Author's Notes for Cooper, 1636: Seas of Fortune (2014) These notes copyright Iver P. Cooper 2014. Please do not duplicate without permission. They do not create canon. In case of conflict with what is in the published ms

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Author's Notes for

Cooper, 1636: Seas of Fortune (2014)
These notes copyright Iver P. Cooper 2014. Please do not duplicate without permission. They do not create canon. In case of conflict with what is in the published ms., the latter controls.
Part I: Stretching Out

Amazon Adventure

My principal character, Henrique Pereira da Costa, is a descendant of Portuguese Jews forced to convert to Christianity. These were variously called conversos, Marranos, and New Christians. The surnames Pereira ("pear tree") and da Costa ("of the coast") both had New Christian associations. See Prinz, The Secret Jews (1973) and Roth, A History of the Marranos (1987).

Some of these New Christians were "crypto-Jews," that is, they continued to practice the Jewish faith, at least in a fragmented and distorted form, in secret. Hiding Jewish articles of worship, as Henrique did, in a specially designed vase was a known artifice. (Prinz 16).

The New World was soon seen as a place of refuge for the Marranos, and they emigrated to Brazil as early as 1506. In 16th century Bahia, nearly all of the physicians were New Christians. The authorities suspected that many of the New Christians were "judaizing," and this led to intermittent bans on their emigration to the New World. One such ban was in 1610-29, so presumably Henrique's father emigrated during the "window" of 1601-1610. The town of Belem do Para wasn't founded until 1616, so he presumably went somewhere else first.


I figure that the first shipment of rubber from Brazil probably left Belem in August or September 1633. And while Henrique doesn't know its fate, it was probably captured by a French privateer. Kerryn Offord, Letters from France, under the date slug "Fall 1633, Granville, France" says, "I came across a Portuguese ship."...."According to the logbook, its last stop was in Belem, at the mouth of the Amazon.... And the manifest lists the stuff as caoutchouc." (This isn't a coincidence, by the way, Kerryn, consulted me while developing his own story).


Even going upstream, it is possible to travel a considerable distance in a relatively short time on the Amazon river system. In the 19th century, it took eighty-six days to paddle a canoe 485 leagues (1674 miles) upstream from Belem do Para to Fort San Joze de Mirabitena, a little more than twice as far as Manaus. (Southey, History of Brazil 3: 709).


The Manao indians were "great travelers and traders" according to Hemming, Red Gold 233, 440. The Manao homeland was around the Urabaxi. There is no source for them founding a village near modern Manaus in the 1600s, but a few Manao families did so in the 1700s (Hemming 443), and there's no reason it couldn't have happened earlier, and then disappeared. Neither the Manao nor the Taruma have survived as distinct ethnicities, so there wasn't any point in having them met separately.


The initiation ritual that Mauricio undergoes is based loosely on the one conducted by the Piaroan Indians of Venezuela, and described in Gheerbrant, Journeys to the Far Amazon: An Expedition into Unknown Territory (2007). Similar ceremonies are found among other tribes (There's a National Geographic video showing the Satere-Mawe version; that tribe lives between the lower Tapajós and lower Madeira tributaries of the Amazon.)


Henrique and Mauricio's escape route from the Amazon to the Essequibo was in fact used as a trading route by the Manao and the Dutch in the early18th century (Hemming 440-2, 640). The Portuguese established the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro near modern Manaus, in 1669, and if, as some say, this was built to keep out the Dutch, that route may have been known even earlier.


Second Starts

The great Buffalo Canoe Race really did take place in Mannington, West Virginia (the model for the fictional Grantville); the fourth one was on May 1, 1999.


Maria Vorst is an imaginary character, but inserted into a real family. Insofar as her interests in art and biology are concerned, she is based loosely on Maria Sibylla Merian. Merian is the subject of Todd, Chrysalis: Maria Sibylla Merian and the Secrets of Metamorphosis (2007). Ironically, I have Maria Vorst read about Merian in Nancy Heller's book on Women Artists. (Nancy Heller is a well-known art historian, but I knew her from Spanish Dance Society.)


For what Maria might have found out about rubber by scouring the Grantville public and school libraries, see Cooper, "Bouncing Back: Bringing Rubber to Grantville (GG 6). As for bauxite, the aluminum ore found in Suriname, see Cooper, "Aluminum: Will O' the Wisp?" (GG 8).


David Pieterszoon de Vries is a fascinating historical character, and my description of his adventures in Delaware and New Jersey is based on his memoirs. It's only when he returns to the Netherlands that he hears about the business opportunities in Grantville -- and a different future looms before him.


Note that the country now called Guyana, and known in the early 20c as British Guiana, is the site of the Dutch colony of Essequibo in the 1630s, where the trading post/fort of Kykoveral ("See-Over-All") is located. There were also Dutch colonies at Berbice and perhaps Demerara. And ironically, Suriname, which was "Dutch Guiana" before it declared independence, was British prior to 1667 (when it was traded for New Netherlands -- New York).


Maria's Mission

Louis de Geer. In Kim Mackey, Land of Ice and Sun, Louis de Geer sends a mission to mine cryolite in southern Greenland. There was an elaborate cover story; obviously, I didn't think that David De Vries would be fooled by it.

Phil's wristwatch. For the importance of an accurate timepiece for navigation, see my articles "Soundings and Sextants, Part One, Navigational Instruments Old and New" (GG14) and "Soundings and Sextants, Part Two, Celestial Navigation Methods" (GG15).

The ship he stowed away on left in December 1633, and returned in September 1634. o that has the following implications:(1) as of December 1633, no marine chronometer (for determining longitude) has been manufactured yet, and (2) as of December 1633, Phil's watch is still running (and preferably it's still reasonably accurate in September 1634).

With regard to the first point, I don't think there's a problem; the up-timers and their down-time allies can't do everything and with the USE (NUS) being still an inland power in Dec. 1633, building a chronometer wouldn't have been a priority. The Dutch, etc. or course would have been much more interested but of course there would have been a process of learning what's available in GV, deciding what to work on first, and so forth. Sakalucks, Northwest Passage, part Three (published in GG22, well after Maria's Mission) has Svend say to John, "The new chronometer is going to be a boon to navigators, John. Whatever Sir Thomas had to pay for it was well worth it." According to Story time frames, the Sakalucks story begins in March 1634, so that's not a conflict. The other two chronometer references in canon are even later -- 1635 and

1636 respectively.

With regard to the second point, I think Eric wrote a story which pointed out that the battery-operated quartz watches are going to stop working within a few years after the RoF. It's a question of both the battery life in use and the battery shelf life. Working life supposedly can

be 1-10 (last would have to be a mercury or lithium battery) years, depending on whether it's single or multifunction, analog or digital, use of backlight, whether seconds are displayed, etc. Average is probably 2-3 years. Shelf life depends on the type of cell: mercury, silver oxide or lithium. For silver oxide, I have seen quoted anywhere from 2-5 years. For mercury, it was more like 5-10 years, but they were banned in 1996. The lithium disposables came out in the

1990s I believe and had shelf life similar to mercury.

If I needed to explain why his watch is still running, I have three choices:

a) Phil is lucky, his battery hasn't died yet

b) Phil has an automatic (self-winding mechanical) watch, perhaps a hand-me-down (there are also automatic quartz watches, aka kinetics, in which the self-winding function charged a Li-ion rechargeable battery, but I think that in 1999 they were still very expensive)

c) Phil has a solar-powered watch.

These choices do affect the accuracy that Phil can fairly claim for the watch, and how it must be used. Re accuracy, see

My initial intent was to say nothing (Eric's motto is "vague is good") but in the page proof stage I decided to say that Philip had a self-winding wristwatch.


