B. Voice of America Human Rights Report (partial) 1-2
C. Thumbnail sketch of PRC 1-3
D. Regions of the PRC 1-4
E. Goals of PRC foreign policy 1-5
F. The 10 "points of view" of current PRC government 1-6
G. Different models of US foreign policy 1-7
H. Goals of current US foreign policy towards PRC 1-8
I. US concerns about situation in Asia 1-9
J. Background on China News Digest 1-10
1-1 / China News Digest
June 6, 1993
The CND InfoBase Project collects, among other China-related information, introductory material about China's history and the Chinese society. CND does not necessarily agree with the views expressed or implied in the contents of this InfoBase package.
Source: The CIA Factbook Forwarded by: Deming
Total area: 9,596,960 km2 Land area: 9,326,410 km2 Comparative area: slightly larger than the US
Land boundaries: 22,143.34 km; Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
Coastline: 14,500 km Maritime claims: Continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Disputes: boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve disputed sections of the boundary with Russia; boundary with Tajikistan under dispute: a short section of the boundary with North Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto, as does Taiwan, (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai)
Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 31%; forest and woodland 14%; other 45%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment: frequent typhoons (about five times per year along southern and eastern coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; industrial pollution; water pollution; air pollution; desertification
Note: world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)
Population: 1,169,619,601 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992) Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 32 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 72 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality: noun - Chinese (singular and plural); adjective - Chinese Ethnic divisions: Han Chinese 93.3%; Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 6.7%
Religions: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic; most important elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; Muslim 2-3%, Christian 1% (est.)
Languages: Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or Mandarin (based on the Beijing dialect); also Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and minority languages (see ethnic divisions)
Literacy: 73% (male 84%, female 62%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force: 567,400,000; agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce 25%, construction and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990 est.) Organized labor: All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) follows the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party; membership over 80 million or about 65% of the urban work force (1985)
Long-form name: People's Republic of China; abbreviated PRC Type: Communist Party - led state Capital: Beijing Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing Shi**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai Shi**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin Shi**, Xinjiang*, Xizang*, Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China considers Taiwan its 23rd province
Independence: unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC, Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912, People's Republic established 1 October 1949
Constitution: most recent promulgated 4 December 1982 Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)
Executive branch: president, vice president, premier, five vice premiers, State Council Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui) Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court Leaders: Chief of State: President YANG Shangkun (since 8 April 1988); Vice President WANG Zhen (since 8 April 1988) Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto): DENG Xiaoping (since mid-1977) Head of Government: Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since 9 April 1988); Vice Premier YAO Yilin (since 2 July 1979); Vice Premier TIAN Jiyun (since 20 June 1983); Vice Premier WU Xueqian (since 12 April 1988); Vice Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders: - Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee (since 24 June 1989); also, eight registered small parties controlled by CCP Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: National People's Congress: last held March 1988 (next to be held March 1993); results - CCP is the only party but there are also independents; seats - (2,976 total) CCP and independents 2,976 (indirectly elected at county or xian level) President: last held 8 April 1988 (next to be held March 1993); results - YANG Shangkun was nominally elected by the Seventh National People's Congress
Communists: 49,000,000 party members (1990 est.) Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and government organization, that vary by issue Member of: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UN Security Council, UNTSO, UN Trusteeship Council, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ZHU Qizhen; Chancery at 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2500 through 2502; there are Chinese Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
US: Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY; Embassy at Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, Beijing (mailing address is 100600, PSC 461, Box 50, Beijing or FPO AP 96521-0002); telephone  (1) 532-3831; FAX  (1) 532-3178; there are US Consulates General in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang
Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner
Overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more productive and flexible economy with market elements, but still within the framework of monolithic Communist control. To this end the authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the foreign economic sector to increased trade and joint ventures. The most gratifying result has been a strong spurt in production, particularly in agriculture in the early 1980s. Industry also has posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and modern production methods have helped spur production of both domestic and export goods. Aggregate output has more than doubled since 1978. On the darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals and thereby lessening the credibility of the reform process. In 1991 output rose substantially, particularly in the favored coastal areas. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the nation's long-term economic viability.
GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 6% (1991) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1991) Unemployment rate: 4.0% in urban areas (1991) Budget: deficit $9.5 billion (1990) Exports: $71.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991) commodities: textiles, garments, telecommunications and recording equipment, petroleum, minerals partners: Hong Kong, Japan, US, USSR, Singapore (1990) Imports: $63.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991) commodities: specialized industrial machinery, chemicals, manufactured goods, steel, textile yarn, fertilizer partners: Hong Kong, Japan, US, Germany, Taiwan (1990) External debt: $51 billion (1990 est.) Industrial production: growth rate 14.0% (1991); accounts for 45% of GNP Electricity: 138,000,000 kW capacity (1990); 670,000 million kWh produced (1991), 582 kWh per capita (1991) Industries: iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, consumer durables, food processing
Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers of rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of livestock products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 8 million metric tons in 1986 Illicit drugs: transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle Economic aid: donor - to less developed countries (1970-89) $7.0 billion; US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $13.5 billion Currency: yuan (plural - yuan); 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao Exchange rates: yuan (Y) per US$1 - 5.4481 (January 1992), 5.3234 (1991), 4.7832 (1990), 3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988), 3.7221 (1987) Fiscal year: calendar year
Railroads: total about 54,000 km common carrier lines; 53,400 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 600 km 1.000-meter gauge; of these 11,200 km are double track standard-gauge lines; 6,900 km electrified (1990); 10,000 km dedicated industrial lines (gauges range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters)
Highways: about 1,029,000 km (1990) all types roads; 170,000 km (est.) paved roads, 648,000 km (est.) gravel/improved earth roads, 211,000 km (est.) unimproved earth roads and tracks
Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable Pipelines: crude oil 9,700 km (1990); petroleum products 1,100 km; natural gas 6,200 km
Merchant marine: 1,454 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,887,312 GRT/20,916,127 DWT; includes 25 passenger, 42 short-sea passenger, 18 passenger-cargo, 6 cargo/training, 801 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 77 container, 19 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction/barge carrier, 177 petroleum tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 254 bulk, 3 liquefied gas, 1 vehicle carrier, 9 combination bulk, 1 barge carrier; note - China beneficially owns an additional 194 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 7,077,089 DWT that operate under Panamanian, British, Hong Kong, Maltese, Liberian, Vanuatu, Cyprus, and Saint Vincent registry
Civil air: 284 major transport aircraft (1988 est.)
Airports: 330 total, 330 usable; 260 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 10 with runways over 3,500 m; 90 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 200 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed internal system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships; 11,000,000 telephones (December 1989); broadcast stations - 274 AM, unknown FM, 202 (2,050 repeaters) TV; more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million TVs; satellite earth stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, and 55 domestic
China Defense Forces
Branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), PLA Navy (including Marines), PLA Air Force, People's Armed Police Manpower availability: males 15-49, 339,554,712; 188,995,620 fit for military service; 11,691,967 reach military age (18) annually Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $12-15 billion, NA of GNP (1991 est.)
1-2 / >From: ILC@china.uc.edu (I Love China) Newsgroups: soc.culture.china Subject: Human Rights Report '94 Date: 16 Apr 1994 05:54:42 GMT Organization: University of Cincinnati Lines: 1518 Sender: email@example.com (Weiqing Huang) Distribution: world Message-ID: <firstname.lastname@example.org> NNTP-Posting-Host: quest.ece.uc.edu Status: R
Human Rights Report of 1994, (Voice of America)
The People's Republic of China (PRC) remains a one-party state ruled by the Chinese Communist Party through a 21-member Polit- buro and a small circle of officially retired but still powerful senior leaders. Almost all top civilian, police, and military positions at the national and regional levels are held by party members. Despite official adherence to Marxism-Leninism, in re- cent years economic decisionmaking has become less ideological, more decentralized, and increasingly market oriented. Fundamen- tal human rights provided for in the Constitution are frequently ignored in practice, and challenges to the Communist Party's pol- itical authority are often dealt with harshly and arbitrarily.
Security forces, comprised of a nationwide network which includes the People's Liberation Army, the Ministry of State Security, the Ministry of Public Security, the People's Armed Police, and the state judicial, procuratorial, and penal systems, are poorly mon- itored due to the absence of adequate legal safeguards or ade- quate enforcement of existing safeguards for those detained, ac- cused, or imprisoned. They are responsible for widespread and well-documented human rights abuses, including torture, forced confessions, and arbitrary detentions.
A decade of rapid economic growth, spurred by market incentives and foreign investment, has reduced party and government control over the economy and permitted ever larger numbers of Chinese to have more control over their lives and livelihood. Despite sig- nificant income disparities between coastal regions and the inte- rior, there is now a growing "middle class" in the cities and rural areas as well as a sharp decline in the number of Chinese at the subsistence level. These economic changes have led to a de facto end to the role of ideology in the economy and an in- crease in cultural diversity. An example of this is the media, which remains tightly controlled with regard to political ques- tions, although it now is free to report on a wider variety of other issues.
