The Australian Naval Institute was formed and incorporated in the Australian Capital Territory in 1975. The main objects of the Institute are:
a. To encourage and promote the advancement of knowledge related to the Navy and the maritime profession,
h. to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas concerning subjects related to the Navy and the maritime profession, and
C. to publish a journal.
The Institute is self-supporting and non-profit-making. All publications of the Institute will stress that the authors express their own views and opinions are not necessarily those of the Department of Defence, the Chief of Naval Staff or the Institute. The aim is to encourage discussion, dissemination of information, comment and opinion and the advancement of professional knowledge concerning naval and maritime matters.
The membership of the Institute is open to:
a. Regular Members. Regular membership is open to members of the RAN or
RANR and persons who having qualified for regular membership, subsequently
leave the service.
b. Associate Members. Associate membership is open to all other persons not
qualified to be Regular Members, who profess an interest in the aims ol the
c. Honorary Members. Honorary membership is open to persons who have made a
distinguished contribution to the Navy or the maritime profession, or by pasi
service to the institute.
Views expressed in this journal are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Depanment of Defence, the Chief of Naval Staff or the Institute.
The Australian Naval Institute is grateful for the assistance provided by the corporations listed below. They are demonstrating their support for the aim of the Institute by being members of the "Friends of the Australian Naval Institute" coterie.
Australian Defence IndustriesRockwell Ship Systems
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The Enlorcement ot sanctions by the Multinational Naval Force— An RAN Perspective by CAPT R t Shalders. RAN
The Gull and ite Implications (or Economic Sanctions by Richard Leaver, Research Fellow, Department ot International Relations. Australian National University.
Maritime Operations In the Gull War by CDRE C J Oxenbould. RAN
Oovet Phataefuph HK1AS Success hi i'ii'
\t.i\ IWI Puce I
Journal of the Australian Naval Institute
From the President
The Western Allies fought their war against Iraq using concepts and equipment developed for a wat in r.uropc II there was such a clash in prospect, the results achieved in the Gull would Iv vers encouraging Western tactics and training proved themselves, Western weapon systems performed as die manulaclurers said they would and Western command, control and intelligence Sj steins ensured thai General Schwartz kofl had a hotter view ol his forces and those ill the oncmj than has ever been possible before.
Some might expert that the victory, the demise ol the Warsaw Pact and the decline ol the Si is ie( I iiion as a super pOWCI would Simplify Wesrem military planning l| hasn't While
governments accept titai they must continue to be prepared to use their armed forces they no
longer arc cleat about who, where, why and wklt whom they might have to light.
i lenerally it was (he impetus ol the Warsaw Pact threat that ensured dial the highest standards ol training and let luiOlogy were available to Western dclcnce forces. But in lulttrv die siluatron in Europe will not lustily such an effort and lite clamour lot a peace dividend is making spending on defence more vlitliiult to justify. In this environment and with high technology weapon Systems available in the world market place, the technological advantage the West lets Ix-en able 10 rets upon will Iv more difficult 10 maintain
The RAN has had considerable success convincing die Government of the merits of its proposal lor new submarines and destroyers. Success has been possible because senior naval staff in Canberra have a good understanding of Australia's defence environment ami its defence and Strategic intcresLs. and have been able to convince Government tliat the Navy can support these interests. II then su, eess tS to Iv repealed in die future those who aspire to senior rank will need 10 be equallv av vkillul and knowledgeable.
Willi dns in mind and with ihe financial assistance provided by the friends of the AM and the support of IIMAS WATSON, ihe Institute organised a seminar on die "(liilt War ami Maritime Power and Us I'laie in the New World Order on to May 1991
The Seminar was most successful and I thank everyone who made il so This edition of the Journal contains ihrec seminar papers which are relevant to the sanctions and war phases of the i .nil contingency. The next issue will discuss die place of maritime power in the new world order. I hope you will hnd ihem as interesting as I did.