Encyclopedia Misinformation. The encyclopedias told the characters that the French started an (unsuccessful) colony at Paramaribo in 1640, and the first permanent settlement on the Suriname River was that of the English in 1652. It failed to warn them that there was an English settlement there in the 1630s. In October 1634 the historical De Vries, exploring a"deep river" that we can presume was the Suriname, found the English under Captain Marshall, a day's sail upriver; sixty Englishmen were growing tobacco there. (Parr, 157). The location of "Marshall's Creek" is shown on Map 1. Maplandia says "Marechalskreek" is at 5̊ 16' 0" North, 55̊ 5' 0" West.


Beyond the Line

Salt Harvest. The Dutch needed salt to cure North Sea herrings. In 1594-1605, the Dutch, and occasionally other Europeans, harvested salt at the Araya flats of Venezuela. On the way home, they engaged in contraband trade with the Spanish settlements of the Caribbean. In just 1603, Araya received over 120 Dutch ships and over 30 other ships. (Jarvis, In the Eye of All Trade, 139). On November 6, 1605, a squadron of fourteen Spanish war-galleons with support craft surprised the salt fleet. Only two of the eleven Dutch vessels escaped. (Marley, Wars of the Americas 150). The Dutch persisted, so the Spanish built a fort in 1623, blocking entrance to the Araya lagoon. The Dutch then went to the salt-pans elsewhere. The Spanish drove them from La Tortuga (1631) and Sint Maarten (1633), but this simply provoked the Dutch expedition that captured Curacao (off the coast of Venezuela) on August 21, 1634. The Dutch took control of nearby Aruba and Bonaire in 1636, and of Sint Eustatius (in the Leeward Islands) the same year. However, the Dutch had made visits to the ABC Islands earlier; e.g., Bonaire beginning in 1623 (Hartog, Bonaire: Short History 17).

Providence Island. British Puritans settled Old Providence Island in 1630. Trading between the English and the Miskito Indians began at least as early as 1633 (Floyd, The Anglo-Spanish Struggle for Mosquitia 18). Surprisingly little attention has been given to Samuel Rishworth's role as an early opponent of African slavery.

Granada. Granada, Nicaragua was founded in 1524, and Spanish explorers descended the Rio San Juan to the Caribbean in 1539. (Guardia, History of Discovery and Conquest of Costa Rica, 116ff). This became part of a Spanish trade route from Granada to the Caribbean ports, carrying cochineal, indigo, hides and silver. (Severin, The Golden Antilles, 139). The trade didn't go unnoticed; in 1576, pirates captured a Spanish fragata at the mouth of the Rio San Juan (Guardia 310).

Historically, several piratical attacks on Granada were made by way of the Rio San Juan in the 1660s, most notably by John Morris and Henry Morgan in 1665, leading a combined force of English and Miskitos, who thereby acquired 500,000 pounds silver. The Spanish built a fort (San Carlos) at the lake end of the river in 1667, but it was overcome in 1670 by the pirate Gallardino, who continued on to the hapless Granada. In 1675, the Spanish built a stronger fortress, El Castillo de la Immaculata Concepcion, near the Santa Cruz rapids halfway down the river, to guard against further piracy. Unfortunately, Granada had no significant defenses on the west (the Pacific side), and William Dampier took it in 1685. The Rio San Juan was again an invasion route in 1762 (unsuccessful) and 1780 (successful), the latter expedition including one Captain Horatio Nelson. (Watts, The West Indies 141).


Riding the Tiger

Maria's turntable. The first record turntables were crank-operated, and in a thrift store you might be able to find a crank-operated "Phonette" for missionaries. Missionaries used crank-powered cassette players (e.g. the "Messenger II"). It might make sense to equip Maria's turntable with a flywheel, to smooth out the speed variations; the Egyptian potter's wheel had one so it's not exactly new tech.

Music. The Indian preference for Mozart over Armstrong is taken from Gheerbrant, The Impossible Adventure: Journey to the Far Amazon, 90ff, 277ff.

Greenheart. The famous clipper Cutty Sark was planked with teak (from India) and greenheart (Ocotea rodiei, from Guyana) timber. Greenheart is about twice as strong as oak and teak, and like teak is very resistant to marine borers. My "discovery" story was inspired by a 19c report I had read of "a ship in the port of London having nearly the whole of the bottom planking eaten into by worms, with the exception of one plank, which proved to be of greenheart." (Rattray, ed., Forestry and Forest Products 368).

The greenheart was valued by the Guiana indians because its nut contained a contraceptive. (Lewington, Plants for People 151, 185). They may also used an extract of the nut or bark to treat pain and fever, and, after it was inadvertently imported to South America by the Europeans, malaria.

While greenheart grows primarily in Guyana, another hardwood that the Gustauvus colonists might find of value is Basralocous angelique, a borer-resistant tree (Parr 158) that is fairly common in Suriname and French Guiana. The itauba mentioned by Henrique was used by some Amazon Indians to make dugout canoes. (Spruce, Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes, 160).

Slave ship. The capture of the slave ship was inspired by a real event. In the old time line, David Pieterszoon De Vries founded a colony at modern Cayenne, in French Guyana, in September, 1634. He went off privateering, and in December, 1634, while he was away, his colonists decided to seize a Spanish slave ship which had come in search of drinkable water. As in my story, most of the Spanish went upriver in a longboat, leaving behind a small watch, which the colonist overcome.

But happened next was ... surprising. The colonists took the captured ship to Jamaica and abandoned the colony. The Spanish in the longboat weren't sunk, they were left behind in Guyana. In Jamaica, the ship, the slaves, and the captured Spanish watchmen were sold.

Most of the colonists did not profit from this act of piracy and betrayal. The two ringleaders, English ex-pirates, had persuaded the other colonists (who didn't speak English) to sign an English contract of indenture, each signer thinking it a credential that helped prove that he was a legitimate sailor and not a pirate. The ex-pirates sold the indentures in Jamaica, too. The other colonists thus all passed into bondage themselves. (Parr, The Voyages of David de Vries 162-4). Which proves that truth is stranger than fiction.

Riding the Tiger. The history of the phrase "riding the tiger" is rather murky. According to William Safire of The New York Times, there is a Chinese proverb "Ch'i 'hu nan hsia pei", translated in 1875 (W. Scarborough, Collection of Chinese Proverbs) as "He who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount." Most likely, Heyndrick learned this proverb from the up-timers.

Deal with the Slaves. As stated in the story, the colonists did expect a return on the aid they gave the freed slaves. The specifics of the deal they made aren't stated, but I figure it would be somewhat similar to what the English did with the slave ship Trouvadore. Slaves rescued from its 1841 shipwreck off East Caicos were taken to Grand Turk, given clothing, food, accommodations and medical care, and taught English and Christian ways, all in return for labor for one year.

King of the Jungle

The freed slaves. These come from several different African tribes, including those from the modern countries of Ghana (Ashanti, Akwamu, Fante, Denkyira), Nigeria (Eboe),

and Congo-Angola (Ndongo, Kasante Imbangala), and Senegal-Gambia-Gambia(Mandinka).

I exercised a certain amount of literary license here. Generally speaking, Congolese and Angolan slaves were shipped by the Portuguese to Brazil, and slaves from further north by the Spanish, or other Europeans (who could include the Portuguese), to the Spanish Caribbean. My explanation for this diversity was that the slave ship had gone first to Angola, and had gone further north only because it hadn't been able to fill its hold there.

