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Common Core Social Studies Learning Plan



Lesson Title: Analyzing the Declaration of Independence






Author Name: Trevor Moffat
Contact Information: tmoffat@washoeschools.net
Appropriate for Grade Level(s): 7/8
History Standard(s)/ H2.[6-8].8 Determine the significance of the first and second Continental Congress and the Committees of Correspondence.

H2.[6-8].9 Describe the events, course, and results of the American Revolution, including the contributions of women, African Americans, and Native Americans.

H3.[6-8].3 Describe key political ideas that influenced the American Revolution and the formation of the United States.

H3.[6-8].4 Explain the major ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence.

Applicable CCSS(s) (RI, W, S&L, L): CCSS.R.6-8.1, CCSS.R.6-8.2, CCSS.R.6-8.4, CCSS.R.6-8.8, CCSS.W.6-8.1, CCSS.W.6-8.4, CCSS.W.6-8.9, CCSS.SL.8.1, CCSS.SL.8.3, CCSS.SL.8.4, CCSS.L.8.4
Type of Lesson: Modified Close Reading
Student Readings (list): Declaration of Independence.
Total Time Needed: 4-6 60 minute class periods
Essential Question: How did Thomas Jefferson justify breaking free from British rule?
Lesson Summary: This lesson is a part of a unit on the Revolutionary War. Prior to completing this lesson, students should be introduced to the events leading up to the Declaration of Independence, including the French and Indian War, the Proclamation of 1763, various taxes placed on the colonists, the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Intolerable Acts, Lexington and Concord and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense.
Lesson Outline:

Time Frame

(e.g. 15 minutes)

What is the teacher doing?

What are students doing?

30 minutes

For Part C of the lesson, students should be heterogeneously grouped. This step should be completed beforehand to ensure a smooth transition.

Teacher should ensure the following link works properly:



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uE-tqe0xsQ

N/A (pre-lesson step)

30 minutes: Reading of the Declaration

Students should be placed in their heterogeneous groups. The class should be given 15 minutes to quietly read over the document. After this, the above link should be played and students should follow along.

Quietly read over Declaration individually and then follow along as it is read aloud.

15 minutes: Part A of the Declaration.

Go over part A with the students. Play the beginning of the Declaration. Then read and go over questions 1 at a time. Provide time for students to answer individually and then share out

Listen to question, answer in complete sentence, share out with group.

30 minutes: Part B: Statement of Beliefs

Play the statement of beliefs and have students follow along. Show students rules for paraphrasing and have them work individually, and then in pairs on Part B. Monitor progress

Students are working in groups of 4, annotating the document paragraph by paragraph. When done, they then fill out the FRONT of the table.

30

Part C: Grievances Individual



Remind class rules for paraphrasing. Again, play reading of grievances and have students follow along. Explain to students they will first be working individually to read over the pieces of evidence pulled out on part C. Next, students are expected to rank the evidence from 1-8, with one being the BEST evidence to support the claim (British treatment of the colonists left them with no choice but to declare independence) and 8 being the worst evidence to support the claim. After this, students should PARAPHRASE (put into their own words) the top three pieces of evidence.

Students listen to directions and then work on part C individually

45 minutes: Part C Cooperative learning

Teacher explains how Part C will then be shared out in groups of 4. Each group will be provided with a clean copy of part C for this step.

  • Students will share their rankings and come to a consensus on 1-8. One student is responsible for keeping notes on why 1-3 were and 7-8 were ranked the way they were

  • Groups will then PARAPHRASE the top three pieces of evidence. A different student in each group is responsible for this step

  • Groups will lastly write out their reasoning for the top 3 pieces of evidence. Again, a different student will be responsible for this step

  • The last student will be responsible for taking notes on the progress of the group; Which evidence was the hardest to rank? Why? Which paraphrasing was the most challenging? Reasoning?

Teacher will monitor group progress

Groups will complete the three steps.

30 minutes Part D: Declaring Independence

Students will be working in pairs again. Play part the last portion of the Declaration. Monitor progress as students answer part D.

In pairs, students complete part D.