The Government took some positive steps on human rights issues during 1993. It released some prominent political prisoners ear- ly or on medical parole; many had served long terms in prison. The Government still has not provided a full or public accounting of the thousands of persons detained during the suppression of the 1989 democracy movement, when millions of students, workers, and intellectuals defied the Government and participated in pub- lic demonstrations. Most of these detainees appear to have been released, however, some after serving periods of detention without charges having been brought and some after having com- pleted their prison sentences. The Government says it has released the remaining imprisoned or detained Vatican loyalists among the Catholic clergy. Although it continues to restrict the movements and activities of some elderly priests and bishops, the Government announced in November that two priests, whose move- ments had been restricted, were free to return to their homes. The authorities also allowed a number of prominent political dis- sidents to leave China in 1993. In November the Government an- nounced it would give positive consideration to a request from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to visit Chi- na.
Nevertheless, the Government's overall human rights record in 1993 fell far short of internationally accepted norms as it con- tinued to repress domestic critics and failed to control abuses by its own security forces. The Government detained, sentenced to prison, or sent to labor camps, and in a few cases expelled from the country, persons who sought to exercise their rights of freedom of assembly and speech. The number of persons in Chinese penal institutions considered political prisoners by internation- al standards is impossible to estimate accurately. In 1993 hun- dreds, perhaps thousands, of political prisoners remained under detention or in prison. Physical abuse, including torture by police and prison officials persisted, especially in politically restive regions with minority populations like Tibet. Criminal defendants continue to be denied legal safeguards such as due process or adequate defense. In many localities, government au- thorities continued to harass and occasionally detain Christians who practiced their religion outside the officially sponsored re- ligious organizations.
China is a great, continental economy, essentially self-sufficient. Foreign trade occupies a relatively small portion of the GNP. The country is rich in raw materials and has a complete, well-rounded industrial establishment that can produce its own equipment for self-sustaining growth. The present leadership believes that the country can modernize more quickly by using foreign trade, investment, and technology. But this does not mean that such foreign connections are seen as essential at all costs. On the contrary, China has shown in the past that economics alone cannot constrain it from breaking with foreign suppliers of capital and technology -- first with the split with the Soviet Union in 1960 and again during the autarkic interlude of the Cultural Revolution. A highly self-reliant development policy has always been and continues to be a real possibility for China. And a strong tradition of anti-foreign feeling, sometimes verging on xenophobia, continues to make self-reliance an attractive possibility to some.
1-4 / Gerrit W. Gong CSIS Asian Studies Program 1994 Winter The Washington Quarterly Vol. 17, No. 1; Pg. 26 HEADLINE: China's Fourth Revolution Gerrit W. Gong //MDS-VT96
Second, because there is (increasingly) no single "China," to speak of China's opening is to generalize about different openings of different parts of China to different parts of the outside world." Coastal China is opening to the global economy, especially to Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan, as well as to China's interior; Xinjiang and the Northwest are opening to panCentral Asian influences; Yunnan and the Southwest are opening to Southeast Asia, including Thailand and Myanmar.
1-5 / Gerrit W. Gong CSIS Asian Studies Program 1994 Winter The Washington Quarterly Vol. 17, No. 1; Pg. 26 HEADLINE: China's Fourth Revolution Gerrit W. Gong //MDS-VT96
Given projected failure of domestic supply to meet overall oil demand, on-going modernization needs and marketization interests in the PLA, issues of sovereign pride and privilege, and a sophisticated negotiating approach that seeks to maximize every possible asset, Beijing can be expected to take a firm posture regarding its various international interests. These include territorial claims (whether the Spratly Islands or various disputed borders); transfers or sales of weapons or weapons technology; and an expansive international diplomacy (including current ties in East Asia, expanding ties in the Middle East with countries as diverse as Iran and Israel, as well as developing ties in Europe, Latin America, and Africa).
1-6 / Nan Shi-yin, Hong Kong monthly 'Kuang Chiao Ching', January 11, 1995, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, SECTION: Part 3 Asia - Pacific; CHINA; internal affairs; FE/2198/G, HEADLINE: policy; Hong Kong journal outlines Beijing's policy priorities; ACS VT96
In Bogor and Jakarta, Indonesia [when attending the APEC summit], and in other Southeast Asian countries, Jiang Zemin successively put forward 10 points of view which were of great interest to many. These 10 points of view were:
1. China's top hierarchy has completed its transition from the second generation.
2. "Economic development is the most important of all matters."
4. "In the face of diversity, it is impractical to seek uniformity. Only by incorporating things of diverse nature and learning from one another can we promote common development and common progress."
5. The five principles for economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region are: Mutual respect and reaching unanimity through consultation; proceeding in an orderly and systematic way in achieving steady development; opening the doors to one another and refraining from forming exclusive blocs; extensive cooperation based on mutual interests and mutual benefit; and narrowing the gaps
6. The five principles for [Chinese] relations with the United States are: Focus on the global situation and the 21st century; show mutual respect; shake off the influence of differences in system; promote the all-round development of economic cooperation; and strengthen international cooperation and high-level visits.