While this isn't made explicit, I suspect that the captain of the slave ship did not have the proper documentation and therefore couldn't go to the main port at Luanda but rather had to deal on the sly at more remote locations. He then decided to try his luck selling his slaves in the Caribbean.

The Imbangala, being a band of mercenaries who practice ritual cannibalism and Borg-like recruitment methods, make great villains. For Imbangala history and tactics, see Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery 76-77, 996, 106, 129. Their main foes, the Ndongo, are briefly discussed in Jonathan Cresswell-Jones' "Malungu Seed" (Ring of Fire 2 anthology).

Enslavement Ritual. Taken from Patterson, Slavery and Social Death 53.

Sunken weapons. Corrosion needs electrolyte and oxygen. Hence, it's faster in salt water than fresh, and faster in moving water than slack. See Warren, Metal Corrosion in Boat 54-5.

For background on the Ashanti, see McCaskie, State and Society in Pre-Colonial Asante; Isichei, A History of African Society to 1870, 345-6, .

For the Mandinka (Mande) beliefs in magic, see McNaughton, The Mande Blacksmiths and Diouf article in Lovejoy, Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of Ethnicity in the African Diaspora.

Warship on the Cottica. "The rivers are unusually deep for their widths because of the tide water influences. For example, the Cottica River at Moengo, more than one hundred miles from its mouth, is less than one hundred feet wide, but is twenty-four feet deep." Netherlands. Regeeringsvoorlichtingsdienst.
Tears of the Sun, Milk of the Moon

Ashanti Gold Mining methods. My principal sources are:

Edgerton, The Fall of the Asante Empire 38ff;

Ofosu-Mensah, Hisoricial Overview of traditional and modern gold mining in Ghana, Int. Res. J. Library, Info. & Arch. Stud. 1:6-22 (Aug. 2011);

Laffoley and Laidler, Pre-European Gold Mining at Ashanti, Ghana, Mining History: The Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society, 13(4):__ (Winter 1997),%20Ghana.pdf ;

Ofosu-Mensah, Traditional Gold Mining in Adanse, Nordic J. Afr. Stud., 19: 124-47 (2010) ;

Carman, Tracing African Gold
Guiana Gold. The Guianas had their gold rushes, but these were never on the scale of California or the Klondike. The first profitable deposits found in Suriname were those of the Lawa River, a tributary of the Marowyne, in 1885-86. The rush occurred in 1889. The heaviest nugget found over a couple of decades of workings was 530 ounces. In 1897, the total Lawa River production was 1,479, with another 2,456 from the Marowyne.

The characters haven't found it yet (as far as I know), but there's more gold on the Suriname and Salamacca rivers of Suriname, on various tributaries of the Essequibo in modern Guyana, and on various rivers of modern French Guiana.

David de Vries' ingenious proposal, that kept his men from deserting to look for gold, was inspired by the one made by the Master of the Araminta, Thomas Feran. The Araminta arrived in Geelong in 1852. Crews were then deserting ships en masse to go to the gold fields of Ballarat. Feran proposed that the crew go as a company, with one third of the gold found to go to the owners of the Araminta, and the remainder shared among the crew in proportion to their wages, with their wages stopped while they were absent from the ship. The crew agreed and twenty-seven went with Feran to Ballerat, and three remained behind (but entitled to shares in the gold) to watch the ship. The party remained at Ballarat for nearly three months, and the shipowner received 400 pounds worth of gold (and also avoided the abandonment of his ship) as a result of Feran's cleverness.

So far so good, but in real life, there was a rather surprising twist. At the gold fields, fifteen of the crew had deserted anyway, to work on their own account. That left the ship shorthanded, which meant that it would be difficult to sail it on to Bombay and deliver their cargo of coal. Had Feran hired new crewmen at Geelong, they would have been landsmen, and he would have nonetheless had to paid forty pounds apiece.

So he made a deal with the remaining crew that if they agreed to handle the ship short-handed, that they would get, in addition to their regular wages, shares of the wages of the sailors who had deserted -- about nine pounds apiece. In Bombay, they picked up a new cargo, and took on more crew, and then returned to Liverpool.

Here's the shocker. Despite the great and unexpected profits that the shipowner had made as a result of these two deals, when the ship came home, the owner sued the crew for subtraction of the extra wages! The High Court of the Admiralty felt compelled to hold in favor of the owner, but "considering that the owners reaped the benefit of the crew's having taken the vessel short-handed," refused to award costs.

I first read about the Amarinta in Villier, The Way of the Ship, 193-5, but then found the actual decision in the Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Reports (1854).

"Where the Cuckoo Flies"

Efumi. The description of the efumi in Nagasaki is based on information provided by Englebert Kaempfer, a Dutch physician who visited Japan in 1691-92. My sources are not consistent as to exactly when the efumi began, but they agree that it was before 1633.

The Dutch visit. Typically, the Dutch came in July with the summer monsoon, and left in November with the fall monsoon. In the 17c, at least 1633 on, the resident Dutch factor annually made a visit to the Shogun's court to pay homage. Englebert Kaempfer was in the 1691 entourage, and he reported that they left Nagasaki on February 13 and arrived in Edo 29 days later. See Jansen, The Making of Modern Japan 81ff, and Kaempfer, Kaempfer's Japan. By 1633, of course, we are certainly going to have some "butterflying" of events by the Ring of Fire, and it seemed to me that it was plausible that the Dutch could request, and receive, a summer audience.

Iemitsu. Iemitsu (1604-51) was the third Tokugawa Shogun; the Shoguns were the military dictators of Japan. His father Hidetada abdicated in Iemitsu's favor in 1623, but continued to pull the strings as Ogosho (Retired Shogun) until his death (March 14, 1632). Iemitsu is usually portrayed as being rabidly anti-Christian, but I believe that like his grandfather Ieyasu, he was capable of holding his hand if it seemed expedient to do so. He permitted the Dutch to continue to trade in Japan, even though he limited them to the artificial island of Deshima in Nagasaki harbor. (At the time, his ometsuke said that they had suddenly realized that the Dutch Jesus Christ was the same as the Portuguese one, and the difference in the religions was small. Hesselink, Prisoners from Nambu 13. But I am sure that this declaration was ingenuous, and that they had known it for years.) Indeed, in the 1643 Nambu Incident, he was persuaded to free Dutchmen imprisoned because their ship illegally visited northern Japan.

If Iemitsu's softening of attitude still seems unlikely, consider this: In 1865, Takuma Sawabe, the samurai son-in-law of a Shinto priest, went to assassinate the Russian Orthodox missionary Nicholas. Sawabe became his disciple (and ultimately a priest and deacon) instead.

Seclusion (Sakoku) Decrees. I have not been able to determine exactly when in 1633 the first of these decrees was issued, which of course would affect its vulnerability to being butterflied. In any event, it still permitted the Japanese to travel abroad for trade on red seal ships, and it apparently wasn't fully enforced until 1634. See Willis, Transcultural Japan 243; Nelson, A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine 19. It was only later that the Japanese were completely forbidden to go abroad (1635 or 1636), the Portuguese were restricted to Deshima (1636), the Portuguese trade was completely banned (1639), and the Dutch were restricted to Deshima (1641). These later edicts have been butterflied away.

The World Book Encyclopedia. We may never know how these four volumes made their way to Japan, but my guess is that the original owner in Grantville was someone who was buying the WBE on the installment plan, a volume at a time. The volumes in question plainly included A, B, C-Ch and J-K, but what happened to the ones between Ch and J is not revealed in this anthology. As to which edition in question it is, that too is something I haven't committed on, but everything I cite is in fact found in at least the 1974 edition.

