Australopithecines, c. 2-4 million years ago Homo habilis, c. 1-4 million years ago Homo erectus, c. 100,000 8 million years ago
of Western Asia and Egypt
The First Humans
Australopithecines, c. 2-4 million years ago
Homo habilis, c. 1-4 million years ago
Homo erectus, c. 100,000-1.8 million years ago
Neanderthal, c. 100,000-30,000 B.C.
Homo sapiens sapiens, c. 200,000 B.C.
The Hunter-Gatherers of the Paleolithic Age
Paleolithic Age, c. 2,500,000-10,000 B.C.
Division of labor
Fire, 500,000 years ago
The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution (c. 10,000-4000 B.C.)
Characteristics: growing plants and domesticating animals
Mesolithic Age (c. 10,000 – 7000 B.C.)
Independent development of agriculture
Middle East, 8000 B.C.
Balkans, 6500 B.C.
France, Central Europe, and Coastal Mediterranean, 4000 B.C.
Western Asia and Nile Valley of Egypt, 6000 B.C.
Northwestern and Central India, 7000-5000 B.C.
Southeast Asia and South China, 5000 B.C.
North China, 6000 B.C.
Mesoamerica, 7000-5000 B.C.
of the Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic farms and villages
Oldest in the Middle East
Shift to systematic agriculture
Settled in villages and towns
Çatal Hüyük, 6700-5700 B.C.
Specialization of crafts
Pottery and baskets
Change in relationship of men and women
Men work in the fields and herd animals
Women care for children and weave cloth
Fixed dwellings and domestication of animals
The Rise of Civilization
Characteristics of Civilization
New political and military structures
New social structure based on economic power
Economic specialization, surplus of crops
The development of writing
New and significant artistic and intellectual activity **
Early Civilizations Around the World
Mesopotamia of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Valleys of the Indus River
Yellow River in northern China
Supe River Valley--Peru
Why civilization developed
Challenge and response
Material forces created specialization of labor
Management of water resources
Religion provided unity and purpose
The Ancient Near East
Civilization in Mesopotamia
City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia
Sumerian city-states, c. 3000-2350 B.C.
Temple atop a ziggurat
ruled the cities
Kingship divine in origin
Economy was agricultural
Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia
Akkadian Empire, c. 2340-2100 B.C.
Sargon around 2340 B.C. overran the Sumerian cities and established an empire over most of Mesopotamia**
Empire falls about 2100 B.C.
Amorites (Old Babylonians)
Hammurabi in 1792 B.C. creates a new empire
Established a new capital at Babylon
Code of Hammurabi
Penalties according to class
Performance of work
Marriage and the family
Regulations of sexual relations
Importance of Religion
Influence of physical environment
Human relationships with the gods
Numerous gods and goddesses
Cultivation of Writing and Sciences
Writing in the form of cuneiform (“wedge shaped”)
Primarily for record keeping which means retention of knowledge
Communicate important ideas
- Epic of Gilgamesh
Achievements in Math
Based on 60 using combinations of 6 and 10
Geometry to measure fields and erect buildings
Used 60 to chart the heavens
Calendar of 12 lunar months (extra month time to time)
The Importance of Geography
Nile River flows from central Africa
Nile as transport, unifying Egypt
Natural barriers create isolation, protection from invasion
The Old and Middle Kingdoms
The Old Kingdom
Upper and Lower Egypt united, 3100 B.C.
Old Kingdom, c. 2686-2125 B.C.
Divine kingship: the pharaoh (“great house”)
The Middle Kingdom, ca. 2055-1650 B.C.
Stability, golden age
of the pharaoh for the people
Society and Economy in Ancient Egypt
Pharaoh surrounded by an upper class of nobles
Merchant class and artisans
Most people worked the lands
Monogamy and early marriage the norm
Women’s property and inheritance remained in her hands
The Culture of Egypt
Spiritual life in Egyptian society
Provided a sense of security and timelessness
Polytheistic with two groups of special importance
Egyptian rulers were the “Son of Re”
Art and Writing
Profile, semi-profile, frontal art
Formulaic and stylized
Means “priest carvings” or “sacred writings”
Never developed into an alphabet
Chaos and a New Order:
The New Kingdom
Hyksos, ca. 1650 B.C.