To confirm the success o( the .Friends of the Institute' coterie. I am happy lo advise you that |we more corporations, Rotors lilectmnics Pacific and Ansell Australia, arc now members ol
iiiisciucgroup oi supporters
I.ui i allaway
Vuxe 2 - Men 199J
Ji'iirntil of the Australian Kami In Miliar
From the Editor
In (be aftermath of the Gulf War there has beet) considerable review of the Maritime and Land Force strategies. Some of this thought is discernable at the Various seminars proliferating the realms of aeademta. This issue of Ihe ANI Journal incorporates two articles representing lectures given at Ihe ANI Seminar in Sydney in May (his year. The Augusf ANI Journal will hopefully contain the remainder of the lectures delivered at that Seminar.
Readers will note that the number ot pages in the Journal is somewhat les than in previous issues. Tins has been due to a change in lont size and style. I would appreciate any feedback concerning the change in style as one ot my objectives is to deliver a Journal with as professional a presentation as posssible at a minimum cost. Reader satisfaction is the best metric for establishing this.
should deal with interesting reccnl developments in maritime matters which have a direct 01
indirect bearing on naval matters.
Contributions Irom overseas are welcome.
Articles specially written for the AM. and accompanied b> a statement to that effect, may be
eligible lor prizes from lime lo lime.
Hie Editor reserves the right lo reject or amend articles for publication
Articles Irom 2S00 to ftXX) words are welcomed and die Inslilulewill pay lot Original article* at SKI for each 1000 words published.
Long articles should be subdivided appropriate!] and accompanies by an abstraci nl up to 75 wonts describing die scope oi the article.
The Journal's established style is lor impersonal, semi-formal, prose Where a published WOfk whether serial or hook, is directly quoted, due acknowledgement should be given, S|vr ifil numbered references should be used where appropriate and a suitable bibliography appended lo die article.
Illustrations, photographs, graphics etc.
While glossy black-and-white prints are preferred, colour prints with good contrast are often acceptable Attach caption and othet information to the back oi die print with a small piece Ol tape. Tables, diagrams and graphs should, if complex, he can-fully drawn in black on white paper and Dusted as photographs. Simple tables can be reproduced in the typesetting process, but it is die author s responsibility lo ensure the darby of the information presented
As much of die journal as possible is entered from computer disk or via an optical scanner The preferred disk formal is Macintosh bul popular MS-DOS packages are welcome II in doubt, submit ASCII text formal. 'Die preforecd typescript formal for scanning is laser or daisy-wheel printer output, single-spaced on A4 paper. High-quality dot-matrix (24-pin) output may he acceptable. I csser quality (°-pml which might need to he entered by hand, should be double Spaced., Three hard copies or the article are required whether submitted on disk or otherwise
Copyright and clearance to publish
In submitting material lo die Journal, authors are gramme the ANI a non-exclusive licence io publish It is the responsibility of authors to Obtain from the appropriate source permission lo publish material that may be regarded as sensitive in any way. II an author vcnlures a personal opinion, the context should make ii impossible for any reasonable person lo infer Official sanction for thai opinion.
The cover sheet
The author s name, address, telephone number, present position and hncl biographical particulars. If an article has been previously published, a publication history should be mv haled.. Any outside assistance accorded die author in research or preparation should he acknowledged.
ANTS POSTAL ADDRESS IS PO BOX 80, CAMPBELL, ACT, 2601. TELEPHONE ENQUIRIES TO THE EDITOR. PH (06) 265 2020 (BUSINESS HOURS)
/Vice J- May IWI
Journal of tiir Australian Nuval Institute
Book Reviews SECURITY AND DEFENCE: PACIFIC AND GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES, edited by Desmond Ball and Cathy Downes, Allen & Unwln, 1991, soltcover, 517 pp, 25 pp of pages and figures, RRP $29.95.
Reviewed !>\ Tan Ftamt
This large Ixxik Kelloclivcly die second volume in a series entitled "Secunty and Defence". The first volume, subtitled "Selected Essays", was published in 19X2. Ii was a milestone work as the editors of diis second volume acknowledge. Never before had Australian defence and security been so comprehensively examined. This latest volume atiempis a similar broad survey, and il does it very well Die twenty two contributors, which includes the former Minister lor Defence, Kim Beazley, and the incumbent Chief of Air Staff, Air Marshal lunncll, have successfully laid bare the myriad ol issues and dilemmas which constitute national, regional and global defence and security planning in the 1990s. Unfortunately, die Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and die Gull War occurred loo late for diem to be mentioned in litis volume.