An interesting question that I have deliberately dodged is what did the Dutch do about the articles on Christianity? They could certainly worry that if those articles were left intact, they could be punished for bringing Christian religious literature into the country. An up-time source might well have mentioned the incident in which the Japanese forced them to demolish a warehouse because its cornerstone was inscribed "Anno Domini 1640"! (See Sprengard, Maritime Asia, 206.) On the other hand, they could perhaps take the position that a gift to the Shogun would be exempt from this limitation, and that they certainly wouldn't want to deface the gift by cutting out articles. (Removing every reference to Christianity would have been extremely difficult, anyway.)

Sumitomo. Sumitomo Masatomo (1585-1632) was born into a samurai family, but became a priest of the Nehan sect. That sect was dissolved and he opened a book and medicine shop in Kyoto. His brother in law Soga Riemon (1572-1636) owned a hardware store Izumiya (izumi spring or fountainhead, ya suffis denoting a shop, with emblem igeta well frame) and acquired/invented nambanbuki (silver extraction from copper). Tomomochi, Riemon's eldest son, was adopted by Masatomo and opened the Osaka branch in 1623.; the second son continued to operate Izumiya in kyoto. The Sumitomo main house (bunke) dealt with the copper trade, and there were two branches (bekke) in Edo (Nakahashi exchange office and Asakusa fudasashi -- stipendary rice distribution) and one in Nagasaki (import/export). . After our period (1647), the third head Tomonobu adopted the practice that the household head took on a hereditary naeme (shimei), Izumiya Kichizaemon. Tomomochi took over as head of the Sumitomo family in 1652. Sumitomo obtained the rights to the Besshi mine in 1691. See Raud, Japan and Asian Modernities 31 ff. ; Gerlach Alliance Capitalism 93 ff. A snippet view into Derdak, International Directory of Company Histories 1988 vol. 49 page 518 says "Masatomo and Riemon were also related by a common lineage to the noble Heike family."

Torture of the Christians. The torture/execution at Beppu is based on an incident in 1627 in the village of Mogi, described in a book published in Amsterdam in 1637. The boiling blood pond is now a tourist attraction; hot springs which are too hot for bathing are called jikoku (hells). The snake pit ordeal was one of those practiced at Arima in 1628.

Gunpowder plot. The "gunpowder plot" is based on a later historical incident, the unsuccessful Keian Uprising (1651). A group of ronin plotted to take over the government when Iemitsu died. They planned to use gunpowder explosions to start fires, then assassinate surviving government leaders. This gave me comfort that the "gunpowder plot" was at least a plausible conspiratorial plan. As to the way in which it became exposed, well, the real Keian Uprising was discovered when a conspirator got sick and talked in his delirium. And there is the later incident of 1878, when a bureaucrat using a roadside public toilet heard three Imperial guardsmen talking about a plan to set a fire on the palace grounds and then kill high government officials. (You might wonder whether this was the source of the phrase "The Walls Have Ears"; at least in Europe, that saying is traceable to Cervantes' Don Quixote.)

Abe Tadaaki, the newest of the roju at the time of my story, in 1651 persuaded the bakufu to do more than suppress the Keian Uprising; at his urging they mitigated ronin grievances such as succession laws that tended to throw them out of service.

Exile. The exposed conspirator is exiled to Hachijo island. For its role as a penal colony for political prisoners, see Kasai, Hachijo: Island of Exile, chapters 2 and 5.

Insofar as the expulsion of the Christians is concerned, this was done by the Japanese on a limited scale in OTL. For example, the children of Westerners were deported, not executed. See clauses 9 and 10 of the Sakoku edict of June 1636, in Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan 439. there were 287 persons removed to Macao in light of these clauses, see Leupp, Interracial Intimacy in Japan, 65. However, my real inspiration for the exile of the kirishitan came from two precedents that wouldn't have been known to the Japanese: the abortive 16c French Huguenot attempt to settle Florida, and the more successful 18c transport of British convicts to Australia.

Number of kirishitan. The number to be exiled is apparently based on estimates of the number killed during the Shimabara rebellion: 25,000 to 40,000. However, Harrington, Japan's Hidden Christians 28 estimates that in 1639, there were still 150,000 (the peak was 300,000 in 1614, but many apostasized in the face of official persecution), and notes (35) that in the second half of the 19c returning Western missionaries discovered the existence of 30,000 to 35,000 Kakure Kirishitan (hidden Christians), descendants of the kirishitan who didn't perish in the Shimabara Rebellion, who preserved Christianity as a folk religion. And if life in New Nippon is good enough, some non-kirishitan may pretend to be Christian in order to escape life in the homeland. The Shogunate may therefore face some surprises....

The British transported more than 50,000 convicts to America in the period 1718-1776. Balak, Economy of Convict Transportation to the American Colonies.

Cost of Transport. Difficult to say. For transport from England to the American colonies, the cost was 6 pounds a convict. Balak, 898. Of this, the shipping costs (carriage and food) were 3.75 pounds, and the rest was rental costs for irons (0.05), jail fees (1) and import duty (1). Compare this to the 19c transatlantic passenger fare of 4 pounds. Balak, 903-4. The cost of transporting and maintaining convicts to Australia (over 160,000) was 27.6 pounds, but offset by profits from convict labor and avoiding the cost of incarceration. Balak 912.

Actually, I think the latter was just the cost of transport, not of upkeep after landing. See Palgrave, Dictionary of Political Economy 3:577.


Fallen Leaves

Smallpox. In the ordinary course of things, the Japanese would bring smallpox to the New World with them. Smallpox is prevalent in Japan, and hence is going to be transmitted to North America, with devastating effect on the Indian population, assuming it doesn't "burn out" in the course of the voyage.

Variolation would help; the case fatality rate for variolations was 0.5-2% vs. 20-30% for natural smallpox. Variolation was well known to the Chinese. In OTL, the knowledge of variolation was brought from China to Japan in 1653, by Dai Manquang (and probably others). He in turn was one of the many Chinese physicians who fled to Japan as a result of the Manchu invasion. (Jannetta, The vaccinators: smallpox, medical knowledge, and the "opening" of Japan, 13). I figured it wouldn't be too much of a stretch to assume that when the Portuguese brought warnings to China of what the Grantville encyclopedias said about the Manchu invasion, that some people will pay heed, and at least one physician with knowledge of variolation methods (and a stock of dried smallpox pustules) could come to Nagasaki by early 1634. One of the pioneers in the study of smallpox was Zhang Jiebin (1563-1640) and another was Zhang Lu (1617-?).

And I can imagine the Tokugawa deciding to test variolation on the Christians -- analogous to the English testing it on criminals in the 18c. (Since writing the ms., it has come to my attention that when the Kangxi Emeperor was treated with powdered cinchona bark (crude quinine) in 1693, it was first given to four members of the imperial family. See Hanson, Jesuits amd Medicine at the Kangxi COurt (1662-1722),

First Fleet. The precautions taken on the Dutch and Chinese ships are similar to those observed when convicts were transported to Botany Bay in the 18c.

Yajiro's Sermon. This is based on the Tenji hajimare no koto ("The Beginnings of Heaven and Earth"), a kakure kirishitan (hidden Christian) religious document. As far as we know, it was not put into written form until 1827.

It's important to realize that the Bible was never translated into Japanese during the premodern period, and that few Japanese understood more than a few words of Portuguese or Spanish. Hence, the Tenji was the derivative, distorted by imperfect recollection and transmission though at least ten generations of hidden Christians, of the summary version of the Bible that was taught orally by the missionaries and their Japanese assistants. Of course, the process of distortion hadn't gone quite so far in the 1630s as in the 1800s, but it was certainly well along. There were never more than about a hundred missionaries in Japan, and they were serving 300,000 kirishitan at Japanese Christianity's high tide. That pretty much guaranteed that even before the missionaries were banned, religious instruction was extremely cursory. Given the problems of translation and the cultural divide, a lot of that instruction was probably misinterpreted or even deliberately ignored. And by the 1630s, Christian worship had been banned for a generation. So the Christianity that the kirishitan are taking over to California is Catholicism seen in a funhouse mirror.

