anti-Castro Cuban refugees living in Florida for an attack on Cuba. Dulles told President Kennedy that once the commandos (Cuban refugees) landed that the Cuban people would rise up and help overthrow Castro's government. Reluctantly, Kennedy gave the go-ahead.
The Bay of Pigs invasion was a disaster from the start. On April 15, 1961, eight B-26 bombers manned by refugees fired on Castro's airfields, knocking out some planes but leaving key aircraft unharmed and, worse, tipping Castro off to the coming invasion. Castro quickly arrested and jailed thousands of suspected dissidents (people who disliked the present government) so they could not help with the invasion. On the night of April 17, 1,400 commandos landed on the island. The CIA had led them to expect a smooth landing on a deserted beach; instead, their boats ran aground on coral reefs within sight of a public park. Within 24 hours of the landing, Castro had sent 20,000 Cuban regulars to the area to block the drive inland. The next day four B-26's left Nicaragua for an attack on Castro's forces, but failing to take into account the differences in time zones, the pilots arrived at their targets an hour before their escorts. Castro's jets easily defeated them. By nightfall on the third day of the invasion, Castro had won. In 1962 Castro traded 1,179 prisoners for $50 million in food and medicine from the U.S.A.
The Soviet buildup in Cuba continued. On October 16, 1962, aerial photographs revealed that the Soviets were installing ballistic missiles on the western side of the island. The missiles could be fitted with nuclear warheads. Wider ranging missiles, spotted two days later, could reach targets as far west as Montana. The next thirteen days were very tense for the nation. President Kennedy held many meetings with his advisors to discuss the best course of action. On October 22, President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade on offensive military equipment headed for Cuba. At sea, Soviet freighters, stopped by the U.S. navy, stopped dead in the water. Khrushchev (Soviet leader) remained silent for four days. Then, late on October 26, a letter arrived from the Soviet leader: the weapons would be removed if the United States pledged not to invade Cuba. Hours later a second letter demanded the United States remove its own missiles from Turkey, which were within striking distance of the Soviet Union. Kennedy answered the first letter, agreeing to its condition, and ignored the second letter, and on October 28 Khrushchev promised to remove the missiles from Cuba. This time, Kennedy had won.
BAY OF PIGS AND CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS GUIDED READING The situation in Cuba with seizing American-owned oil refineries and businesses, nationalizing the country's major industries, and becoming friendly with the alarmed President . President Eisenhower ordered the director of the ______________ to begin secretly training thousands of living in for an attack on . The CIA director convinced the new president,__________________ , to go ahead with the invasion saying that once the commandos landed the would rise and help overthrow.
The invasion was a disaster from the start. On _________________, eight B-26 bombers fired on Castro's ____________. They did little damage to the planes, but this raid gave Castro enough of a warning of the coming invasion to arrest and jail __________ of suspected __________ (people who disliked the present government), so they could not help with the attack. On the night of ___________, CIA trained anti-Castro Cubans landed on the island. The ____________ had led them to expect a smooth landing on a _____________ ___________; instead, their boats ran aground on _________ _________ within sight of a __________ __________. Within __________ __________, Castro had sent ________ __________ _________ to the area to block the invasion. The next day four B-26's left ____________ for an attack on Castro's forces, but failing to realize the difference in time zones, the planes arrived at their targets an hour before their escorts. Castro's jets easily _________ them. By ________ of the __________ __________, __________ had won. Castro traded _________ prisoners for $50 million in ________ and ___________ from the U.S.A.
The _________ buildup in ___________ continued. On October 16, 1962, ________ _________ revealed that the _________ were installing ballistic __________ on the western side of Cuba. The _________ could be outfitted with ___________ ___________. Wider ranging missiles, spotted _________ ________ later, could reach targets as far west as ____________.
The next ___________ _______ were tense for the nation. President Kennedy held many meetings with his advisors to discuss the best course of action. On October 22, President Kennedy ordered a ___________ ____________ on offensive military equipment headed for _________. At sea, ___________ ___________ were stopped by the U.S. navy. ___________ (Soviet leader) remained silent for four days. Then, late on October 26, a _________ arrived from ___________: the _________ would be removed if the __________ __________ pledged not to ___________ __________. Hours later a second letter demanded the United States remove its own missiles from____________, which were within striking distance of ___________ ____________. President Kennedy answered the __________ ___________, agreeing to its condition, and ignored the ________ _________, and on October 28 ____________ promised to remove the missiles from __________. This time, _________ had won.