There arc a few- gaps and some repetition m die ucaunem bin this is to be expected in an anthology with so many contributors. However, die book is very well edited and pnxluecd to the standard that brxik buyers have come to expect from Allen & Unwin Considering the scope and depth of the work, and the calibre of ihc audioes, die price is very reasonable, Il did not need to he published as a hardcover book and thankfully, for die sake of price, it emerged as a softcover. However, at over 500 pages with a relatively light cover and a glued spine, 1 expect my now well-thumbed copy to look a little worse for wear in a few years. "This is, of course, a comment directed at the publishers and not the edilors.
The intended market lor this book is spell out in the preface. Il is "designed as a handbook lor students - at Australian military stall colleges as well as at universities - and for those more generally interested in security am) defence matters". One suspects it will appeal more to the
former than the latter, However, the gieai variation in chapter subtecls should attract a wide leadership.
The nine o( whal follows is set in die Foreword by Kim Beazley who admits to a common cause with the contributors. An advocate of a national policy which encompassed botfi defence ami security,
Beazley confirms die importance of pulling the case for enhanced national secunty measures to those he refers to as "our political masters" I lake that to mean his Cabinet colleagues He further suggests that a clearly lormulaicd and articulated polk v is the foremost persuasive means of achieving il. John Graham, reviewing this txxik recently in ihc Canberra Times. ux>k issue with the lonner minister having wrillen the foreword and for praising the participating academics for noi Idling the defence issue drop from public sight and thus depriving defence planners "of the essential underpinning of public support" Graham remarks, "Do lliey need that support and should academics be lending themselves to such an acuvity'' lxavmg aside Beazlcy's maladroit description of the relationship, the question is whether it is in the best academic tradition is a pertinent onc".
F'rohably without realising, Graham has identified an important development in the relationship between tire Strategic and Defence Studies Centre (SDSC) at ANl'., from which this book originates, and the Defence Department over the last lew years Since the decline of the ami nuclear movement following the 19X7 Federal election, SDSC has ensured its survival h> acting as a consultancy to Ihe Dclcncc Department. This made sense. The Centre boasted an array of very talented people who could provide alternate views and interpretations to those produced within the bureaucracy. Thus, SDSC undertook several USXS (or die Department and served as a useful sounding board. SDSC also hosts a visiting fellow from each of the Services
What all of this reflects is a realisation within acadenna and ihc government, ihal each needs to work closer together to their mutual benefit. In so doing, SDSC has become a participant in the defence and secunty process at the cost of losing a little
May IWI - /'age 5
Journal of the Australian Ntivul Inslttule ill its academic indcpcndcnco. Tlie eflecl has been a positive one. While retaining and exercising its right in criticise the governments policy, academic thinking has become more convenuonal, more constructive and more closely related to die current Bonds and developments within government. In essence, the academic" role has become practical and realistic while largely abandoning many traditional polemical agendas. The 1990s will be especially interesting as SDSC, the Peace Research Centre,, also at ANU, and the Australian Defence Studies Centre established at ADI-'A, contend for supremacy and for survival I Inc wonders whether there is MORI for all throe, particularly in Canberra, II they all rely on the same constituency, one doubts there is.
The affiliation of the contributors is also worthy of comment. More than half have worked in government at one lime or another, including ex-service officers. Given that only one currently serving officer has contributed, there must surely be a case for reviewing the current guidelines relating to comment and discussion of contemporary issues by service people. Service people no doubt have much to contribute and should be allowed to participate under cither less rigorous or more hlvral conditions than those drat presently exist. It would be a tragedy if those with something positive and constructive to say were to leave the Services, as some of the contributors to this volume have done, because they were denied the nghi and the encouragement 10 pui dicir view.
Serving officers granted freedom ur express their views on die clear understanding that they were entirely personal would have broadened both the scope and the appeal of this collection ol essays. One also suspects it might have enhanced Us credibility.
What I find most attractive about this book is its internal organisation. The editors have no doubt thought long and hard about tins Upecl and it shows. The ideas and themes are presented in a logical sequence as one chapter appears to build on another. Wilh an unashamed Australian leaning, the book examines strategic concepts from the abstract 10 the CODCfOte, and ihcn ihcir implementation. This provides the basis for the book's division into three parts: strategic concepts, Australian defence, and security in the region.
