Buda Castle, The ancient (Hungarian: Ősbudavár, Latin: Sicambria) – Sicambria, as mentioned in old historic sources and depicted in woodcuts, is the so-called ancient Castle of Buda, built originally by the Scythians is located in the Pilis Range, above Buda (northwest of Buda) in the area of the Pauline friars. The map of the region shows that the course of the Danube forms a heart-shaped triangle with the Danube Bend and the valley along the southwest foot of the Pilis Range. Once there must have been a small river in this valley, because the old sources talk about a Pilis Island. In the center of the heart-shaped area is one of the highest points of the Range: Dobogókő. The area also includes the town of Esztergom, the birthplace of the first king of Hungary, István I (St. Stephen, 997-1038); Dömös, where once King Béla I (1060-1063) lived; and Visegrád, where king Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490) spent some time. Researchers suspect that in the entrance of the Pilis Range, beside Budakalász, there stood the ancient Buda Castle, the seat of Attila, the king of the Huns. It later became the center of the Hungarian kings of the House of Árpád. And there is also Fehérvár, the great ancient town that existed up to the time of the Ottoman Turkish occupation. Of the many, who searched for the whereabouts of this town, most recently was Imre Lánszki, an agricultural engineer, who was certain, he found Sicambria, the ancient Buda Castle. The traces of Attila’s castle are preserved there, the one-time seat of Attila and Árpád. It was this castle in which, according to the report of Anonymus, Khagan Árpád, on his arrival in the Carpathian Basin, was much taken with its magnificence, and set up residence there. According to Anonymus, Attila was buried next to the ancient castle, at the source of a creek. Reputedly, Árpád’s grave was nearby. The Italian humanist historian Antonio Bonfini (ca. 1425-1502), who served the Hungarian royal court from 1484 to 1502, wrote in the late 15th century that king Matthias Corvinus, on his return journey from Visegrád to Buda, rested a few days in the Ancient Buda Castle. Professor of ecology, Imre (Emeric) Lánszki, considers that the latest available woodcut of the castle must have been prepared in 1685. Much later, on the military maps of Emperor-King Joseph II (1780-1790), there was nothing that would refer to the existence of the ancient castle. It is quite probable that subsequent to the expulsion of the Turks, after 1686, the Habsburg authorities had it pulled down. Once the find is proven as valid, more historic monuments could be unearthed on the site, showing the presence of the Magyars in the Carpathian Basin, the Scythian-Magyar historic continuity, and also the history of Hungary during the Árpád Dynasty era. – B: 1031, 1950, T: 7456.→Scythians; Attila, Árpád; István I, King; King Béla I; King Mátyás I; Anonymus; Bonfini, Antonio; Esztergom.