It was no easy task to make 6 independent colonies on one of the biggest continents and make them one nation. Nor was it easy to break away from England, our ‘Mother Country’.
Topic 1: Life in Australia in the ‘noughties’
Read E.o.N, pp5-14 and answer the following questions:
Describe what life was like for a working class family. (p5-6)
In what ways were workers in Australia considered lucky or well-off? (p6)
Describe life for the middle class. (p7)
Compare the pictures on p6 and p14 with the picture on p7. What do each of these pictures tell us about life in Australia in the noughties?
Use the information on p7-9 to complete this table:
Similar to life today
Different to life today
Read p10-13 and explain what you think would have been the worst thing about living in the 19 noughties. You need to explain what life was like at the time and why you would think it was so bad. Write about 75 words.
Australia to 1914
Worksheet 2 - Federation
Read E.o.N, pages 15-20.
1. What is the difference between a ‘colony’ and a ’state’ which is part of a federation?
Explain why each of the issues below was important to Australians at the time of federation, and how each issue might have contributed to the creation of the federation.
Go to http://www.australianunity.com.au/au/cofederation/people.asp#TOP to find out the role of some key people in the process of federation. Choose 5 people and explain in 2 sentences their role in federation. You will need to turn your brain on to assess the information.
The first National Australasian Convention,led by Sir Henry Parkes, met on 2nd March, 1891, with representatives of all the colonies. The proposals of the Convention were discussed in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania, but not Queensland or Western Australia: it seemed that the first attempt at federation had failed.
Nationalism, however, was strengthening. The Australian Natives’ Association took up the federal cause with enthusiasm, Federation leagues were established, and the issues of federation were widely discussed. At the Conference of Colonial leaders in 1895 it was agreed that federation “was the great and pressing question of Australian politics”. The “People’s Federal Convention,” held in 1896, gave new importance to the question of federation.
The People’s Federal Convention met again in 1897. The business was how to change the proposal for federation to get popular support. A total of 286 changes were made. The final meeting of the People’s Federal Convention was in 1898, and was the most important because it reached a final decision on the proposal to become a nation. Following this meeting, a vote was taken in 4 colonies: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia. The vote was as follows:-
New South Wales.
For Federation as drafted
Because NSW didn’t reach a total of 80,000 ‘For’ votes, changes were suggested, and this time Queensland agreed with the changes. In 1899, the leaders of the six colonies met and made 7 changes to the proposal for federation. A second referendum was held in 1899
New South Wales.
“Never before,” say Sir John Quick and Mr. Garran, “have a group of self-governing, practically independent communities, without external pressure or foreign complications of any kind, deliberately chosen of their own free will to put aside their jealousies and come together as one people. The States of America, of Switzerland, of Germany, were drawn together under the shadow of war. But the Australian Commonwealth came into voluntary being through a deep feeling of nationalism.”
Create a timeline of events leading to Federation in 1901.
Explain why you think the proposal for federation was changed?
How was Australia’s journey to federation different from other nations, such as the USA and Germany?
Using the 2 tables in the text, answer the following questions:
What colonies voted in the first referendum?
Which colonies most strongly supported federation?
What differences are there between the NSW results of 1898 and 1899? What does this tell us about the popularity of federation?
What was the total percentage FOR and AGAINST federation in each referendum?