Bach Era – Austrian retaliatory administration in Hungary from 1849 to 1859, headed by Alexander Bach, Austiran Interior Minister. It actually began in July 1850, when Austrian General Julius Haynau’s rule of terror ended, which was established after the defeat of the War of Independence (1848-1849). The Austrian regime laid a heavy burden on Hungary’s population. It tried to stir up feelings of inequality and attempted to divide the people further by emphasizing class distinctions. In an effort to exercise control over and ‘Germanize’ Hungarian literary life, the regime appointed several Austrian teaching staff to Hungarian universities and scientific institutions. – B: 0942, 1078, T: 7668.→Haynau, Baron Julius, Freiherr von; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849.
Bácska (now Bačka, Serbia) – is the southern part of the Danube-Tisza interfluve on the Great Hungarian Plain. This southern part of Hungary (Southland, Délvidék-Vojvodina) was part of the Historic Kingdom of Hungary until 1920. Now it is the western part of Voivodina, making up the northern section of Serbia. Human settlements can be found here from the Stone Age. Proto-Hungarians (Late-Avars) started to settle the area around 677 AD. After 1000 AD, two counties were formed here: Bács in the South, and Bodrog in the North, both as administrative regions of the newly formed Hungarian Kingdom. The kings of the Árpád House (1000-1301) established 8 abbeys and monasteries in this region. The Mongol invasion of 1241-1242 extensively devastated the area. During the reign of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490) the region was again well populated by Hungarians and included 12 castles, 28 towns and 529 villages. During the 15th century, Slavs from the Balkans started to move in, escaping from the expanding Turkish Empire in the Balkans. The Orthodox Patriarch Arzen Csernojevic led their largest group. After the battle of Mohács in 1526, and during the Turkish occupation (1541-1697), the Hungarian population greatly declined. The greatest influx of Serbs occurred in 1691, after their rebellion against the Turks was crushed. Following the defeat of the Turks, this region was designated as the southern defense perimeter of the Habsburg Empire. By 1733 this designation had lost its significance and the region started to be resettled by Hungarians. Between 1763 and 1786 the Habsburg Dynasty initiated and organized a settlement of Swabian farmers from western Germany. These Germanic settlers were supported with reduced taxation by the Austrian authorities. In addition, Slavic people from the present Slovakia, and French farmers from Alsace Lorraine settled in Bácska at the end of the 18th century. In 1802 Bács and Bodrog counties were combined into one administrative unit as County Bács-Bodrog. After the Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty in 1920, almost the whole area was ceded to Yugoslavia. From 1920 to 1940 a large number of Serbs were relocated here from the central Balkan regions. The Soviet army occupied this area in late 1944. Tito’s partisans followed the Soviet forces. They massacred large portions of the non-Slavic population, among them some 40-50,000 ethnic Hungarians, including women and children. Persecution of Hungarians resumed during and after the civil war in the 1990s. In the Tito era the number of Hunngarians in this region was 500,000, this declined to 270.000 during the civil war in Yugoslavia in the last decade of the old millennium. – B: 1031, 1134, T: 7656.→Late Avars; Trianon Peace Treaty; Atrocities Against Hungarians; Southern Hungary.