Bihar, Earth Fortification of – Fortification erected in the times of the Carpathian Settlement Period (895-896) in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) near the village of Bihar (now Biharea). The layout is a 150x50 m. oblong surrounded by a 15-20 m. wide earthen wall. In times of war it could accommodate 3000 people. Even in the 16th century it played a significant role in the war of Reigning Prince Rákóczi II for Hungary’s independence from Habsburg rule (1703-1711). Excavations have disclosed that the original foundation was made out of fluvial deposits, stones embedded in alluvial soil. This earthen fort (földvár) has been mentioned twice in the work of Anonymus, the 12th century Chronicler. The first time it was in connection with a raid by the Hungarians on the earthen fort under the captaincy of Marót, overlord of Bihar, at the rim of the settlement. The second time it was when Usu and Velec, captains of Árpád in alliance with the Szeklers besieged and almost took the fort. The siege lasted thirteen days and ended with a negotiated settlement. On 2 November 1897, in connection with the Millennium celebration of Hungary, a memorial column was erected; but the Romanians demolished it after the illegal takeover of Transylvania in 1919, prior to the Trianon Peace Dictate of 1920. – B: 1153, 1020, T: 3233.→Anonymus; Freedom Fight of Rákóczi II, Prince Ferenc; Millennium Celebration, 1896, Hungarian.