Bethlen, Count István (Stephen) (Gernyeszeg now Gornesti, Romania, 8 October 1874 - Moscow, Soviet Union, 5 October 1956) – Politician. He received diplomas from the Law School of University of Budapest and from the Academy of Agriculture, Magyaróvár. From 1901 he was a Member of Parliament representing the liberal, independent and conservative parties in succession. He was appointed Royal Privy Councilor. On his initiative the National Unity Party was established in February 1919. During the reign of the Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic he lived in Vienna and represented the Government of Szeged. He was a member of the Peace Delegation at Trianon-Versailles in 1920. He was appointed Prime Minister on 14 April 1920. After the second failed coup d’ état of King Károly IV (Charles), he initiated the dethronement of the House of Habsburg in the parliament. Together with his followers he joined the independent Smallholders’ Party of István (Stephen) Nagyatádi Szabó in 1922. He consolidated the economy of the country with the help of loans from the League of Nations and by higher taxation. In 1927 he signed a friendship agreement with Italy. He resigned on 24 August 1931, but remained an influential politician. Regent Miklós (Nicholas) Horthy appointed him a lifetime member of the Upper House of Parliament in 1939. In 1944-1945 he was one of the leaders with political leanings toward the Anglo-Saxon powers. In the fall of 1944 he was kept under house arrest by the Soviet Army and was soon deported to the Soviet Union, where he died in a prison hospital. His main legacy was the successful rebuilding of the economy of mutilated Hungary after the ravages of World War I, and the subsequent Versailles-Trianon Dictated Peace Treaty (1920). – B: 0883, 1031, 1105, T: 7103.→Council (Soviet) Republic in Hungary; Károly IV, Emperor and King; Nagyatádi Szabó, István; Horthy, Miklós.