Bibó, István (Stephen) (Budapest 7 August 1911 - Budapest, 10 May 1979) – Political scientist, politician, writer. He obtained a Doctorate in Law in 1933, and in Political Science from the University of Szeged in 1934. He was a law court clerk between 1934 and 1938. He worked at the Ministry of Justice as reporter for 10 years (1935-1945). He was connected to the University of Szeged from 1940. The Arrow Cross Party (Nyilas Keresztes Párt) arrested him in the fall of 1944, later they released him but he was forced to hide. He was Departmental Head of the Ministry of Interior of the Provisional Government in Debrecen from February 1945. He was the leading politician of the Smallholders’ Party between 1945 and 1949, appointed professor at the University of Szeged from 1946, Director of the East European Institute of Sciences (1947-1949), librarian; and researcher at the University Library in Budapest from 1951. He was Minister of State in the Cabinet of Imre Nagy in November 1956. On 4 November 1956, when the Soviet Army crushed the Revolution, on behalf of the Government he released a communiqué that called on the Hungarian people for passive resistance. He then worked out a compromise solution for the “Hungarian Question”, how the Hungarian problem might be solved. In 1957 he summarized and published in Vienna the lessons to be learned from the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. In May 1957 he was arrested, prosecuted, and sentenced for life on account of his political activities; but was freed by an amnesty in 1963. He was employed as a librarian at the Institute of Statistics’ Library until his retirement in 1971. He is regarded as one of the most influential Hungarian political writers of the second half of the 20th century. His writings include The Question of Sanctions in International Law (A szankciók kérdése a nemzetközi jogban) (1934); Pressure, Law, Freedom (Kényszer, jog, szabadság) (1935); The Crisis of Hungarian Democracy (A magyar demokrácia válsága) (1945); The Misery of the Small East-European States (A kelet-európai kis államok nyomorúsága) (1946); The Jewish Question in Hungary after 1944 (A zsidó kérdés Magyarországon 1944 után) (1948), and The Third Way. Studies in Politics and History (Harmadik út. Politikai és történeti tanulmányok) (1960, London). His ideas have a renewal and influential effect in post 1990 Hungary. A college and a high school bear his name. – B: 0894, 1257, T: 7103.→Nagy, Imre; Freedom Fight of 1956.