The Atlas. I allude to, but do not describe, the seizure of the Portuguese "Japan Fleet" in Nagasaki Harbor. That story will be told another time.

The Japanese shipwreck. There were many instances of Tokugawa-era Japanese vessels being disabled by a storm, and then drifting long distances. According to Brooks, "Report of Japanese Vessels Wrecked in the North Pacific Ocean, from the Earliest Records to the Present Time," in 1617 a Japanese junk was wrecked near Acapulco, Mexico. He also reports wrecks at the mouth of the Columbia River (1820), on Queen Charlotte's Island (1831), on the coast of Washington (1833), and again on Mexico (1845). There were numerous instances of the Japanese being found on the coast of Kamchatka or of one of the Aleutian islands.

So how did they travel so far? The North Pacific Gyre is the answer. In essence, there is a giant clockwise movement of surface waters, formed by the Kuroshio, North Pacific, California, and North Equatorial Currents, and the junks were carried by it. The ride could be a long one; the Tojokumaru drifted for 18 months before its three survivors were rescued (1815) off the coast of California. (Plummer 136). The debris from the 2011 tsunami is expected to reach British Columbia in 2014. (The average time for a complete gyre orbit is 6.3 years, see Ebbesmeyer, Flotsametrics and the Floating World, 223, but the speed depends on many factors.)

The wreck on the coast of Washington was that of the Hojunmaru, which had drifted for fourteen months. The three survivors were rescued by the Makah Indians, and in 1997, Japanese, Makah Indians, and Bellevue, Washington schoolchildren performed a reenactment, "The Tale of Otokichi." The reenactment carefully failed to mention that the drifters had been enslaved by the Makah after being rescued; they were subsequently ransomed by officers of the Hudson Bay Company, and taken to Fort Vancouver. (Schodt, Native American in the Land of the Shogun, 61ff). Not, I should note, that this was unusual behavior on the part of the Makah; most if not all of the Pacific Northwest tribes practiced slavery and of course so did the supposedly civilized American South. Schodt comments that the arrival of Japanese in the Pacific Northwest was, in modern terms, "equivalent to the Martians landing." (68).

Whether there are any documented wrecks on the coast of Vancouver Island is a matter of dispute. A map prepared by Professor Davidson shows two wrecks nearby, and one of which is presumably the wreck that Brooks said was found by Nootka Sound. (Plummer, A Japanese glimpse at the Outside World 1839-1843, inside front cover; Brooks item 58, undated). An exhibit at the Vancouver Maritime Museum states, "Many oral traditions of the First Nations, including those of British Columbia, speak of Asian visitors. Some of these were undoubtedly Japanese who crossed thanks to the prevailing drift of the North Pacific’s currents. Archaeologists have discovered iron in pre-European contact First Nation sites that they feel came from wrecked Japanese junks and other craft that drifted across."

On the other hand, Grant Keddie, of the Royal BC Museum, in "Japanese Shipwrecks in British Columbia -- Myths and Facts", urges that the supposed British Columbia shipwrecks were either cases of confusion (the survivors were taken at some point to British Columbia) or too poorly documented to be taken seriously. But Keddie does concede that it "is highly probable that shipwrecks did occur on the coast of British Columbia before the twentieth century but these were never documented."

Texada Island. The island is heavily mineralized, so the Japanese will eventually have some pleasant surprises. Between 1896 and 1976, Texada produced ten million tonnes of iron ore, almost thirty-six million tonnes of copper, almost forty tonnes of silver and 3.3 tonnes of gold. (Harrington, Islands in the Salish Sea, 114). Iron was discovered in 1871, at Welcome Bay. According to the literature of the "Texada Iron Mines", the ore is magnetite, of 69% iron content, and "thousands of tons or ore, loose and broken, may be taken from the surface, and the solid deposit need on be quarried, not mined.. After mining commenced, some of the ore was shipped to Japan and the iron used in building warships that fought in the Russo-Japanese War.

With regard to the Indian presence on the island, both the Sliammon (Tla'amin) and Seshelt "First Nations" have made "aborigine rights" claims to Texada under British Columbian law. Some tourist-oriented publications urge that there were no permanent Indian settlements here because of a reputed legend that the island rose suddenly out of the sea and would just as suddenly return. But shell middens three or four feet deep evidence that the Indian presence here was substantial. What we don't know is whether that presence was continuous or intermittent, and year-round or seasonal. Even if they had homes here, that doesn't guarantee that they were residing on Texada in the 1630s.

But notice that I fudged as to whether Indians were really living there or not. A future story will reveal "the truth" -- at least the truth for the purpose of the 1632 universe, with no reflection on real-life Indian rights.


Author's Notes/Wild Geese

Mortality During Voyage. Probably the worst record from the slave trade was 10.56% mortality over the average 60.4 d journey from Bight/Biafra to West Indies. For Congo-Angola, 56d, it was only 3.56%.

The Japanese aren't going to be traveling under as harsh living conditions as African slaves. However, their voyage is going to be longer, say 3 months, and they are more genetically susceptible to scurvy. See Delanghe, Vitamin C deficiency and scurvy are not only a dietary problem but are codetermined by the haptoglobin polymorphism, Clin Chem. 2007 Aug;53(8):1397-400 ; Delanghe, Vitamin C deficiency: more than just a nutritional disorder, Genes Nutr. 2011 November; 6(4): 341–346;

A 50% loss is possible without anti-scorbutics but they do have seaweed, etc. 1 cup fresh seaweed provies about 15% daily vitamin C., pickled seaweed about 8%.

Also Kabu (turnip) roots, komatsuna (mustard spinach),

It has been argued that the Asian habit of eating fruits and vegetables, including those with vitamin C, helps explain the relative scarcity of references to scurvy in East Asian sources.

See Tock, Avoiding the Dire Straits: An Inquiry Into Food Provisions and Scurvy in the Maritime and Military History of China and Wider East Asia p. 250.
Japanese Settlements. This isn't made explicit, but the settlements have to be large enough to overawe the local Indians but small enough not to overload the local ecosystem. I have about two thousand colonists distributed over four settlements, so that's an average of five hundred apiece, not counting the losses in the course of the voyage. The Japanese also have the strategic advantage of control of Monterey Bay, giving them interior lines of communication, since the local Indians just have reed rafts. Of course, if the Spanish came, that would be another matter...

Redwoods. There are redwoods in the Santa Cruz area -- look up Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park. For Date Masamune's interest in forestry, see Meriweather, Life of Date Masamune, in Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, 35-6 (1893).

Mourning the Dead. Originally, I didn't have any detailed information about Ohlone mourning rituals, so I relied on Merriam, "The Mourning Ceremony of the Miwok, 1906" in Heizer, The California Indians: A Sourcebook. The Miwoks live in Marin County, north of the Golden Gate. However, the Ohlone ritual described in Margolin, The Ohlone Way 145-9 is similar enough.

Really, the most important point from a plot standpoint is that the Ohlone believed that the dead go to a land across the sea, and that's mentioned in Levy, "Costanoan," in the Handbook of North American Indians.

