B bábi, Tibor

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Bem, József (Józef Zachariasz) (Bem apó) (Burek now Tarnów, Poland, 14 March 1794 - Aleppó, 10 December 1850) – Polish army officer, Hungarian general. He was born into a Czech family with an ancestry of Polish nobility. He was trained in a military school at Kraków. He participated in Napoleon’s campaign against Russia in 1812. He was awarded the French Legion d’Honneur for the defense of Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland). He participated in the Polish War of Liberation (1830-1831). After its fall he emigrated to Paris. At the news of the revolution in Vienna, he joined in to build up a defence against Windisch-Grätz’s army. After its fall he escaped to Hungary and offered his services to Lajos (Louis) Kossuth, who appointed him Commander-in-Chief of the Transylvanian Army (Erdélyi Hadsereg). With his reorganized army he retook Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) from the Austrian forces; then he liberated the Szeklerland (Székelyföld), and quickly occupied Nagyszeben (now Sibiu, Romania). At Piski he defeated the Austrian-Russian army, whereupon the Russians withdrew from Transylvania. (Erdély). After that he reoccupied Brassó (now Brasov, Romania). However, he was unable to resist the second Russian invasion and suffered defeat at Segesvár (now Sighisoara, Romania) on 31 July 1849. Sándor Petőfi, the Hungarian poet laureate and Bem’s aide-de-camp fell in this battle. After losing Transylvania (Erdély) Bem was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Hungarian Army. However, General Haynau defeated his army at Temesvár (now Timisoara, Romania). Following the defeat of the War of Independence, Bem escaped to the Balkans. To circumvent a possible extradition by the Russians, he converted to Islam. For a while he directed the modernization of the Turkish army. Finally, he became the governor of Aleppo, Syria under the name Pasha Murad. His ashes were taken to Poland via Hungary. His statue is on the square named after him in Buda. The first sparks of the 1956 Revolution broke out beneath his statue. – B: 0942, 1031, T: 7103.→Freedom Fight of 1848-1849; Academic Legion; Kossuth, Lajos; Petőfi, Sándor; Haynau, Baron Julius Freiherr von.

Bence, Lajos (Louis) (Göntérháza now Genterovci, Slovenia, 1 July 1956 - ) – Poet, essayist, journalist. His earlier education was at the Technical High School, Lendva (now Lendava, Slovenia). In 1981 he acquired a B.A. Degree in Hungarian Literature at the University of Budapest, where he earned his Ph.D. in 1994. He taught at the high school of Lendva (1981-1990). Between 1990 and 1992 he was Editor for the nationality program at the Slovenian TV. From 1991 to 1997 he was an assistant professor at the Maribor University, Slovenia. Since 1997 he has been Editor of the People’s Journal (Népújság), and Director of the Hungarian National Information Bureau. He is the author of several hundred articles, studies, and 10 books, among them Pleasantly Heartless (Szíves szívtelen) poems 1981); The Diagnosis of Existence (Létlelet) poems (1989); Sunflower-Parrot (Napraforgó-papagáj) children’s poems (1991), and With the Written Word for Survival (Írott szóval megmaradásért), (1994, 1996). – B: 1169, 1257, 1031, T: 7103.

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