7. On relations with Southeast Asia, " China's commitment to developing good-neighbourly and friendly cooperation with its neighbouring countries is not a measure of contingency, but something which conforms to the needs of the time. It is an inevitable choice made with the long-term interests of the Chinese people and the people of all countries in this region in mind."
8. The Taiwan question is one which "has a bearing on China's sovereignty, territorial integrity and the great cause of the reunification of China. " "Any change on this question has a direct bearing on the feelings of the 1.2 billion Chinese people."
9. On relations with Vietnam, stress will be laid on friendship and the overall situation of peace and stability and efforts will be made to enlarge consensus, seek common ground while reserving differences
10. Publicize a basic foreign policy which stresses good-neighbourliness and friendship in order to offset the undesirable influence of "the theory of the China threat" .
1-7 / RANDAL ASHLEY, COX NEWS SERVICE, The State Journal-Register (Springfield, IL), March 21, 1995, Pg. 4; HEADLINE: U.S. foreign policy: What direction should it take? ACS VT96
FIRST, THERE'S the Woodrow Wilson crowd, reflecting "a desire to see other countries adopt a form of democratic governance and civil society that our own experience suggests is best for both the individual and the community. "
Then there's the economic approach, "a sense that other traditional interests (especially those derived from strategic concerns) have receded and that we have more important economic concerns.
Then, realism, emphasizing "balance-of-power considerations and matters of national interest."
Then, humanitarianism, described as seeing "the world less in terms of nation-states per se than as peoples."
THEN, MINIMALISM, "the favored view of those who see only modest U.S. interests in the world . . . and who take a narrow view of U.S. responsibility and obligation to meet other challenges."
DIFFERENT MEANS TO OBTAIN ENDS:
Unilateralism is a fancy word for America going it alone -- being "uncomfortable with the compromises necessary for the smooth functioning of alliances and opposed to any transfer of sovereign authority to international organizations."
NEO-INTERNATIONALISM is identified with Clinton administration policy. It "reflects a sense that the potential for international cooperation is great and that the United States can and should work with and through formal alliances and international organizations in almost all instances."
1-8 / Dr. Chen Yu-chun, Dir. Graduate School of American Studies, Chinese Culture Univ., May/June, 1994; WORLD OUTLOOK, "A Taipei scholar's view of Clinton Administration's policy toward China," p. 20; CJJ VT96
In 1980's, American policy toward China was laced with the so-called idealistic realism or neo-realism. They would support the reform and opening in mainland China, rather than see a return to the line of the Mao Tse-tung era. As long as China continues to reform and open up it will be in American national interest, so they determined. American interest in Asia encompasses the following: 1) The expectation that, instead of becoming a revolutionary regime, Communist China should remain stable so as to function as a stabilizing and balancing factor in the whole if Asia; 2) A state of peace should reign in Asia, the United States would not want to see any war in that part of the world.
1-9 / Andrew Mack and Pauline Kerr, The Washington Quarterly, 1995 Winter; Pg. 123, HEADLINE: The Evolving Security Discourse in the Asia-Pacific; ACS VT96
Notwithstanding the currently benign security environment, there are a number of reasons for concern:
* unresolved territorial and sovereignty conflicts, most obviously China and Taiwan and the two Koreas, but also many lesser disputes of which that over the Spratly Islands is simply the most visible;
* uncertainty about the long-term commitment of the United States to the region -- and concern that if there is a major reduction in U.S. presence, aspiring regional hegemons will seek to fill the vacuum. China and Japan are the states most frequently mentioned in this context;
* rapid, but uneven, rates of economic growth throughout the region that risk generating political instabilities that could spill over into the security realm;
* lack of any "habit of dialogue" in Northeast Asia to help mediate the hostilities between North and South Korea and the mutual suspicions that still exist between Japan and South Korea, Japan and Russia, and, to a lesser degree, Japan and China.
1-10 / GRANT PECK, Associated Press, 4-23-95, SAN JOSE MERCURY NEWS, Internet a Weapon in asia's Battles for Freedom; ACS VT96
``The Chinese and others want Internet because it is such a valuable business tool,'' Strider said. ``But if they open up to business, they cannot keep out news.'' The news is ready and waiting. During the Tiananmen Square democracy movement in 1989, overseas Chinese students and scholars established what is now possibly the world's largest electronic mailing list, China News Digest. Fifty volunteers turn out 14 on-line publications under its aegis, which last year were sent out to more than 34,000 e-mail addresses in 43 countries. They provide news of China, as well as academic, social and practical information for overseas Chinese.'