Rice planting. The conflict between Churoku on the one hand, and Murata and Togu on the other, with regard to rice planting rituals is a good example of the practical problems that Christianity would have encountered. It was one thing to expect the converts to go to confession or finger prayer beads or even flagellate themselves. It was another to ask them to change their agricultural rituals and risk a crop failure. It wasn't a new problem for the Church; in Europe, some pagan agricultural deities were reinvented as saints, and some pagan rituals were given a Christian veneer (like Morris dancers singing "Hark now to the angels sing, 'glory to the Morris ring!'"). And that was, essentially, the solution that Hyonai proposed.

Syncretism was nothing new to the Japanese; they had already achieved something of a merger of Shintoism and Buddhism. A particular theological form was sometimes called Ryobu Shinto

However, it also existed on a more pragmatic less philosophical level

It helped, by the way, that the Buddhist priests could conduct funerals, which the Shinto priests avoided as "polluting".

That said, the combination of Christian and pagan practices was, before Christianity was banned, a source of great irritation to the Christian missionaries in Japan.

Rice crop failure. In OTL, the rice growing in California was in the Sacramento and San Joaquin river valleys and, because total annual precipitation was on the low side, was heavily dependent on irrigation. The reason I had the rice crop fail -- other than to deepen the religious crisis -- is that Yoshida, Fundamentals of Rice Crop Science 72 says that for the anthesis growth stage, the critical low temperature is a daily mean temperature of 22C. The daily mean for Monterey does not exceed 17C (which it reaches in October). Hence, substantial cold injury can be expected, even when local microclimates are taken into account. In contrast, in July and August, the daily mean in Sacramento is 25C.

Princess Nukata. The tanka mentioned in 'Wild Geese" was translated by Dr. Hisashi Nakamura and may be found in "Ten Thousand Leaves: The 1,250th Anniversary of Manyoshu, The Oldest Collection of Japanese Poems" p. 4 (Anglo-Japanese Tanka Society, 2009).


American River. Yep, the encyclopedia volume in question doesn't separately label the three forks of the American as North, Middle and South; it labels the North fork as the American and doesn't identify the others at all. My principal sources on the American River itself are Sanborn, The American, and the Diary of Fray Narciso Duran, concerning the 1817 Arguiello expedition.

Reconstructing the old channel of the river, pre-Folson dam, wasn't easy, but I found an 1839 map of Sutter's Grant of New Helvetia and an 1894 map of Sacramento County. For the Sacramento River, there's also the Moraga diary (1808), Lewis, Sutter's Fort, and Dana, The Sacramento. For water levels in the rivers, there was USGS data going back to 1910. And Dunn, of Sierra Nevada Photos, constructed a nice chart of the monthly average full natural flow for twelve major Sierra Nevada rivers. For monthly precipitation, see Stutler, An Historical Geography of the Yolo By-Pass (MA Geography, 1968). For boating conditions, see Pike, Paddling Northern California. The Sacramento County Parks map of the American River Parkway was helpful in locating some of the old bars mentioned in Gold Rush accounts.

Tadateru's letter. Alas, there's no record of Matsudaira Tadateru ever having written anything like this. The letter was based, rather, on one written by the scholar Hirose Kyokuso to his second wife in 1832, see Bolitho, Bereavement and Consolation: Testimonies from Tokugawa Japan 115-6. In essence, since I was portraying Matsudaira Tadateru as arrogant, incompetent and greedy, I felt I needed to give him a better side to explain why Iroha had remained loyal to him.

Tadateru's disgrace. See Murdoch, A History of Japan 493-4 for the Okubo conspiracy, 545 for his nonchalant attitude toward Sanada's escape, and Brinkley, A History of the Japanese People, 593 for the hunting incident.

Tadateru and Iroha as Christians. Tadateru, as previously noted, was involved in conspiracy with Christians and he may have made at least a show of conversion. According to Dodd, Japan: the Rough Guide 242, at the Zuigan-ji temple museum in Matsushima, one can see a statue of Iroha-hime, dressed in black and clutching a rosary.

Shipwreck. I had great fun researching shipwrecks in order to decide exactly how to teach Tadateru a lesson. My main sources were Delgado and Haller, Submerged Cultural Resource Assessment, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, etc. 1989), now available online, and Delgado's popular work, Shipwrecks at the Golden Gate (1990).

I also studied the Golden Gate's undersea topography, prevailing winds and tidal currents. The Golden Gate has been improved by more than a century of engineering projects, so I had to go back to early harbor maps, such as that of Duflot de Mofras (1844) and Captain Beechey (1826).

While tidal data obviously doesn't go back to 1634, I figured that since tides are caused by the moon and sun, I could find a date in September 1634 that was an integer number of "Metonic cycles" from a date I had a forecast or historical data for. Take, for example, September 9, 1634. From the Almagest Ephemeris Calculator here:

20 metonic cycles later was Sept. 8, 2014.

Using Pentcheff, WWW Tide and Curent Predictor for San Francisco Bay Entrance, I could view a forecast of the times of the flood and ebb tides, and and the speeds of the currents, for September 2014. Using the US Naval Observatory site, I could determine the times of sunset and moonrise. I also studied the USGS Near-Real Time Current Velocity Maps in San Francisco Bay, which showed the geographic distribution of the currents, for different parts of the tidal cycle.

As for the nastiness of being, as Jack London once put it, facing a "strong ebb tide, racing down the Straits in the teeth of the wind," see his short story "Demetrios Contros", in the Tales of the Fish Patrol.

Mud. For the dangers of the mud flats of San Francisco Bay, I am again indebted to Jack London, this time to his story "Yellow Handkerchief" in the same anthology.

Kiyoshi's find. The sand bar was probably "Negro Bar", where in early 1850, each man typically collected one or two ounces of gold a day. (California Department of Education, "Negro Bar"). The present "Negro Bar State Recreation Area" is on the opposite of the river.

Pineapple Express. A Pineapple Express weather system hit California in 2010-11, shortly after I wrote this scene. See Witze, "Rivers in the sky," Science News 20 (Feb. 26, 2011). There were major floods in the Sacramento Valley in 1845-6, 1849-50, March 1852, 1852-3, etc. Hunsaker, "Lake Sacramento" (2005), culminating in the Great Flood of 1861-2. See Kelley, Battling the Inland Sea, Wells, "Notes on the Winter of 1861-1862 in the Pacific Northwest," Kattelman, "Flooding from rain-on-snow events in the Sierra Nevada," and Taylor, "The Great California flood of 1862."

Women commanding men. Sengoku, remember, is the "warring states" period, roughly 1467 (beginning of the Onin War) until 1600 (Battle of Sekigihara). In 1542, Ohori Tsuruhimi, daughter of the chief priest of the Oyamazumi shrine, inherited his position, and led troops against the Ouchi. Ii Naotora was a female daimyo (but offically a mail). In 1585-9, from her father's death without male heirs until her marriage, Tachibana Ginchiyo was the head of her clan. There were a handful of other cases.

Plop! The ending is something of an inside joke, it's a reference to the most famous haiku ever written (one by Matsuo Basho).
Autumn Wind

Sardine fishing. For contemporary Japanese fishing methods, see Kalland, Fishing Villages in Tokugawa Japan. For the sardine schools of Monterey Bay, see Scofield, Sardine Fishing Methods at Monterey California, Fish Bulletin No. 19, Division of Fish and Game of California (1929).

The Cross at Carmel. In December 1769, the Portola expedition erected a cross on southeast shore of Monterey Bay. When they returned to the area in May, 1770, they found that the natives had placed arrows around it.

