CHAPTER 3 BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SUGGESTED ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS QUESTIONS 1. Define the balance of payments. Answer The balance of payments (BOP) can be defined as the statistical record of a country’s international transactions over a certain period of time presented in the form of double-entry bookkeeping. 2. Why would it be useful to examine a country’s balance of payments data Answer It would be useful to examine a country’s BOP for at least two reasons. First, BOP provides detailed information about the supply and demand of the country’s currency. Second, BOP data can be used to evaluate the performance of the country in international economic competition. For example, if a country is experiencing perennial BOP deficits, it may signal that the country’s industries lack competitiveness. 3. The United States has experienced continuous current account deficits since the early s. What do you think are the main causes for the deficits What would be the consequences of continuous US. current account deficits Answer The current account deficits of US. may have reflected a few reasons such as (Ia historically high real interest rate in the US, which is due to ballooning federal budget deficits, that kept the dollar strong, and (ii) weak competitiveness of the US. industries. 4. In contrast to the US, Japan has realized continuous current account surpluses. What could be the main causes for these surpluses Is it desirable to have continuous current account surpluses
Answer Japan’s continuous current account surpluses may have reflected a weak yen and high competitiveness of Japanese industries. Massive capital exports by Japan prevented yen from appreciating more than it did. At the same time, foreigners exports to Japan were hampered by closed nature of Japanese markets. Continuous current account surpluses disrupt free trade by promoting protectionist sentiment in the deficit country. It is not desirable especially when it is brought about by the mercantilist policies. 5. Comment on the following statement Since the US. imports more than it exports, it is necessary for the US. to import capital from foreign countries to finance its current account deficits Answer The statement presupposes that the US. current account deficit causes its capital account surplus. In reality, the causality maybe running in the opposite direction US. capital account surplus may cause the country’s current account deficit. Suppose foreigners find the US. a great place to invest and send their capital to the US, resulting in US. capital account surplus. This capital inflow will strengthen the dollar, hurting the US. export and encouraging imports from foreign countries, causing current account deficits. 6. Explain how a country can run an overall balance of payments deficit or surplus. Answer A country can run an overall BOP deficit or surplus by engaging in the official reserve transactions. For example, an overall BOP deficit can be supported by drawing down the central bank’s reserve holdings. Likewise, an overall BOP surplus can be absorbed by adding to the central bank’s reserve holdings. 7. Explain official reserve assets and its major components. Answer Official reserve assets are those financial assets that can be used as international means of payments. Currently, official reserve assets comprise (I) gold, (ii) foreign exchanges, (iii) special drawing rights (SDRs), and (iv) reserve positions with the IMF. Foreign exchanges are by far the most important official reserves.
8. Explain how to compute the overall balance and discuss its significance. Answer The overall BOP is determined by computing the cumulative balance of payments including the current account, capital account, and the statistical discrepancies. The overall BOP is significant because it indicates a country’s international payment gap that must be financed by the government’s official reserve transactions. 9. Since the early s, foreign portfolio investors have purchased a significant portion of US. treasury bond issues. Discuss the short-term and long-term effects of foreigners portfolio investment on the US. balance of payments. Answer As foreigners purchase US. Treasury bonds, US. BOP will improve in the short run. But in the long run, US. BOP may deteriorate because the US. should pay interests and principals to foreigners. If foreign funds are used productively and contributes to the competitiveness of US. industries, however, US. BOP may improve in the long run. 10. Describe the balance of payments identity and discuss its implications under the fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes. Answer The balance of payments identity holds that the combined balance on the current and capital accounts should be equal in size, but opposite in sign, to the change in the official reserves BCA + BKA = -BRA. Under the pure flexible exchange rate regime, central banks do not engage in official reserve transactions. Thus, the overall balance must balance, i.e., BCA = -BKA. Under the fixed exchange rate regime, however, a country can have an overall BOP surplus or deficit as the central bank will accommodate it via official reserve transactions. 11. Exhibit 3.5 indicates that in 1999, Germany had a current account deficit and at the same time a capital account deficit. Explain how this can happen Answer In 1999, Germany experienced an overall BOP deficit, which must have been accommodated by the central bank, e.g., drawing down its reserve holdings.
