B bábi, Tibor

Bronze Age in the Carpathian Basin

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Bronze Age in the Carpathian Basin (1) Early Phase. From about 2000 BC, the appearance of migrating peoples formed a characteristic culture that persisted throughout the Bronze Age and became mixed with the indigenous Copper Age culture of Bodrogkeresztur. (2) Late Phase. By about 1000-800 BC the advantage of bronze over copper was increasingly exploited; trade in the scarce, but necessary tin was getting organized and led to the rapid diffusion of technological improvements and rapid change of tools, especially weapons. There are several sites of Late Bronze Age culture in the Carpathian Basin. The excavations at Füzesabony (18 km south of Eger) is the best known archeological site, represented by graves and settlements containing a hoard of urns, vessels of various sizes, swords, daggers, axes, ornamental needles, fibulas and sleeve protectors. Other well-known sites are Tószeg (south of Szolnok, near the Tisza River), Vatya puszta (part of Újhartyán, east of Budapest), both on the Great Hungarian Plain. Zagyvapálfalva (south of Salgótarján) is in the hills north of the Great Plain, while Ottomány (now Otomani, Romania) is in former County Bihar, Transylvania, in the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin. Excavations of the Megyaszó culture (20 km northeast of Miskolc on the northern edge of the Great Plain) show that the dead had been cremated, although at certain stages they had been buried. One of the graves shows a skeleton in a fetal position, lying on its side, arms held in front, legs pulled up. A large clay dish and smaller clay vessels containing provisions for the “journey” of the dead surround it. In the Carpathian Basin the migration of peoples started in the early phase of the Bronze Age (after 2000 BC), became mixed with the indigenous Middle Copper Age Bodrogkeresztúr Culture (3100-2700 BC), and gave life to a very characteristic culture persistently surviving there for centuries. B: 1138, 1068,1020, 1459, T: 7456.→Bodrogkeresztúr Culture.

Brózer, István (Stephen) (17th century) – Goldsmith from Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). Prince Rákóczi György (George) I. also used his expertise. In 1840 he made the golden goblet for the Farkas Street Reformed Church in Kolozsvár. The technique used for making the goblet shows that translucid encrusted enameling was known and used in contemporary Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). – B: 0942, 0883, T: 7673.→Rákóczi I. Prince György.

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