Red rock. The red rock is cinnabar (mercuric sulfide, native vermilion) which according to Helzer, The Natural World of the California Indians 152, was mined at New Almaden, and used as a red face paint. Also see Sloan, A Pictorial History of American Mining, 6-7, who says that the Indians used it as a body paint. Cinnabar is also mentioned in Margolin, The Ohlone Way 99-100.

Going somewhere far to the north. I didn't say where the Japanese-born priest from Nagasaki was sent, but there are a number of possibilities. Within California, the most likely are the Russian River and Humboldt Bay. And there are many more options further north. Right now, I don't know myself....

Hanging upside-down in a pile of shit. A reference to the most effective of the tortures, anatsurushi. For a description, see Hesselink, Prisoners from Nambu, 68; Elison, Deus Destroyed 191.

Indian arrows. I actually have no information about how the arrows of the Ixchenta differ from those of the Achista. In fact, the only California Indians for whom I have such information are the Yahi, Hupa and Shasta, in Northern California. However, the differences that First-to-Dance noticed are the sort of thing that distinguishes arrows from different tribes. See Hamm, Bows & Arrows of the Native Americans.

As to the error made by the Japanese, I must also observe that it was hardly unusual in the OTL American West for one group of Indians to be blamed for what another one had done.

The scourge. The missionaries commented on the enthusiasm with which the Japanese converts flagellated themselves.

Daizo's illness. For those who haven't figured out what it was, it's Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

Daizo's double prayer. In 1564, a recent convert was found praying to Amida Buddha in front of a Christian Church, and made this curious explanation. See Higashibaba, Christianity in Early Modern Japan 38.

Mizukata and Ojiyaku. Christianity survived in Japan during the two centuries of repression, but in distorted form. We know little of what form it took during the 1630s, when contact with western priests was rare but not impossible. The terms "mizukata" and "ojiyaku" are actually from two different communities of the Kakure Kirishitan, the Hidden Christians who revealed themselves after Japan was reopened by Commodore Perry. For details, see Harrington, Japan's Hidden Christians and Turnbull, The Kakure Kirishitan of Japan.

Ancestor Rites Controversy. One of the early issues facing the Catholic missionaries in Asia was whether to speak out against the Chinese and Japanese rituals relating to ancestors. Were they merely honoring one's ancestors, and thus a civil ceremony permissible to Christians, or were they acts of worship or superstition, and thus prohibited? The Jesuits favored a conciliatory approach, and the Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustans disagreed. Christianity was banned in Japan before this dispute was resolved. The decision of Pope Clement XI (1715) to prohibit the participation of converts in the "worship of ancestors" prompted Chinese Emperor Kangxi's decree that Christianity could no longer be preached in China.
The Night Heron's Scream

Noh play. The Noh play is Sanemori, and you can find a synopsis here: . By the way, there's a haiku that refers to the play, see Aitken, The River of Heaven: The Haiku of Basho, Buson, Issa, and Shiki 83.

"Old Woman's Skin." This folktale is in Fujita, Folktales from the Japanese Countryside.

Cinnabar again. As far as I can tell, in the old time line the Japanese of our period were not aware of the use of mercury in amalgamating gold. Hence, cinnabar was used simply in making a red ink. My source on the cinnabar monopoly is Takeoshi, The economic aspects of the history of the civilization of Japan, I: 366, II:480-1`.

"Words, once let loose, cannot be retrieved even by a team of four galloping horses." This is reference to a saying from the Analects of Confucius, "A four-horse team cannot overtake the tongue." See Buchanan, Japanese Proverbs and Sayings 71-72 for this saying and two very similar ones.

Leather armor. The Japanese cuirass is the do. . Date Masamune equipped his army with Yukinoshita do, a style designed by Yukinoshita Denshichirô Hisaie, featuring a five plate structure.

Wikipedia/Japanese Armor says that during the Heian period the armor makers "started to use leather (nerigawa) " and that by the end of that period "Leather and or iron scales were used to construct samurai armours...." Leather was used in the construction, but I am not so sure that any 17c do were made entirely of leather. A kawara "armor made of leather scales sewed on cloth" was apparently used some centuries earlier. "Leather always remained a great favorite of Japanese armorers, not only as the connective link which held the various pieces of armor together but also as the basic material for the armor itself--the plate of leather being reinforced by iron or steel plates,or mail, or else lacquered until an embossed and sturdy rigidity was obtained." Ratti, Secrets of the Samurai 187.

Eta (burakumin). For the Catholic attitude toward the burakumin, see The History of Buraku Discrimination and the Catholic Church in Japan. It's interesting to compare the treatment of leatherworkers, gravediggers, etc. in Japan with that of similar occupations in Europe, for which see Stuart, Defiled Trades and Social Outcasts.

"Danzaemon" was used as a title for the leaders of the Eta in Edo (Tokyo). See Dunn, Everyday Life in Traditional Japan 145. Some say it was derived from the personal name of YANO Danzaemon, who was the leader in the early 1600s. De Vos, Japan's Invisible Race: Caste in Culture and Personality 28. However, others claim that "the first Danzaemon was appointed by Minamoto no Yoritomo in 1180." Ogyu, Ogyu Sorai's Discourse on Government 106 n. 147. That's before Edo was founded, so I decided to assume that all eta headmen were given the title "Danzaemon."

Cotton from a stone. Another proverb, see Buchanan 16.

"Fifty steps, one hundred steps." Another proverb, see Buchanan 213.

Bears in California. Boy, did this one stir up controversy when I slushed the story for comment. The bit about how the Indians regarded grizzlies is from Heizer, The Natural World of the California Indians 103. However, while I am not aware of any instances of the Chumash hunting grizzlies, several other California tribes did. See Storer, California Grizzly 83-86 (and for the original range of grizzlies, see 18).

Generally speaking, grizzlies don't make predacious attacks on people. However, such attacks have occurred, see Herrero, Bear Attacks: Their Causes and Avoidance 77. They are most likely to be launched by a bear that's old or infirm, and thus having trouble catching its normal prey. And such attacks may have been more common centuries ago, when humans were less of a threat to the grizzly. In the 1770s, the Spanish reported having seen the injuries inflicted by grizzlies on both Ohlone and Obispeno Chumash. Storer 80. The Spanish found that shooting grizzlies helped them ingratiate themselves with the Obispeno Chumash. Storer 81.

For the method of deer hunting used by White Cloud, see Margolin, The Ohlone Way 33 (and yes, I know White Cloud is Chumash, not Ohlone). But the method wasn't limited to the Ohlone; note the illustration of a Sacramento Valley Indian wearing a deer mask while hunting, at Heizer 102.

The name "Little Giant" given to Hikobei was actually given by Manitoban Indians to Henry Kelsey in 1691, after he killed two bears. Herrero 11.

Chosan ikki. A chosan ikki, as noted in the story, was a classic peasant resistance tactic. For descriptions of chosan ikki and other peasant rebellion tactics, see Walthall, Peasant Uprisings in Japan (describes selected episodes) and Vlastos, Peasant Protests And Uprisings in Tokugawa Japan (gives statistics and a formal analysis).

I also took into account the Shibuzome Uprising of 1856, which was a burakumin reaction to new laws requiring them to wear special clothes and to defer to ordinary peasants. See Ooms, Tokugawa Village Practice, 267-70.

"Shin-heimin," "new commoners,", was the term introduced by the 1871 Emancipation Decree. See Lie, Multiethnic Japan 86.

Exiled lepers. This story came from Boyle, A Brief History of Buraku Discrimination in Japan.

Massacre of Chinese. The reference is to the 1603 massacre in Manila. See

(It happened again in OTL 1639.)

"young of frogs". Another proverb, see Buchanan 45.

