B bábi, Tibor

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Bucharest Peace Treaty – When World War I broke out in 1914, Romania stayed neutral, only entering the war on 19 August 1916 under the leadership of Romanian Prime Minister Ion Bratianu. Already at an earlier stage the Allies promised support for the fulfillment of a Romanian “national unity”, which would include the regions of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania (Erdély). The latter was part of Hungary for a thousand years, a part of historic Hungary, with considerable number of ethnic Hungarians, including Szeklers, as well as German Saxons. These two ethnic groups made up almost half of Transylvania’s population. The sudden offensive of Romanian forces did allow quick progress for them in Transylvania. However, the Romanian forces were repulsed by a Central Powers’ offensive, beginning in September 1916. By the end of the year all of Wallachia and much of Moldavia were occupied by German and Austrian forces, and Dobrudja by the Bulgarian forces; they even entered the Capital, Bucharest. Romania accepted defeat and this resulted in the Treaty of Bucharest on 7 May 1918 between Romania and the Central Powers, ratified by the Austrian Bundesrat, the German Reichstag, the Romanian Chamber and Senate; but after the armistice on 11 November 1918, Romanian forces again occupied Transylvania, and on 1 December 1918, by an ad hoc people’s assembly of Romanians at Gyulafehérvár (now Aiud, Romania), they unilaterally declared Transylvania (Erdély) as part of Romania. The Versailles-Trianon Peace-Dictate Treaty endorsed this on 4 June 1920. – B: 1212, 1020, T: 7103.→Bucharest, Secret Agreement of; Trianon Peace Treaty.

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