Bortnyik, Sándor (Alexander) (Marosvásárhely, now Târgu Mureş, Romania, 3 July 1893 - Budapest, 31 December 1976) – Painter, graphic artist. He moved to Budapest in 1910 and enrolled in the Free Art School in Budapest. He was one of the first followers of Lajos (Louis) Kassák, and his lino-engravings were published in the journal Today (MA) in 1918. In 1919, after the defeat of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, Bortnyik had to emigrate to Vienna. He broke with Kassák in 1922 and moved to Weimar, where he studied the principles of the Bauhaus. On his return to Budapest in 1924, he established a short-lived avantgarde theatre in 1925. Based upon Bauhaus principles, Bortnyik opened his own art school in Budapest in 1928. Victor Vasarely was among his students. He created a number of constructivist posters for advertisements in the twenties. Bortnyik became the leading figure of Hungarian advertisement art. His most famous works are the advertising images for the Modiano cigarette firm. During his long career he worked for many Hungarian and international clients. By the mid-1930s, his art had undergone a change in content and style: he painted pictures of workers, peasants and circus showmen in the post-Nagybánya style. From 1949 to 1956, he was Director of the Academy of Applied Arts, Budapest. His paintings include Portrait of Lajos Kassák (Kassák Lajos portréja) (1920); Lamp Lighter (Lámpagyújtó) (1921), and Geometrical Composition (Geometriai kompozíció) (1922). Bortnyik’s work was greatly influenced by Cubism, Expressionism and Constructivism, and he is well known for his commercial Posters. – B: 1031, 1124, 2096, T: 7103.→Kassák, Lajos; Vasarely, Victor.
Borza Land – Known as Barcaság in the 13th century. This is an area in southeast Transylvania with Brassó (now Braşov, Romania) as its capital. To repel the Cumanian (Kun) invasion, King András II (Endre, Andrew, 1205-1235) established a local colony of the Order of the Teutonic Knights to defend the nearby border of Hungary. They built five fortresses. However, once the knights defeated the Cumanians, they wanted the Barcaság to break away from Hungary and to make it the center of their own empire that reached to the Black Sea. They even obtained the consent of Pope Honorius. However, King András II drove out the knights in 1225, and the political independence of the Land of Borza came to an end. – B: 0942, T: 7676.→Barca Region; András II, King; Cumanians.