"fish must learn to climb trees". This is a play on the Japanese reference to "fish climbing trees" to mean something that is impossible, see Buchanan 17.

The Japanese abacus (soroban). For explanation of how to use the soroban, I am indebted to Bernazzani, Soroban Abacus Handbook.

Shima's song. I had originally written my own, but then I came across Lafcadio Hearn's rendition of Agemaki (16th century) in his book Shadowings (copyr. 1900), and I modified it somewhat.

The idea of making Hiraku a mathematical prodigy came from my exposure to a short biography of Seki Kowa (1642-1708) in Smith, A History of Japanese Mathematics 91 . Seki reputedly pointed out math errors by adults when he was five, and helped a servant solve a problem in Yoshida's Jinko-ki when he was nine. I greet this kind of hagiographic account with considerable skepticism, but since I was writing fiction, not a history of mathematics, I considered it grist for the mill. Smith was also a good source for the problems worked by Hiraku for the entertainment of the visiting Commissioners.

Jade. Jade (specifically, nephrite) may be found in several locations along the Big Sur coastline, but the locale I had in mind is Jade Cove.

"The world is dark, yet can I see to walk, the silver moon illuminating my path." A paraphrase of Date Masamune's death poem. (Merriweather 38).
Additional references for some HDTs:

on van der Goes: Edmundson*.html

on the Vorst family

Biographical Lexicon for Correspondence of Descartes

on Sir John Harvey

on David de Vries,%20Merchant%20Mariner,%20Dutch%20Patroon
Japanese and American Indian Names

Generally speaking, only samurai and nobles had official surnames. However, a commoner could have a surname in certain situations. First, in the late sixteenth century, the "country samurai" were given the choice of become full-time samurai, and moving into a castle town, or becoming full-time farmers and giving up their katanas. In the latter case, they usually kept their samurai surnames and passed them on to their descendants.

Secondly, a commoner could be awarded the right to use a surname as a reward for some special service to his daimyo or (especially in the later Tokugawa period, when the daimyo were poorer and merchants richer) the right could simply be bought.

Third, a commoner could be adopted into a samurai family.

Fourth, a commoner could use the surname illegally, perhaps with the support of forged genealogy (but if it was used on official documents, that was a potential capital offense).

Finally, commoners could have a byname that functioned much like a surname but wasn't considered such. Merchants took yago (house names) that functioned like surnames; these usually had the form of geographical location name + "ya" ("house"), "occupation name" + ya or "name of business" + ya. A farmer might informally use a patronymic or a name indicating where his house or land was located within the village. Someone who moved to the big city might have a byname indicating origin.

Just to complicate matters further, a samurai could have a formal name, a nickname, and a pen name. And they would change names, perhaps adopting a syllable of a superior's name to curry favor or at the superior's behest, or to mark a major life event like reaching adulthood, being adopted into another family, forming a new alliance, or retiring.

I felt that it was hard enough on the reader to have to remember Japanese names without having to also learn American Indian names, so the latter are given as English translations. (Which is also easier on the author, as some of the Indian languages in question are extinct.)

Western readers aren't likely to know much about Japanese history, so this chronology may be helpful. My sources didn't always agree as to the year in which certain events occurred, but since this isn't a scholarly text, I see no need to go crazy over the inconsistencies.

1543 First Europeans (Portuguese) arrive in Japan, on Chinese ship. Within a year, Lord Tokitaka's chief swordsmith, Yatsuita Kinbei, had made his first ten copies of Portuguese arquebuses.

1549 First missionaries arrive in Japan.

1571 Nobunaga suppresses the Tendai warrior monks on Mount Hiei.

1587 First expulsion of missionaries (possibly a reaction to the desecration of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in domains under the rule of Christian daimyo).

1588 Hideyoshi Sword Hunt (takes weapons away from commoners, but of course they still have farm implements).

1591 Hideyoshi Separation Edict (forces country samurai to choose whether to be samurai and live in castle towns or be farmers and live in countryside).

1592-8 invasions of Korea.

1596 Captain of the shipwrecked (and subsequently seized) Manila galleon San Felipe tells the Japanese that the Spanish Empire is as large as it is because "our kings begin by sending missionaries into the lands they wish to conquer."

1597 Hideyoshi establishes early forms of the goningumi and juningumi collective responsibility groups; Christian persecution begins, but directed mostly against the Franciscans.

1598-1614 the only time that a bishop was in residence in premodern Japan.

1600 Ieyasu wins battle of Sekigahara. Crackdown on Fuju fuse sect of Nichiren Buddhism. William Adams shipwrecked on Japanese coast.

1603 Ieyasu becomes Shogun.

1604 On Ieyasu's orders, Adams built a western style ship, of eighty tons.

1605 Ieyasu's son Hidetada becomes Shogun, Ieyasu "retires" but continues to rule.

1607 Adams builds a second ship, of 120 tons. This was lent in 1610 to the Spanish governor of the Philippines, who renamed it the San Buena Ventura and used it to return to Mexico.

1609 Shimazu clan conquer and become secret rulers of Ryukyu Islands. Hidetada tells tozama (outside lords, the ones who weren't allies of Ieyasu at Sekigahara) to spend winters in Edo. Dutch establish trading post at Hirado.

1613 Okubo conspiracy (including letters suggesting that foreign soldiers be used to overthrow Ieyasu) discovered posthumously. Date Masamune has western style ship built (108 feet long and 36 feet wide, probably in the 500-750 ton range) to carry diplomatic mission to Europe, via Mexico. Apostasized Christians forced to register at local temple. English establish trading post at Hirado.

1614 Missionaries expelled. Ban on Christ becomes nationwide, but applied only to nobles and samurai. Christianity declared to be evil religion.

1615 Toyotomi defeated at Osaka. Code of Conduct (only one castle/daimyo, repairs only with permission) promulgated.

1616 Christianity banned again, even for commoners. Europeans restricted to Nagasaki and Hirado. Ieyasu dies.

1620s Goningumi becomes more extensively adopted and is important tool in the detection of Christians.

1623 Iemitsu becomes Shogun. English leave because their "factory" is unprofitable.

1624 Spanish traders expelled.

1627 Imperial powers limited.

1629 Emperor forced to abdicate over 1627 attempt to exercise authority over priesthood (the Purple Robes Incident).

1630 Crackdown on Chinese books on Christianity. New crackdown on Fuju fuse sect.

1631 or 1632 Tokugawa Tadanaga disgraced and placed under house arrest.

1632 Hidetada dies. Kata Tadahiro domain confiscated for taking Edo-born son back home without Tokugawa permission.

(The events which follow are more likely to be butterflied by the Ring of Fire in May 1631. That may change when they happen, how they happen, who they affect, or whether they happen at all.)

1633 Ban on Japanese travel abroad without red seal.

1633 or early 1634 (14 months after confinement) Tadanaga ordered to commit seppuku.

1634 Iemitsu takes army of over 300,000 to Kyoto, the imperial residence.

1634 or 1635 sankin kotai (daimyo must reside in Edo every other year, and they must leave hostages, wife and heir, there at all times) system formalized. Prohibition on building a ship over 400 koku in size.

1635 overseas Japanese forbidden to return (Boxer says this was in June 1636), temple registration (terauke seido) applied nationally.

1636 Portuguese moved to Dejima.

1636 or 1637 ban on Japanese leaving country.

1637 Dec. 11 Shimabara rebellion begins.

1638 April 12 Shimabara rebellion ends.

1639 Portuguese expelled.

1641 Dutch moved to Dejima.

1854 Commodore Perry arrives and forces opening of Japanese ports.

1868 Meiji restoration of imperial rule.
Some Comments on the Tribes Featured in the Book

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