Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house



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THE NEW


SCHAFF‑HERZOG


ENCYCLOPEDIA


OF


RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE


Editor‑in‑Chief


SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.


Editor‑in‑Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes




LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY


BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN







TOTE NEW


SCHAFF‑HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE



EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.



(Editor‑in‑Chief )

WITH THE SOLE ASSISTANCE, AFTER VOLUME VI., OR

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.



(Associate Editor)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORS

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.



(Department of Systematic Theology )

HENRY KING) CARROLL, LL.D.



(Department of tenor Denominations)

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.



(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders)

JAMES FREDERIC McCU$DY, PH.D., LL.D.



(Department of the Old Testament)

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.



(Department of the New Testament)
ALBERT HENRY NEWNAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church Hidm y)

FRANK HORACE PIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and 7Vpography)


VOLUME X

REUSCH ‑ SON OF GOD




BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1953

EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

PHOTOLITHOPRINTED BY CUSHING ‑ MALLOY, INC.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1953


EDITORS


SAMUEL XACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR‑IN‑CHIEF.)

Professor of Church History, New York University.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILNORE, M.A.

(AssOCIATE EDITOR.)

New York,

Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion.

Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME X

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, JAMES FREDERICK MCCQRDY, Ph.D.,

D.D., LL.D.,

(Department of Systematic Theology.) (Department of the Old Testament.)

Professor of Systematic Theology. Chicago Theological

Seminary.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section

for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,



(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders.)

Rector of St. Gabrael's, New Rochelle, N. Y.

Professor of Oriental Languages. University College.

Toronto.


HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,

(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.,



(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist

Theological Seminary, Fort Worth. Tex.

FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.,



(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.)

Managing Editor of the STANDARD DICTIONARY, etc.*

New York City.


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME X



JUSTIN EDWARDS ABBOTT, D.D.,

Missionary in Bombay, India.

HANK ACHELIS, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halle.

FRANKLIN CARL ARNOLD, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.

BRUNO BAENTSCH (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor, University of Jena.

FERENCZ BALOGH, D.D.,


Professor of Church History, Reformed Theological Acad­

lemy, Debrecaen, Hungary.

HERMANN GE03ELG JULIUS BECK,

Consistorial Councilor and First Preacher, Bayreuth.

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH,

D.D.,


Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

EARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Konigsberg.

IMMANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF BE27ZIN­

GER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

German Orientalist and Vice‑Consul for Holland in Jerusalem.

CARL BERTHEAU (t), Th.D.,

Late Pastor at St. Michael's, Hamburg.

EDWIN MUNSELL BLISS, D.D.,

Author of Books on Missions, Washington. D. C.

AMY GASTON CHARLES AUGUSTS

BONET‑MA'URY, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Independent School of Divinity,

Paris.


GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BONWETSCH,

Th.D.,


Professor of Church History, University of Gdttingen.

GUSTAV BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Retired Pastor, Stuttgart.

JOHANN FRANZ WILHELM 80USSET,

Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of



Gottingen.

FRIEDRICH HEINRICH BRANDEB,

Th.D.,

Reformed Minister and Chapl~in at Btickeburg, Schaum•



burg‑Lippe.

EARL BURGER (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Munich.

JOHN CAIRNS,

Clergyman of the United Free Church of Scotland,

Dumfries, Scotland.

PAOLO CALVING,

Pastor at Lugano, Switzerland.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

Secretary of the Executive Committee of the Western Section

for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.




CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME X.


JOHN FLEXING CARSON, D,D.,

Pastor of the Central Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn,

New York.

JAMES CARTER,

Professor of Church History and Sociology, Lincoln Univer­

sity, Pa.

PAUL CHRIST (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Zurich.

FERDINAND COHRS, Th.Lic.,

Consietorial Councilor, Ilfeld, Germany.

WILLLAM HENRY COX,

Editor‑in‑Chief for the Salvation Army.

SAMUEL CRAM ER, Th.D.,

Professor of the History of Chriatian~i , University of Am­

sterdam, and Professor of Practical 'l ileology, Mennonite

Theological Seminary, Amsterdam.

AUGUST HERMANN CREE

Late Professor of Systematic Theology, University of

Greifewald.

SAMUEL E

Late Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

FRANZ WILHELX DIBELIUS, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor City Superintendent, and



Pastor of the Kreusidrche, Dresden.

ERNST VON DOBSCHUETZ, Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Breslau.

RICHARD WILHELX DOVE (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Gottingen.

PAUL GOTTFRIED DREWS, Th.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of Berlin.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

Pastor of St. Gabriel's, New Rochelle, New York.

SIMEON BILLINGHAM DUNN, D.D.,

Of the Editorial Staff of the New York Observer.

EMIL EGLI (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.

CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH DAVID

ERDMANN (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Honorary Professor of Church History, University of

Breslau.


JOHN OLUF EQJEN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Theology, Auburg Seminary, Minneapolis,

Mium

E. FABIAN, Ph.D.,



Gymnaeial Professor in Zwickau, Saxony.

