B bábi, Tibor

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Bautzen, Mátyás Memorial (Matthew) – A large-scale bas-relief over the main gate of Ortenburg Castle, Germany. King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490) had the ruined castle rebuilt and owned it with the city of Lausitz. It shows the king seated on a throne with a scepter in his hand. There are two angels overhead holding the Saxon Royal Crown. A copy of the monument is attached to the sidewall of the Orbán Tower in Buda. – B: 1078, T: 7675.→Mátyás I, King.

Bay, Zoltán Lajos (Louis) (Gyulavári, 24 July 1900 - Washington, DC, USA, 4 October 1992) – Physicist. He was born into a family of a pastor in the Reformed Church. He graduated from the Reformed Gymnasium, Debrecen in 1918. He was a student of the Eötvös College, and the University of Budapest, where he obtained his degree in 1922. He then joined the Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Berlin. Soon he successfully determined that active nitrogen gas is made up of free atoms. This proved to be so significant that he was soon appointed to the Chair of Theoretical Physics at the University of Szeged, where he was professor between 1930 and 1936. From 1936 on he was occupied with the development of television. However, World War II stopped his experiments. Thereafter he became professor at the Polytechnic of Budapest between 1938 and 1948. From the end of the 1930s he achieved many of his world-renowned technical results in the company of a scientific team at the research laboratory of the United Incandescent Works (Egyesült Izzó Művek) in Budapest. In 1939 he patented the lighting diodes suitable for solving tasks of numbering; but its significance was not recognized at the time. At the University of Budapest, together with Lipót (Leopold) Aschner, he established the Chair of Nuclear Physics. As part of the war effort during 1942-1944, he succeeded in developing a type of radar suitable for tactical reconnaissance tasks. Later he and his research associates successfully worked out the principle of sign multiplication for the purposes of moon probes. In 1944 he was arrested by the Germans, but managed to escape. However, until the end of the War, he was forced to remain underground. In 1945 he became managing director of the United Incandescent Works. In 1948, upon the invitation of Washington University, he left for the USA. In the research laboratory of the University he organized and directged a virtual “Hungarian section”. In 1955 he became a physicist at the US Standards Laboratories. He also became an honorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1981. Bay was invited to Houston for the preparation of the Mariner Program, where his earlier worked-out method was introduced. He did pioneering work in the fields of electro-luminescence and in particle counting by means of an electron multiplier. He was the first to develop the moon-radar and was first to observe radar echoes from the Moon. In fact, Bay became the founder of radar astronomy and it was he who provided the method. In 1946, for the first time, an electromagnetic sign could be reflected and became measurable from an extraterrestrial body. The method of sign summation, introduced by his associates, suggesting a more accurate determination of the length of one meter, was introduced in 1965 by means of the exact determination of the speed of light and that of one second. Today, his method of determining the exact length of a meter is used throughout the world. In the Technical Museum of Washington his electron multiplier was exhibited and regarded as the earliest instrument of its kind. Besides his technical activities, Bay was very much interested in literature and the arts. His circle of friends included such famous figures as Zoltán Kodály, Zsigmond (Sigismund) Móricz and László (Ladislas) Németh. Though he died far away from his homeland, his ashes, according to his wish, were taken back to Hungary, to his place of birth, Gyulavári and placed next to his parents on 10 April 1993. A foundation bears his name. – B: 1122, 1160, 1031, T: 7456.→Kodály, Zoltán; Móricz, Zsigmond; Németh, László; Aschner, Lipót.

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