12. Explain how each of the following transactions will be classified and recorded in the debit and credit of the US. balance of payments (1) A Japanese insurance company purchases US. Treasury bonds and pays out of its bank account kept in New York City. (2) A US. citizen consumes a meal at a restaurant in Paris and pays with her American Express card. (3) A Indian immigrant living in Los Angeles sends a check drawn on his LA. bank account as a gift to his parents living in Bombay. (4) A US. computer programmer is hired by a British company for consulting and gets paid from the US. bank account maintained by the British company. Answer _________________________________________________________________ Transactions Credit Debit _________________________________________________________________ Japanese purchase of US. T bonds Japanese payment using NYC account US. citizen having a meal in Paris Paying the meal with American Express Gift to parents in Bombay Receipts of the check by parents (goodwill) Export of programming service British payment out its account in US. _________________________________________________________________ 13. Construct the balance of payment table for Japan for the year of 2006 which is comparable in format to Exhibit 3.1, and interpret the numerical data. You may consult International Financial Statistics published by IMF or research for useful websites for the data yourself.
Answer A summary of the Japanese Balance of Payments for 2006 (in $ billion) Credits Debits Current Account (1) Exports 898.91 (1.1) Merchandise 615.81 (1.2) Services 117.30 (1.3) Factor income 165.80 (2) Imports -717.72 (2.1) Merchandise -534.51 (2.2) Services -135.56 (3.3) Factor income -47.65 (3) Unilateral transfer 6.18 -16.87 Balance on current account 170.52 [(1) + (2) + (3)] Capital Account (4) Direct investment -6.78 -50.17 (5) Portfolio investment 198.56 -71.04 (5.1) Equity securities 71.44 -25.04 (5.2) Debt securities 127.12 -46.00 (6) Other investment -86.67 -91.00 Balance on financial account -107.10 [(4) + (5) + (6)] (7) Statistical discrepancies -31.44 Overall balance 31.98 Official Reserve Account -31.98 Source IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2008.
Note Capital account in the above table corresponds with the Financial account in IMF’s balance of payment statistics. IMF’s Capital account balance is included in Other investment in the above table. Investments in financial derivative assets are also included in other investment. It is noted that Japan experienced divestment by foreigners in both direct investment and other investment categories in 2006. PROBLEMS 1. 2000 US. Balance of Payments Solution Merchandise -1224.43 Balance on current account -444.69 Balance on capital account 444.26 Statistical discrepancies .73
MINI CASE MEXICO’S BALANCE OF PAYMENTS PROBLEM Recently, Mexico experienced large-scale trade deficits, depletion of foreign reserve holdings and a major currency devaluation in December 1994, followed by the decision to freely float the peso. These events also brought about a severe recession and higher unemployment in Mexico. Since the devaluation, however, the trade balance has improved. Investigate the Mexican experiences in detail and write a report on the subject. In the report, you may a) document the trend in Mexico’s key economic indicators, such as the balance of payments, the exchange rate, and foreign reserve holdings, during the period 1994.1 through 1995.12.; b) investigate the causes of Mexico’s balance of payments difficulties prior to the peso devaluation c) discuss what policy actions might have prevented or mitigated the balance of payments problem and the subsequent collapse of the peso and d) derive lessons from the Mexican experience that maybe useful for other developing countries. In your report, you may identify and address any other relevant issues concerning Mexico’s balance of payment problem. International Financial Statistics published by IMF provides basic macroeconomic data on Mexico.
Suggested Solution to Mexico’s Balance-of-Payments Problem To solve this case, it is useful to review Chapter 2, especially the section on the Mexican peso crisis. Despite the fact that Mexico had experienced continuous trade deficits until December 1994, the country’s currency was not allowed to depreciate for political reasons. The Mexican government did not want the peso devaluation before the Presidential election held in 1994. If the Mexican peso had been allowed to gradually depreciate against the major currencies, the peso crisis could have been prevented. The key lessons that can be derived from the peso crisis are First, Mexico depended too much on short-term foreign portfolio capital (which is easily reversible) for its economic growth. The country perhaps should have saved more domestically and depended more on long-term foreign capital. This can be a valuable lesson for many developing countries. Second, the lack of reliable economic information was another contributing factor to the peso crisis. The Salinas administration was reluctant to fully disclose the true state of the Mexican economy. If investors had known that Mexico was experiencing serious trade deficits and rapid depletion of foreign exchange reserves, the peso might have been gradually depreciating, rather than suddenly collapsed as it did. The transparent disclosure of economic data can help prevent the peso-type crisis. Third, it is important to safeguard the world financial system from the peso-type crisis. To this end, a multinational safety net needs to be in place to contain the peso- type crisis in the early stage.