60-120 minutes: Paragraph writing




Students outline and then write a paragraph taking sides on the essential question (pages of the attachment


Description of Lesson Assessment: Students will complete an argumentative paragraph where they support the claim: British treatment of the colonists left them with no choice but to declare independence using evidence from the Declaration. For this, they will be provided with both essays and will use the information from part C and the class discussion. They first will fill out the outline and then will transfer the outline to the paragraph page. Before turning the final paragraph in, students will highlight their claim, evidence and reasoning so it is clear all components were included (and easier for the teacher to understand).
How will students reflect on the process and their learning? Students will reflect through part C of the process

The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.


He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. 
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them (soldiers), by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. 
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.





Signed by] JOHN HANCOCK [President]


New Hampshire 
JOSIAH BARTLETT, 
WM. WHIPPLE, 
MATTHEW THORNTON.

Massachusetts Bay
SAML. ADAMS,
JOHN ADAMS,
ROBT. TREAT PAINE,
ELBRIDGE GERRY

Rhode Island
STEP. HOPKINS,
WILLIAM ELLERY.

Connecticut
ROGER SHERMAN, 
SAM'EL HUNTINGTON, 
WM. WILLIAMS, 
OLIVER WOLCOTT.

New York
WM. FLOYD, 
PHIL. LIVINGSTON, 
FRANS. LEWIS, 
LEWIS MORRIS.

New Jersey
RICHD. STOCKTON, 
JNO. WITHERSPOON, 
FRAS. HOPKINSON, 
JOHN HART, 
ABRA. CLARK.

Pennsylvania
ROBT. MORRIS
BENJAMIN RUSH,
BENJA. FRANKLIN,
JOHN MORTON,
GEO. CLYMER,
JAS. SMITH,
GEO. TAYLOR,
JAMES WILSON,
GEO. ROSS.

Delaware 
CAESAR RODNEY, 
GEO. READ, 
THO. M'KEAN.

Maryland
SAMUEL CHASE,
WM. PACA,
THOS. STONE,
CHARLES CARROLL of Carrollton.

Virginia
GEORGE WYTHE,
RICHARD HENRY LEE,
TH. JEFFERSON,
BENJA. HARRISON,
THS. NELSON, JR.,
FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE,
CARTER BRAXTON.

North Carolina
WM. HOOPER,
JOSEPH HEWES,
JOHN PENN.

South Carolina
EDWARD RUTLEDGE,
THOS. HAYWARD, JUNR.,
THOMAS LYNCH, JUNR.,
ARTHUR MIDDLETON.

Georgia
BUTTON GWINNETT,
LYMAN HALL,



Name___________________ ___________________________ Period________________

Declaration of Independence

Section A:

Directions: Read the PREAMBLE to the Declaration of Independence and answer the questions that follow:
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
1. In your own words, what does “In the course of human events mean?”_______________________________________
2. The word dissolve (line 1) has two meanings: A) to become a part of a liquid or B) to close down or dismiss. Using evidence from the passage, explain which meaning is correct in this context:_____________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. According to the passage, what are people required to do if they are dissolving a government?____________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Section B:

Directions: Read the statement of beliefs from the Declaration of independence. Paraphrase each of the beliefs below
1. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, 2. that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.—3. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --4.That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. 5. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. 6. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.—7. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.8. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

1.________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. ________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.________________________________________________________________________________________________

8.________________________________________________________________________________________________

Section C. Grievances



Claim: British treatment of the colonists left them with no choice but to declare independence.

Possible Evidence

What is this text saying?

(in your own words)

Ranking

1-8 (1=best)

Choose your three (3) top ranked pieces of evidence. Write out the REASONING to demonstrate why this piece of evidence supports the claim.

Be clear and specific.

“He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.”










“He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.”









“For protecting them (soldiers), by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States.”









“For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world”









“For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent”









“For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury”









“He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.”










“In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. “










Questions to Consider When Choosing the Best Pieces of Evidence to Support a Claim

  • Do my chosen pieces of evidence make sense in the following equation:

evidence & reasoning + evidence & reasoning + evidence & reasoning = well supported claim

*Hint: If any of your pieces of evidence contradict one another and this contradiction is not easily reconciled with your reasoning, you may need to choose a different combination of evidence.



