B bábi, Tibor

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Bells Toll at Noon – The Bulla Oratiorum, an order for ringing the church bells at noon was issued by Pope Callixtus III on 29 June 1456, asking Christians worldwide to pray for a Hungarian victory over the Turks. The battle at Nándorfehérvár, Hungary (now Belgrade, Serbia) began on 29 June 1456, and the decisive battle took place on the 22nd of July. Hearing of the Hungarian victory at Nándorfehérvár on 6 August, the pope ordered that the Feast of the Transfiguration of Jesus to be celebrated on that day and the prayers said at the time of the ringing of the bells should be prayers of thanksgiving. – B: 1178, T: 7668.→Bulla Oratiorum.

Bell Tower – A tower built next to a church exclusively for the housing of one or more bells. Such structures were developed in Italy during the Renaissance and became popular mainly in Upper Hungary (Felvidék, today Slovakia) during the 16-17th centuries. The best examples are in the cities of Késmárk (now Kežmarok), Lőcse (now Levoča), Poprád and Igló in the Szepes region (now Slovakia). They are mostly built of stone in a square form. – B: 1078, T: 7663.

Belovai, István (Stephen) (Csanádapáca, 4 January 1938 - Denver, CO., USA, 6 November 2009) – Officer of the Hungarian military intelligence. He joined the Hungarian Army in 1958 and later entered the Military Strategic Intelligence Service. In 1975, he was asked to translate a telegram full of operating procedures of the US Seventh Army in Europe. Later on it turned out that the telegram came from Clyde Lee Conrad, an American NCO, working at the secret NATO archives in Bad Kreuznach, Germany. From 1974 to 1988, Conrad sold top secret materials to Hungary. From 1978 on Belovai translated intelligence information – some 300.000 – that came from the Conrad spy ring and dealt with Nato Army and Air Force deployments, NATO strategy, and the location of nuclear weapons sites on the borders with the Eastern Bloc. Actually, Conrad supplied the Soviet Union – via Hungary – with the Defence Plan of allied units, in case of a war, and how are they to defend the West against Warsaw Pact forces. Belovai decided to alert the United States to the security leak, since the Soviet Military Intelligence already had all the necessary intelligence data on the US and NATO forces in Europe. Thus the Red Army had the ability to launch a successful general attack against NATO forces in Europe, which certainly would have led either to capitulation or to a nuclear war. In 1982 he was posted to serve at the Embassy in London. In 1984 he made contact with “Richard C”, an American agent in London, and revealed the leakage of the NATO defence plan, thereby preventing a potential Soviet agression. However, Belovai was betrayed and arrested in Budapest in 1985. At his trial he faced the death sentence, but instead was sentenced to life imprisonment, had all his property confiscated, and was stripped of his lieutenant- colonel military rank. Belovai was released in September 1990, after the political system changed in Hungary. At the end of 1990, he left for the USA and settled in Denver, CO, received American citizenship and a rank of colonel in 1992. He is not yet fully rehabilitated in Hungary. – B: 2128, T: 7103,

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