The opening chapters by Air Marshall I■iiunell and Desmond Ball go a long way in outlining the basis elements involved in defence and strategic planning. For a book aimed at students, this is imperative
although seldom done as well us it is here The following chapters cover superpower strategies, globalism. revolutionary warfare. political terrorism, amis control and an emerging area wilh great potential, non-provocauve defence strategics.
The second section, dealing widi Australian defence, left me somewhat dissatisfied. It involved a rattier mechanical approach to the ADF. the Department and defence industry, covering a number ol seemingly unrelated mailers. The Services were mentioned only in passing while one could Ik excused for thinking ihc RAN was incidental 10 Australiandefence and security. Members ol the A NT will, ol course, share my horror ai this deficiency and the associated imputation'
Covering ihc rather bland evolution of defence policy, die section looks at decisionmaking, personnel, industry and society. The chapter by Anthony Bcrgin on the "Legal Aspects of the ADF" deserves to be read closely and considered more widely. This is a complex and rather dry area bul nonediclcss an issue that will have growing significance in die future, especially in die wake of die Gulf War. Bcrgin outlines the issues clearly and shows dial bodi politicians and service people need to be much belter informed about the law relating to their employment and deployment than they have been in the past.
The third section, security in the region, is ihe most predictable of the three. There is not a grcal deal dial is cither new or particularly illuminating, The views o( die contribute*! are already well known with some suffering from greater physical remoteness from their subicct areas than others, and it shows. How an American sitting in Washington, who insists on calling this part of the world the anupodes. can give a more accurate description of what is happening in New Zealand than someone living and working here, is beyond me Surely New Zealand, or Australia for dial matter, possesses someone much better placed to talk about New Zealand. To be frank, there is ihe need for some new laces in this area of debate. Some of those involved have been uniting out the same essays for years at the same time their views have ricilher changed or developed one iota. Why we need to hear what these people think every time someone mentions defence and security in Australia also exceeds my understanding. There arc plenty of bnghi people an Hind who need to be encouraged to think and write on topics a little more diverse. In this respect they would do well to follow the lead of Desmond Ball who remains the dominant figure.
Page 6— May 1091
Jourruil of the Aii\tr Xtiutl Institute Tlicre wall always be a need lor the defence and sccuriiy debate in Australia 10 be
improved, ll has eonie a long way since the
itundiessncss ol the 1950s arid early 1960s.
The quality ol the thought and writing in this second volume of the Security and
Defence scries shows dial progress has been made. Certainly the ground covered since Ihe first volume was published a decade ago leads me to think die debate is improving markedly and there rightly is every expectation that it will continue to be so until the publication ol volume three.
IIMAS Brisbane in die dulf — ituriny a RAS with Success. Note Phalanx fit.
May 1WI — Paxr 7
Jourmtl of tlw Australian Xauil Institute
A lot has happened since this picture wastaken...
IIMAS Sydney leaving the fleet base support facility at IIMAS Stirlingfor the Gulf on 20
November 1990. Navy rR IWA) photograph.
