Bükk National Park – No less than 90% of this National Park (located in northeast Hungary bordered by Slovakia on the north, covering over 43,200 hectares, was established in 1976) is covered by forest. The limestone surface making up the Bükk Hills is varied and hides between 500-600 caves in its depths. The total length of these caves extends to some 35 km. Bükk karst water requires neither filtration nor chlorination, for this reason it is a vital water supply for towns and villages in the region. Crags and rocky cliffs, particularly attractive formations in the National Park, afford excellent vantage points from where to view the landscape near and far. One particularly famous site is the stepped waterfall (with a fall of 17 metres) on the Szalajka stream. The forests are mostly beech (Fagus sylvatica). One area is the renowned Ancient Forest, where there has been no deforestation for a century now. Fossilised flora dating back to the Ice Age has also been found; many of the caves have yielded up rich collections of Stone Age tools. Many local museums display natural and historical artifacts of the area. It has well-developed tourist facilities dominated by the Palota Hotel of Lillafüred. Its forest railway system is widely used by tourists. – B: 1051, 1546, T: 1546, 7656.
Bukovina – A historical land area east of the Carpathian Mountains towards the River Dniester in the Ukraine and Moldavia. In the Hungarian language the name means “beech forest” or “beech country”. During the Roman Empire it was part of the province of Dacia. In 375 the Huns occupied the land. In the 6th century Slavic Ruthenian pastoral tribes settled the region. The Mongol invasion in 1271 was begun against Hungary from Bukovina; but they were successfully rebuffed. The Hungarians also repulsed the next attempt from Bukovina by the voivode of Moldavia in 1330. During the reign of King Lajos I (Louis the Great, 1342-1382) the area was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The region had a turbulent history and involved numerous foreign occupations. It became part of the Habsburg Empire under Empress Maria Theresa after the division of Poland in 1774. At the conclusion of World War I, it became part of Romania. In the aftermath of World War II, its northern section became part of the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the USSR, that part of Bukovina passed into the possession of Ukraine, while the southern portion, including several Hungarian villages, became part of Romania. – B: 0942, 1138, T: 7656.→Huns; Lajos I, King; Mária Terézia, Empress and Queen; Bukovina, Hungarians of; Csángó.