  • Does this evidence link directly to my claim? Or, am I trying to force a fit with my claim?


Section D Declaration of independence: (From "WE, therefore" to "and our sacred Honour.") What will change in the colonies as a result of the Declaration?
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

In the final Section “Resolution of the Independence by the United States,” list THREE rights that Jefferson says the United States now have the power to do by being independent.


1._________________________________________________________________________

2._________________________________________________________________________

3. _________________________________________________________________________

Written portion:

On the attached page, use evidence from section C to support the following claim:

British treatment of the colonists left them with no choice but to declare independence.



Name:_________________________________Period:_______________#_____________

Rewrite the question in your own words:

How does the Declaration of Independence justify breaking free from British rule?

Paragraph Outline

Claim

British treatment of the colonists left them with no choice but to declare independence



Evidence #1 (with citation- Line #’s?) _________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________



Reasoning Linking Evidence to Claim

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Evidence #2 (with citation- lines #?)

__________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________



Reasoning #2 Linking Evidence #2 to Claim

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Summary sentence

(summarize the paragraph)



__________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Name:____________________________________Period:__________________#____________

HIGHLIGHT: You must highlight before the paragraph is turned in!
CLAIM-GREEN EVIDENCE-RED OR PINK REASONING-YELLOW

Final Paragraph

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


***Sentence Starters for introducing Evidence:


For example,

Another example from the documents,

According to the documents,

In documents A it states

As found on document B,

As document…states,

Evidence for this can be seen on …



***Sentence starters for Reasoning or connecting evidence to claim:


This shows…

This demonstrates…

This evidence suggests

This evidence contributes

This evidence supports

This evidence confirms

It is apparent this evidence caused

Considering this evidence, it can be concluded

Based on the… it can be argued that

According to…

The connection

Hence,


This proves…

This highlights…



Claim

4




 Claim missing
 Reasoning unclear or does not demonstrate link to claim
 Document(s) not cited
 Evidence doesn’t support claim

Evidence #1 with citation

3




Reasoning links evidence/claim

5




Evidence #2 with citation

3




Reasoning links evidence/claim

5





Total 20_____________

Scoring Guide
Rubric:




Exceeds (4)

Meets (3)

Approaching (2)

Emerging (1)

Inadequate Performance (0)

The Claim

Presents a clear, well-developed /strong claim.

Presents a clear claim

Presents a claim using I and/or with limited development

Claim is confusing or underdeveloped. Might have used I.

Missing claim

Evidence

Supports claim with 2 substantial, relevant, and accurate pieces of evidence. Evidence is cited.

Supports claim with 2 substantial, relevant, and accurate pieces of evidence.

Supports claim with 2 pieces of evidence.

Provides minimal, irrelevant, or insufficient evidence.

Evidence is missing


Reasoning

Reasoning linking evidence (Both pieces of evidence) to claim is sound and logical. It helps persuade the reader.

Reasoning linking evidence (both pieces of evidence) to claim is sound

Only links 1 piece of evidence soundly to the claim

Reasoning used does not link evidence to claim

There is no clear reasoning


Language Choices

Uses sophisticated words, phrases and clauses to clarify the relationship and create cohesion btw the claim, evidence and reasoning.

Uses words, phrases and clauses to clarify the relationship and create cohesion btw claim, evidence and reasoning

Inconsistently uses words or phrases to clarify the relationship btw claim, evidence and reasoning

Attempts once to use words or phrases to clarify the relationship btw claim, evidence and reasoning

Language choices creates uncertainity


http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4148/5018046764_655e6d7a27_o.png
Paraphrasing Tips

Paraphrasing is the art of taking evidence from a text and making them your own. Below are some tips on improving this skill.


1. Discuss with a partner the essence of the passage. Or cover the passage and say its meaning aloud in your own words.
2. Change the structure of the sentence(s) that you are paraphrasing from – start and end in a different way.
3. Then, change the actual words to ensure that your thought is your own.
4. Check – do you have any groupings of two or more words that match the original that could be changed and keep the meaning the same.



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