Rhetoric – the study of effective, persuasive language use; according to Aristotle, use of the “available means of persuasion.”
Rhetoric is situational. It must be in context (occasion, time, and/or place it was written or spoken) and have purpose (goal of the speaker/writer) in order for the audience to care about what is being said.
In order to analyze rhetoric you must identify the audience, context, and purpose.
Thesis/Claim/Assertion – a central/main idea that is to be supported later in a text; a declaration.
Subject – topic; you must evaluate what you know, what others have said, what evidence you have of either to support your claims.
Persona – the character the speaker creates when he/she writes or speaks.
Audience – evaluate what the audience knows; what is their attitude about the subject; is there a common ground between the speaker and the audience on the subject.
Ethos – (speaker/persona) Greek term referring to the character or a person.
persona leads to credibility
often emphasize a share opinion between the speaker and audience
give the audience a reason to listen
Logos – Greek term referring to an appeal to logic.
Satire – an ironic, sarcastic, or witty composition that claims to argue for something but actually argues against it.
Political Cartoon Assignment
You will find, print or copy, a political cartoon either in a magazine, newspaper, or online. Analyze your cartoon by evaluating which appeals it contains. Your analysis should include specific details about ethos, logos, and pathos as it applies to your cartoon, and it should discuss the interaction of written text and visual images. The analysis should:
Come to class with a completed analysis, 2 to 3 paragraphs.
We will discuss your cartoons as a class.
We will grade as a class.
Refers to the organization of a piece.
Must have a beginning, a middle, and an end
Introduces to the discussion
Draws readers into the text by gaining their interest, challenging them, or getting their attention
Due Monday/Tuesday, 10/11 (A day) or 10/12 (B day)
1 daily grade
One sentence that explains what the essay will be about (topic)
The order in which the topic will be discussed (organization)
The main idea to be presented regarding the topic (focus/assertion)
The thesis should be the only or last sentence in the opening paragraph
It should be a complex sentence
The framework of the thesis will come from terms underlined while reading the question
Another way to think of the thesis:
the presentation of what you believe to be fact
topic + opinion + elements that support/prove the opinion
Satire – an ironic, sarcastic, or witty composition that claims to argue for something, but actually argues against it; it is meant to affect social change.
Characteristics of Satire
Satire is concerned with ethical reform. It attacks those institutions or individuals the satirist deems corrupt.
It seeks reform of public behavior, a shoring up of its audience's standards or at the very least a wake-up call in an otherwise corrupt culture.
It works to make vice laughable and/or reprehensible and thus bring social pressure on those who still engage in wrongdoing.
Satire is often implicit and assumes readers who can pick up on its moral clues. It is not a sermon.
Satire in general attacks types -- the fool, the boor, the adulterer, and the proud -- rather than specific persons.
If it does attack some by name, rather than hoping to reform these persons, it seeks to warn the public against approving of them.
Satire is witty, ironic, and often exaggerated. It uses extremes to bring its audience to a renewed awareness of its ethical and spiritual danger.
If the satirist is in danger for his or her attack, ambiguity, innuendo and understatement can be used to help protect its author.
Types of Satire:
Horatian (named for Horace): A gentle, sympathetic form of satire in which the subject is mildly made fun of with a show of engaging wit. This form of satire tends to ask the audience to laugh at themselves as much as the players.
Juvenalian(named for Juvenal): A harsher, bitter form of satire in which the subject is subjected to contempt and condemnation. This form of satire is more judgmental, asking the audience to respond with indignation to the events it portrays.
Menippean (named for Menippus): A chaotic, often formless satire that satirizes the structure of the world as well as its subject matter. It tends to mix genres, collapse categories, and intentionally ridicule everything. Its exact target is often hard to locate because it seems to attack everything, and it often includes a preoccupation with sexual malfunctions and bodily fluids.
Satirical Sections or Chunks 1. Introduction/Orientation – statement of the nature of the problem and of the possible solutions that are rejected.
2. Narration/Proposal – statement of the proposal the writer feels will best solve the problem.
3.Confirmation/Merits – demonstrates the worth of the proposal.
4. Refutation – Consideration of possible objections and rejections of the proposal.
5. Conclusion/Summary – Summary of the strongest arguments.
Prompt: Identify and discuss at least 2 rhetorical strategies/devices ______uses to develop a satirical tone.