I'ageX— Ma\ Iwl
Jtiurfuil i>f ihr Australian \im.Winstitute
Letters to the Editor The F.iluor
Journal ol the Australian Naval Institute
1 refer In ihe cssav on The Maritime Strategy for a .Sti.ilcgu Bat Twain" In Lieutenant Commander I A ('neks RNZN which was published in tile Journal ol IhC Australian Naval Institute, October '90
The author stated (Ji.it "In New Caledonia Inc. indigenous Kanak population seek independence fnim France, however, resistance to this development by French nationalists in New Caledonia and Ihe I rein h government hits resulted in violent confrontation",
I am surprised lieu the author made such a statement as it is well known among senior government officials in Europe and die United States that only a very small minority of Kanaks want independence 1mm France. The pnmary mason being that Kanaks arc caught between two worlds, ilu-y have based liteir economy on Ihe exploit itioft ul natural resources and at die same tunc are trying to adapt to a modern economy not being able to develop a Kanak form of subsistence, eg. small scale farming Main arc loyal to the present government and would not wish New Caledonia to he politically divided and beset with problems similar to those- in Ix; found in Papua New Guinea. Kanaks enjoy specific customary rights and the Melancsian identity, with its customs audi Ian type organisation, remains the same today. Economically, the Kanaks would be unable to run lite country in a manner similar to that of other developing countries and hence would be susceptible lo any advantageous offer of aid. What could then follow would he a rate between competing powers. Secondly, it is the FULK (United Front for Kanak Liheration I \c ho commanded only about 7% of the Melanesian votes at die 1989 elections — who arc now causing enormous tensions in the Tcrriuiry and adjacent islands. It was tin-organisation who urged Kanaks ui boycott llic 1989 clccuons and threatened lo disnipi voting. They were associated with the killing of die highly respected leader of die Fl.NK.S (Kanaks Socialist National Liberation I roU - command at least Mi's of the Melancsians
volcSJ Ml liihaou and his deputy leader. Ml Yh-w.uk-, Nub ol whom were in favour 0] the Malignon Accord. It is well known also in New ( ali-doina dial the EULK. a collodion Ol mostly illiterate and
unemployed MelanosiiuK, are habouring deep rcscnimitm againsl the present government,
and against society in general, as a measure
ot retaliation ior iheii perceived shortcomings I heir policy is to try lo indoctrinate rebel Kanaks with their ideology Bui worst ol all for Melancsians, those- w ho rel use to become involved, preferring the security of their preseni i cisttmcc, are ostracized by their own tribal tnembcrt i ins i an mk,- various forms bom extreme killing-, to refusal ol tribal
Perhaps u is tntercsutig to note that the independence movemenl must have been seen to lack integrity with the 1990 decision by the Forum Committee not lo grant attendance to a group ol Kanaks us observers Nodoulw.appiov.il ol die request would have
been seen i, i create a precedent
"Indigenous populations have become a
While it is true that the Kanak population is now a turnouts in New Caledonia, the fuel
that most Kanaks are content with die present political and economic arrangements would seem to have been overlooked, Il miisi be recognized dial New Caledonia is a multiracial society grouped under a I rcix li umbrella
Pre-coloiual history of the island is still in an early stage ol discovery hut investigation
in this held are continuing by OKSTOM and by Ihe Sociclc d'Eludes Hislonqucs do la Nouvelle ("aledonie According lo archaclogical evidence, early Kanaks arrived from Southeast Asia The island was inhabited by 30 lo 40.000 Melancsians and Polynesians pnor to European arrival. With
nickel mining bom 1X9S. new migrants Settled in New Caledonia (French from the mainland. Indians, Tonkinese. Javanese. Wallisians. Polynesians, Indonesians, Chinese and Kanakas from New Hebrides} The story of die present-day Kanaks as a pauiouc and loyal group desperately Seeking iiidepenileiiee comes from die frustau-d
Muv 1991 l\t,; ■'
Jnurniil nflhr Awaralian Naval Imitiuir imagination ol some journalists in search ol sensational Stories. Then exist today 328 tribes (237 on die 'Grande Torre' and 91 on the other islands). Their arrival in New Caledonia was similar to that of the present day "boat people* in Australia. The successive waves of people fought each other lor supremacy and it is difficult to slate continuous claim of the island by a particular tribal group.
"New Caledonia is considered by France lo he an extension of metropolitan France and the French authorities endeavour lo treat as such"
Australia and New Zealand should be well acquainted with this problem given both countries are inhabited by the first settlers -Aborigines and Maoris — who were (and arc) forced to integrate within Anglo-Saxon jurisdictions. While the |>criod of while colonial rule is a ihing of the pasl in both countries, one cannot ignore die history of both countries and their colonial heritage, for example, convicts, diffusion of tensions
between Aborigines nnd new settlers, the slaughter of Aborigines m Tasmania, ihe
famous Maori wars and die present
dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Waitangi.
The author desenhes the Southwest Pacific as a "strategic backwater". I heheve this is unfortunate terminology and does not apply in die circumstances as fiance has contributed to die security of die Pacific with us military presence.
In die final analysis, as long as New Caledonia remains a French torruory (as n miglii al Icasi until 1998 when an independence referendum will he held), it also remains an extension of France. The majority Ol the people, including many Kanaka, arc happy wuh Ihcit current suuauon. We might remember dial u is not so long since Australia and New Zealand were Fnglish colonics — and al that nine extensions of England!