Aztec vs. Inca (Use website: mayaaztecinca com for help) Aztecs Incas Political

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Aztec vs. Inca (Use website: for help)



  • Forms of gvt./rulers

  • Type of empire

  • Revolts/revolutions

    • Gained power through alliances, intermarriage, warfare, and control of irrigation

    • Got tribute after defeating people

    • Gvt. controlled land and resources and redistributed them

    • Allowed local rulers to remain in power as long as loyal to Aztec

    • Pachacuti = emperor who united allyus (clans) and began empire in 1438

    • Capital was Cuzco

    • Had huge bureaucracy (ruled over huge area), allowed local leaders to rule


  • Migrations

  • Patterns of settlement

  • Technology

  • Demography and disease

    • Central Mexico, densely populated with over 150,000 people

    • Capital, Tenochtitlan, an island in Lake Texcoco

    • Chinampas = irrigation system of floating islands used to feed the people

    • Located in Andes Mountains

    • Empire stretched 3,000 miles and had 9-13 million people (w/different ethnicities and languages)

    • Roads built through mountains w/tambos (rest stops)

    • Had terrace farming, and large building and irrigation projects


  • Religion

  • Science and technology

  • Art and architecture

    • Borrowed from earlier cultures, especially Toltec

    • Polytheism, religion stressed sacrifice

    • Sacrifice used as means of terror against neighbors

    • Weren’t much more advanced than previous people in area (no wheel)

    • Polytheistic w/sun god at the top

    • Ancestor worship was big

    • Split inheritance (each ruler had to gain wealth for eternity) was reason for conquest

    • Good metalworkers, but no wheel

    • Quipu – knotted strings in place of writing system (used for numbers)


  • Agriculture

  • Trade and commerce

  • Economic system

  • Labor systems

  • Industrialization

    • Agriculture most important (maize)

    • Lack of technology meant growing food very labor intensive

    • Government regulated weekly markets

    • Pochteca = long-distance merchants, played important role, regulated tribute collected

    • Government controlled and redistributed resources and land

    • Government had large irrigation and building projects

    • Each area conquered aimed at being self-sufficient

    • No merchant class (trade not important b/c self-sufficient)


  • Gender roles

  • Family and kinship

  • Racial/ethnic constructions

  • Social/economic

  • classes

    • Had social classes: nobles, merchants, peasants, slaves

    • Calpulli = clans that each controlled parts of Tenochtitlan

    • Women subordinate to men

    • As time went on, nobles gained power and land, and calpulli lost power

    • Women were weavers and cared for the temples

    • Emphasis on military a reason women subordinate to men

    • Noble class held a lot of power

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