Bulla, Elma (Selmecbánya, now Banská Stiavnica, Slovakia, 26 August 1913 - Budapest, 14 May 1980) – Actress. She was educated in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) and studied Ballet. In her early years she toured Europe as a dancing child prodigy. Film producer Max Reinhardt recognized her acting talent. At the age of 13 she played Puck in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer-Night’s Dream (Szentiványéji álom). She acted in Berlin (1928-1934); thereafter, she returned to Hungary and joined the Inner-city Theater (Belvárosi Színház) (1934-1938). From 1938 to 1945, and from 1952 till her death she was a member of the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház), Budapest. Her fragile figure and her voice predestined her to intellectually suffering roles of women and mothers. Her breakthrough came in 1936 with her role in Shaw’s St. Joan. She acted in many plays, including Bettina in G. Hauptmann’s Before Dawn (Naplemente előtt); Mrs Alving in H. Ibsen’s Ghosts (Kisértetek); Kay in B. Priestly’s Time and the Conways (Conway család), andGiza in Örkény’s Cat’s Play (Macskajáték). Her film-roles include Temptation (Kísértés) (1941); Festive Dinner (Ünnepi vacsora) (1956); Sleepless Years (Álmatlan évek) (1959) and Death of the Doctor (Az orvos halála). She was a recipient of the Kossuth Prize (1956), the titles of Merited Artist (1954), and Outstanding Artist (1960). – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7103.
Bulla Oratiorum – A Bull of Prayers, a papal edict, proclaimed on 29 June 1456 by Pope Callixtus III to initiate a spiritual crusade against the Turks, who were menacing Europe. On this occasion he celebrated a Mass in Rome’s St Peter’s Basilica, the Cardinal of Venice reading the document to the public with the intent of organizing a spiritual crusade against the Ottoman Empire. As it was customary to ring the bells at the Angelus, he ordered that “In every Church of all cities, territories and settlements, between the time of Nona and Vespers, before Vespers all the great sounding bells should ring in unison, three times a day, in order that their sound be carried afar”. It was the first time that all the bells of Rome were sounded at the same time announcing the Turkish threat. After the Bull’s proclamation it became customary in all Christian realms to ring the church bells at noon. While the Bulla Oratiorum was being proclaimed in Hungary, the uncertain fate of the battle of Nándorfehérvár (now Belgrade, Serbia) was favorably settled. The heroic resistance of the Hungarian nation in defence of Europe is a historic reality, recognized most splendidly by Pope Callixtus when he gave the title “Supreme Commander of Christianity” to János (John) Hunyadi, Governor of Hungary, hero of the battle, even intending to award him a special victor’s crown, a plan that was prevented by the untimely death of Hunyadi in 1456. The sounding of the bells was intended to announce a spiritual crusade that, after the victory, turned into a sign of thanksgiving throughout Christendom. – B: 1178, T: 3233.→Bells Toll at Noon; Hunyadi, János.