Egyptians learned bronze for making farm implements and weapons
The New Kingdom, ca. 1550-1070 B.C.
Queen Hatshepsut (ca. 1503-1480 B.C.)**
Amenhotep IV (Akhnaten, ca. 1364-1347 B.C.)
Sea People” drove the Egyptians out of Palestine
Empire ends in 1070 B.C.
Domination by Libyans, Nubians, Persians & Macedonians
New Centers of Civilization
Megalithic structures, 4000 B.C.—Neolithic Europe**
The Role of Nomadic Peoples
The Impact of the Indo-Europeans
From somewhere in the steppe region north of the Black Sea or in southwestern Asia
One group into Asia Minor and Anatolia around 1750 B.C. coalesced with people of the Hittite kingdom
First to use iron
Hittites destroyed by another group of Indo-Europeans ca. 1200 B.C.
The Phoenicians & Children of Israel
Ports of Byblos, Tyre, and Sidon**
The Hebrews: the “Children of Israel”**
Emerge as distinctive people c. 1200 – 1000 B.C.
Saul (c. 1020 – 1000 B.C.)
David (c. 1000 – 970 B.C.)
Solomon (c. 970-930 B.C.)
Temple housed the Ark of the Covenant
The Divided Kingdom
Division into the kingdom of Israel with its capital at Samaria and Judah with its capital at Jerusalem
Assyrians destroyed Samaria in 722 B.C. and overran the kingdom of Israel
Ten tribes of the Kingdom of Israel were dispersed and disappeared
Two tribes of Judah survived only to face new enemies
Chaldeans defeated the Assyrians and destroyed Jerusalem in 586 B.C.
Many upper class people of Judah deported to Babylon
Persians destroyed the Chaldean kingdom
People of Judah allowed to return to Jerusalem
The Spiritual Dimensions of Israel
Yahweh: Omnipotent, just, and good
Expected goodness from his people or they would be punished
Was not removed from the life he created
Three aspects of Jewish religion:
, law, the prophets
The Assyrian Empire
Use of iron weapons, create an empire by 700 B.C.**
Ruled by kings with absolute power
System of communication
Well organized army -- infantrymen and war chariots
Use of terror
The Babylonian Empire
Conquered Assyria in 612 B.B.
King Nebuchadnezzar II (605 – 562 B.C.)—capital at Babylon
Conquered by Persians in 539 B.C.
The Persian Empire
Under Cyrus the Great (559 – 530 B.C.) huge empire
Conquered Assyria in 539 B.C., treated humanely
Allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem
Reputation for mercy
Cambyses (530-522 B.C.), son of Cyrus, conquered Egypt
Darius I (521-486 B.C.) extended empire but was defeated by Greeks in 490 B.C.
and the Military
Divided into 20 provinces or satrapies
Satraps collected tribute, responsible for justice and security
System of communication
All subjects were the king’s servants
Professional army of international contingents
Cavalry and infantry
Isolation of the later kings
Ahuramazda, the creator and only god
Opposed by an evil spirit: Ahriman
Gave all humans free will and the power to chose between right and wrong
Each soul faced final evaluation to determine if you go to paradise or an abyss
2010 -> The beginnings of modernization
2010 -> Black Like Me Study Questions (read all but the Epilogue)
2010 -> The Motives Economic National Grandeur
2010 -> Guide to Lecture 17 (Communism and The Cold War)
2010 -> Chapter 29: From Isolation to Global War multiple choice the biggest reason Britain and France had trouble repaying their war debts to the United States was that
2010 -> -
2010 -> Chapter 7 ferment in the middle east: the rise of islam and its impact in the region
2010 -> 1. The Roman historian Livy attributed the success of the Romans to
2010 -> Nationalism, revolution, and dictatorship: asia, latin america, and the middle eastfrom
2010 -> Chapter 20: Big Business and Organized Labor multiple choice
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