(B) an African territorial conquest of the Ottoman Empire (C) a trading "castle" of the Dutch East India Company (D) an early Europ'ean colony in Africa
(E) a successor kingdom to Mali in the western Sudan
What was one significant impact of environmental crises such as droughts in sub-Saharan Africa during this period?
(A) European attempts at sugar cultivation failed, thus fueling colonization of the Americas.
(B) African leaders became dependent on European agricultural imports, which drove the price of slaves downward.
(C) New crops brought to Africa from the Americas such as corn
and potatoes failed to thrive. ,
(D) Many of those who fled stricken areas were given refuge by neighboring leaders, then forced into resettlement or sold into the slave trade.
(E) The Sahara Desert began expanding, which hampered the trans-Saharan trade and weakened links between Africa and the Islamic world.
Except for Morocco, North Africa was under the control of which power by the sixteenth century?
(B) the Ottoman Empire (C) Portugal
(E) The Netherlands
The Moroccan defeat of the Songhai Empire was attributable to (A) the Songhai Empire's internal weakness
(B) Morocco's powerful alliance with the Ottoman Empire
(C) the Songhai military's inability to fight in the Sahara Desert (D) the Songhai Empire's depopulation as a consequence of the
European slave trade
(E) the spread of new military technologies to the Moroccan kingdom
How did the European slave trade with Africa compare with the African slave trade with the Islamic world?·
(A) More women than men were taken as slaves by the Europeans, to repopulate the Americas, than were taken to the Islamic world.
(B) The European slave trade was driven more by religious motivation, as European Christians planned to convert enslaved Africans to Christianity.
(C) The Islamic world generally placed African slaves in less grueling types of labor.
(D) As the Islamic world's contact with Africa predated Europe's by several centuries, Muslim traders wound up taking far greater numbers of African slaves than European traders took. (E) A much higher percentage of African slaves died on the harsh journey across the Sahara Desert than crossing the Atlantic by ship.
How did the Columbian Exchange affect Africa during this period? (A) New World crops such as maize, potatoes, and cassava . brought a new source offqod to famine-stricken areas of I Africa.
(B) The demographi~sof Africa included significant numbers of Europeans and Americans by the end of the period.
(C) Large numbers of Africans succumbed to New World diseases to which they had never before been exposed.
(A) were very discriminating in what they purchased and would often refuse European merchandise that did not meet their needs
(B) accepted pretty much anything because they were so happy to have an opportunity to trade
(C) accepted only rum or guns because these were items that Could not be produced in Africa
(D) accepted only hard currency
(E) accepted only specialty textiles with unique patterns
African kingdoms benefited from the slave trade by
(A) becoming very wealthy by collecting substantial customs duties . (B) annexing other kingdoms with the profits from the slave trade (C) increasing their relative strength through the acquisitio"n of
. firearms .
(D) both A and B (E) A, B, and C
The period 1450-1750 witnessed important transformations in Africa. Trace significant changes and continuities in TWO of the following areas.
Describe the important political and economic similarities and differences between North Africa and West Africa between 1450 and 1750.
1. ANSWER: A. While competition with Spain, coupled with the desire for a sea route to India, would later playa role in Portugal's continuing exploration of the West African coast, it was Henry the Navigator's desire to spread Christianity. and launch crusades against the Ottomans that led to the earliest Portuguese voyages to Africa (The Earth and Its Peoples, 4thed., p. 419/5thed., p. 434).