Australia to 1914



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Australia to 1914

Worksheet 1

federation arch, sydney 1901


It was no easy task to make 6 independent colonies on one of the biggest continents and make them one nation.  Nor was it easy to break away from England, our ‘Mother Country’.

Topic 1: Life in Australia in the ‘noughties’

Read E.o.N, pp5-14 and answer the following questions:


  1. Describe what life was like for a working class family. (p5-6)







  1. In what ways were workers in Australia considered lucky or well-off? (p6)







  1. Describe life for the middle class.  (p7)







  1. Compare the pictures on p6 and p14 with the picture on p7.  What do each of these pictures tell us about life in Australia in the noughties?







  1. Use the information on p7-9 to complete this table:

Similar to life today

Different to life today







Read p10-13 and explain what you think would have been the worst thing about living in the 19 noughties. You need to explain what life was like at the time and why you would think it was so badWrite about 75 words.



Australia to 1914



Worksheet 2 - Federation

Read E.o.N, pages 15-20.

  1. 1. What is the difference between a ‘colony’ and a ’state’ which is part of a federation?






Explain why each of the issues below was important to Australians at the time of federation, and how each issue might have contributed to the creation of the federation.

Nationalism





Transport





Defence





Economy





Go to http://www.australianunity.com.au/au/cofederation/people.asp#TOP to find out the role of some key people in the process of federation.  Choose 5 people and explain in 2 sentences their role in federation.  You will need to turn your brain on to assess the information. 

Name

Role played































Australia to 1914 Worksheet 3 - Using Sources

Look at the following 4 sources.  They are all primary sources. 

http://mrdball.edublogs.org/files/2008/10/source13.jpg


Purpose of the source: why was it created?


Bias of the source: is it for or against federation


Reliability of the source: can we trust the information in this source?


Usefulness of the source: what does this source tell us about federation?


federation source 3

Purpose of the source: why was it created?


Bias of the source: is it for or against federation


Reliability of the source: can we trust the information in this source?


Usefulness of the source: what does this source tell us about federation?


federation source 2


Purpose of the source: why was it created?


Bias of the source: is it for or against federation


Reliability of the source: can we trust the information in this source?


Usefulness of the source: what does this source tell us about federation?


federation source 4

Purpose of the source: why was it created?


Bias of the source: is it for or against federation


Reliability of the source: can we trust the information in this source?


Usefulness of the source: what does this source tell us about federation?


Australia to 1914 Worksheet 3 - Using Sources

Federation: the ‘how’

 Read the text that follows and answer the questions that follow:

The first National Australasian Convention, led by Sir Henry Parkes, met on 2nd March, 1891, with representatives of all the colonies. The proposals of the Convention were discussed in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania, but not Queensland or Western Australia: it seemed that the first attempt at federation had failed.

Nationalism, however, was strengthening. The Australian Natives’ Association took up the federal cause with enthusiasm, Federation leagues were established, and the issues of federation were widely discussed. At the Conference of Colonial leaders in 1895 it was agreed that federation “was the great and pressing question of Australian politics”. The “People’s Federal Convention,” held in 1896, gave new importance to the question of federation. 



The People’s Federal Convention met again in 1897.  The business was how to change the proposal for federation to get popular support.  A total of 286 changes were made. The final meeting of the People’s Federal Convention was in 1898, and was the most important because it reached a final decision on the proposal to become a nation. Following this meeting, a vote was taken in 4 colonies: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia. The vote was as follows:-






New South Wales.

Victoria.

South Australia.

Tasmania.

Totals.



For Federation as drafted

71,595

100,520

35,800

11,797

219,712

Against ”

66,228

22,099

17,320

2,716

108,363






Majority

5,367

78,421

18,480

9,081

111,349



Because NSW didn’t reach a total of 80,000 ‘For’ votes, changes were suggested, and this time Queensland agreed with the changes. In 1899, the leaders of the six colonies met and made 7 changes to the proposal for federation. A second referendum was held in 1899






New South Wales.

Victoria.

South Australia.

Tasmania.

Queensland

Totals.



For Federation

107,420

152,653

65,990

13,437

38,488

377,988

Against ”

82,741

9,805

17,053

791

30,996

141,386






Majority

24,679

142,848

48,937

12,646

7,492

236,602



“Never before,” say Sir John Quick and Mr. Garran, “have a group of self-governing, practically independent communities, without external pressure or foreign complications of any kind, deliberately chosen of their own free will to put aside their jealousies and come together as one people. The States of America, of Switzerland, of Germany, were drawn together under the shadow of war. But the Australian Commonwealth came into voluntary being through a deep feeling of nationalism.”

Create a timeline of events leading to Federation in 1901. 

Date

Event





























































Explain why you think the proposal for federation was changed?





How was Australia’s journey to federation different from other nations, such as the USA and Germany?





Using the 2 tables in the text, answer the following questions:

What colonies voted in the first referendum?





Which colonies most strongly supported federation?





What differences are there between the NSW results of 1898 and 1899? What does this tell us about the popularity of federation?





What was the total percentage FOR and AGAINST federation in each referendum?






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