Auckland District Health Board

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He Mihi 3

Acknowledgements 4

Introduction 11

Data sources and key methods 11

Further sources of data 12

Te Tatauranga o te Iwi 13

Whānau ora 14

Whānau well-being 14

Whānau support 15

Importance of participation in Māori culture 15

Te Reo Māori 15

Access to marae 16

Traditional healing or massage 16

Wai ora 18

Education 18

Work 18

Income and standard of living 20

Housing 24

Housing security 24

Household crowding 24

Fuel poverty 25

Area deprivation 25

Mauri ora: Pepi, tamariki 27

Births 27

Well child/Tamariki ora indicators 27

Oral health 28

Middle ear disease 29

Healthy skin 29

Acute rheumatic fever 30

Potentially preventable hospitalisations 30

Mauri ora: Rangatahi 32

Smoking 32

Immunisations 32

Mental health 33

Mauri ora: Pakeke 34

Self-assessed health 34

Smoking status 34

Heart disease and stroke 35

Diabetes 38

Cancer 40

Breast and cervical cancer screening 41

Respiratory disease 42

Mental disorders 43

Gout 44

Hip fractures 45

Elective surgery 45

Mauri ora: All ages 47

Hospitalisations 47

Potentially avoidable hospitalisations 47

Mortality 48

Potentially avoidable mortality 49

Injuries 51

References 52

Appendix 1: Population Projections 53

Appendix 2: Technical notes 56

Data sources 56

Data from the Census of Population and Dwellings 56

Data from Te Kupenga 2013 56

Deaths, hospitalisations and cancer registrations 57

Ethnicity 57

Residence 57

Hospital transfers 57

Suppression of causes of death or hospitalisation 57

Ninety-five percent confidence intervals 57

Age standardisation 57

ICD-10 codes 58

List of Tables and Figures


The Ministry of Health commissioned Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare to produce a Māori Health Profile for each District Health Board (DHB) in Aotearoa New Zealand. Each profile report is accompanied by an Excel© data file. The profiles are intended to be used by the health sector for planning purposes. They build on and update the previous Health Needs Assessments produced by Massey University in 2012 which can be viewed here.

The overall aim of the Māori Health Strategy, He Korowai Oranga, is Pae Ora or Healthy futures. Pae Ora is a holistic concept that includes three interconnected elements; whānau ora, wai ora and mauri ora. Further detail on He Korowai Oranga can be found here. Health indicators contained in the Māori Health Profiles are arranged according to these three elements. Whānau ora, healthy families, includes indicators of whānau wellbeing and support, participation in Māori culture and reo. Wai ora, or healthy environments, encompasses indicators on education, work, income, housing and deprivation. Mauri ora, healthy individuals, includes individual level indicators of health status. Mauri ora indicators are ordered according to life stage from pepi/tamariki to rangatahi then pakeke, and also a section on indicators that affect individuals of all ages.

This document presents data for residents of Te Toka Tūmai o Tamaki Makau Rau (Auckland District Health Board).

Data sources and key methods

The main data sources for this report are: the 2013 Census of Population and Dwellings, Te Kupenga 2013 (the Māori Social Survey), mortality registrations, public hospital discharges, cancer registrations, the national immunisation register, the community oral health service, the Health Quality and Safety Commission’s Atlas of Healthcare Variation, Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) Year 10 Snapshot Survey of tobacco smoking among 14 and 15 year olds, and data from the Well Child/Tamariki Ora Quality Improvement Framework indicators.

Most data are presented for Māori and non-Māori residents of Auckland DHB. Accompanying Excel tables also include data for the total Auckland DHB population and the total New Zealand population for reo speakers, socioeconomic indicators, mortality, cancer registrations, and hospital discharges.

The unequal distribution of the social determinants of health is an important driver of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori. Information from the 2013 Census on living conditions that influence health has been analysed by individual, household, and neighbourhood. A household was classified as Māori if there was at least one Māori resident. The 2013 NZ Deprivation Index was used for classifying neighbourhoods. The index combines eight dimensions of deprivation, including access to telecommunications and internet, income, employment, qualifications, home ownership, support, living space, and access to transport.

Māori models of health encompass cultural vitality and whānau wellbeing. Indicators of these dimensions of health have been included in these Profiles, sourced from Te Kupenga 2013, the Māori Social Survey conducted in 2013 by Statistics New Zealand (SNZ). Further information on Te Kupenga can be found here. Data from Te Kupenga is presented for Māori only.

Hospitalisation, cancer registration, and mortality rates and Census data were age–sex-standardised to the 2001 Māori population1.

Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for crude and age-standardised hospitalisation and mortality rates and ratios using the log-transformation method (Clayton and Hills 1993). Confidence intervals for data from Te Kupenga were calculated by Statistics New Zealand. Confidence intervals have not been calculated for data from other sources.

For ambulatory care sensitive admissions and admission rates for specific causes, transfers are only included as an admission if the principal diagnosis is not in the same diagnostic group as the initial admission.

Average numbers of events per year have been rounded to the nearest whole number.

Further technical notes and methods are provided in Appendix 2.

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