B ethiopia's initiation of a Christianity-based alliance with Portugal

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  1. Initial Portuguese contact with West Africa was spurred in part by (A) the Portuguese desire to halt the expansion of the Ottoman Empire

(B) Ethiopia's initiation of a Christianity-based alliance with Portugal

(C) the Portuguese search for a sea route to India

(D) Portugal's quest for new sources of tea and sugar to trade with England

(E) the Portuguese need to block Spain from controlling all trans­Atlantic trade routes

  1. Early Portuguese activities in exploring Africa's Atlantic coast included all ofthe following EXCEPT

(A) spreading Christianity

(B) establishing sugar plantations \ (C) purchasing slaves

(D) acquiring gold

(E) eradicating Islam

  1. Which of the following was the LEAST common source of African slaves taken to the Americas or the Islamic world?

(A) kidnap victims

(B) convicted criminals

(C) children sold by their parents (D) pri~oners of war

(E) refugees from drought and famine

  1. What was the impact of the rivalry among European powers in the West African trade in the period 1450-1750? .

(A) The long-established.trade networks of West Africa were destroyed.

(B) The price demanded for African slaves rose sharply.

(C) Fearing European warfare in their territory, African leaders forged a military alliance.

(D) European rulers quickly laid claim to colonies in Africa to end conflicts with their rivals.

(E) African leaders were able to institute a ban on undesired imports of rum and tobacco from the Americas.

  1. Angola is an example of

(A) a terr,itory that banned the slave trade

(B) an African territorial conquest of the Ottoman Empire (C) a trading "castle" of the Dutch East India Company (D) an early Europ'ean colony in Africa

(E) a successor kingdom to Mali in the western Sudan

  1. What was one significant impact of environmental crises such as droughts in sub-Saharan Africa during this period?

(A) European attempts at sugar cultivation failed, thus fueling colonization of the Americas.

(B) African leaders became dependent on European agricultural imports, which drove the price of slaves downward.

(C) New crops brought to Africa from the Americas such as corn

and potatoes failed to thrive. ,

(D) Many of those who fled stricken areas were given refuge by neighboring leaders, then forced into resettlement or sold into the slave trade.

(E) The Sahara Desert began expanding, which hampered the trans-Saharan trade and weakened links between Africa and the Islamic world.

  1. Except for Morocco, North Africa was under the control of which power by the sixteenth century?

(A) Egypt

(B) the Ottoman Empire (C) Portugal

(D) Ethiopia

(E) The Netherlands

  1. The Moroccan defeat of the Songhai Empire was attributable to (A) the Songhai Empire's internal weakness

(B) Morocco's powerful alliance with the Ottoman Empire

(C) the Songhai military's inability to fight in the Sahara Desert (D) the Songhai Empire's depopulation as a consequence of the

European slave trade

(E) the spread of new military technologies to the Moroccan kingdom

  1. How did the European slave trade with Africa compare with the African slave trade with the Islamic world?·

(A) More women than men were taken as slaves by the Europeans, to repopulate the Americas, than were taken to the Islamic world.

(B) The European slave trade was driven more by religious motivation, as European Christians planned to convert enslaved Africans to Christianity.

(C) The Islamic world generally placed African slaves in less grueling types of labor.

(D) As the Islamic world's contact with Africa predated Europe's by several centuries, Muslim traders wound up taking far greater numbers of African slaves than European traders took. (E) A much higher percentage of African slaves died on the harsh journey across the Sahara Desert than crossing the Atlantic by ship.

  1. How did the Columbian Exchange affect Africa during this period? (A) New World crops such as maize, potatoes, and cassava . brought a new source offqod to famine-stricken areas of I Africa.

(B) The demographi~sof Africa included significant numbers of Europeans and Americans by the end of the period.

(C) Large numbers of Africans succumbed to New World diseases to which they had never before been exposed.

(D) Livestock from the Americas such as cattle and horses ,transformed African pastoral practices.

(E) New World crops and. agricultural practices required male , labor and thus displaced the traditional female farmers of Central Africa.

  1. African slavery in the Am,ericas increased dramatically when (A) gold was discovered in Peru

(B) silver was discovered in Peru and Mexico

(C) sugar plantations were expanded in the West Indies (D) drought caused the price of African slaves to drop

(E) cassava was introduced to Africa, thus significantly increasing the population

  1. Factors that fueled the growing dependence of African slaves included all of the following EXCEPT

(A) mortality rates in the tropics due to diseases-both native and imported

(B) Africans were relatively cheaper to purchase than Europeans or Asians

(C) African slaves would serve their masters longer than European indentured servants

(D) Europeans were not as attracted to the West Indies as they were to North America

(E) racial prejudice favored the use of Africans over other ethnic

groups '

  1. The term Atlantic System refers to (A) the triangular trade network (B) the trading of slaves for sugar (C) mercantilism

(D) the totality of the European-dominated trade in the Atlantic (E) the Middle Passage

  1. In exchange for slaves, African merchants

(A) were very discriminating in what they purchased and would often refuse European merchandise that did not meet their needs

(B) accepted pretty much anything because they were so happy to have an opportunity to trade

(C) accepted only rum or guns because these were items that Could not be produced in Africa

(D) accepted only hard currency

(E) accepted only specialty textiles with unique patterns

  1. African kingdoms benefited from the slave trade by

(A) becoming very wealthy by collecting substantial customs duties . (B) annexing other kingdoms with the profits from the slave trade (C) increasing their relative strength through the acquisitio"n of

. firearms .

(D) both A and B (E) A, B, and C

Free-Response Questions

  1. The period 1450-1750 witnessed important transformations in Africa. Trace significant changes and continuities in TWO of the following areas.




  1. Describe the important political and economic similarities and differences between North Africa and West Africa between 1450 and 1750.



1. ANSWER: A. While competition with Spain, coupled with the desire for a sea route to India, would later playa role in Portugal's continuing exploration of the West African coast, it was Henry the Navigator's desire to spread Christianity. and launch crusades against the Ottomans that led to the earliest Portuguese voyages to Africa (The Earth and Its Peoples, 4th ed., p. 419/5th ed., p. 434).

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