CHRISTIAN THEODOR FICKER, Ph.D.,

Emeritus Pastor at Eythra, near Leipsic.

FRITZ FLIEDNEBr (t), M.D.,

Late German Evangelist in Spain.

FRANK HUGH FOSTER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of History, Olivet College, Michigan.

FRANZ HERMANN FRANK.(t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Erlangen.

GUSTAV WILHELX FRANK (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Dogm atics. Symbolics, and Christian

Ethics, University of Vienna.

ALBERT FREYBE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Emeritus Gymnasial Professor„Parchim, Mecklenburg.

GEORG FROBOESS,

Director for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Prussia.


WILHELM GASS (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Heidelberg.

DAVID PERCY GILMORE, B.A.,

Specialist in Germanics. Brooklyn, N. Y.

GEORGE WILLIAM GIILMORE, E<.A.,

Former Lecturer on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theo‑

1 ~ro ~emiaary. Associate Editor of '1'HE NE~ ScEAr1a‑

11E.ZOO ENCTCLOPEDIA OH RELIGI009 KNOwLEDoE.

WASHINGTON GLADDEN, D.D., LL.D.,

Pastor ‑f the First Congregational Church, Columbus, Ohio.

FRANZ GOERRES, Ph.D.,

Assistant Librarian, University of Bonn.

LEOPOLD EARL GOETZ, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Philosophy, University of Bonn.

WILHELX GOETZ (t), Ph.D.,

Late Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical High

School, and Professor, Military Academy, Mach.

GWILYM OSWALD GRIFFITH,

Pastor of the Sixth Avenue Baptist Church, Brooklyn, N. Y.

GEORG GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University of

Heidelberg.

HERMANN GUTHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsie.

WILHELX HADORN, Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Bern and Lecturer on New Testament Exegesis,

University of Bern.

ARTHUR CRAWSHAY ALLISTON

HALL, D.D., LL.D.,

Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Vermont.

JULIUS HAMBURGER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Munich.

ADOLF HARNACK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.

Jur., N.D.,

General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.

EDWIN FRANCIS HATFIELD (t), D.D.,

Late Stated Clerk of the Presbyterian General Assembly,

New School.

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipeic, Editor­

in‑Chief of the Hauck‑Herzog Realencyklop&die.

CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG HEINRICI,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipaic.

HEINRICH HERMELINK, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Privat‑docent in Church History, University of Leipeie.

JOHANN CHRISTOPH FRANZ MAS

HEROLD, Th.D.,

Ecclesiastical Councilor, Dean and City Preacher, Neustadtr

an‑der‑Aisch, Bavaria.

JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of

Erlangen.

PAUL HINSCHIUS (t), Th.D., Dr.Jur.,

Late Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Berlin.

OSWALD HOLDER‑EGGER, Ph.D.,

Professor at Berlin and Director for the Publication of the



Monuments Germanirs H%akniea.

KARL HOLL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

HENRY SCOTT HOLLAND, D.D.,

Canon of St. Paul's Cathedral, London.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME X.




GEORG HOLZ, Ph.D.,

Professor of German Ian ~uaK ed Literature, University

o Lerparo.

‑ JOHN HORSCH,

Pastor at Soottdale, Pa.

CARL BERNHARD HUNDESHAGXN (t),

Th.D.,

Late Professor of New Tstament Exegesis at Bonn.



GEORGE McPHERSON HUNTER,

Secretary of the American Seamen's Fiend Society.

KARL JOHANNES HERMANN JACOBY,

Th.D.,


Profssor of Homiletics, University of HBnipberg.

MARTIN ICAEHLER, Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatic and New Tstament Exegesis,

University of Halle.

ADOLF HERMANN HEINRICH KAMP­

HAUSEN (t), Th.D.,

Late Profssor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Bonn.


FERDINAND FRIEDRICH WILHELEt

KATTENBUSCH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Profssor of Dogmatic, Univgraity of Halle.

EVIL FRIEDRICH BAUTZSCH,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Profseor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Halls.

PETER GUSTAV KAWERAU, Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Provost of St. Peter's, Ber.

lin. and Honorary Professor, University of Berlin.

GEOTTLOB KIRCHHOFER,

Minister at Schaffhausen, Switzerland.

OTTO KIRN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatic, University of Laipsic.

RUDOLF KITTEL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Profssor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsio.

GZ03LG HEINRICH KLIPP39L (t), Ph.D.,

Late Rector at Verden, Prussia.

HEINRICH ADOLF KOESTLIN (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Privy Councilor in Cannatadt, formerly professor of

Theology. University of Giessen.

THEODOR FRIEDRICH HERMANN

HOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.

HERMANN GUSTAV EDUARD KRUEGER,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, university 01 Giemsm.

ERNST RUEHN, Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Dresden.

ABRAHAM HUENEN (t), D.D.,

Late Profssor of Theology, University of Leyden.

EUGEN LACHENMANN,

City Pastor, Leonberg, Wffrttemberg.

GEORG BITTER VON LAUBMANN (t),

Ph.D.,

Late Director of the Royal Library, Munich.



LUDWIG LEMME, Th.D.,

Professor Of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg.

C. H. WE. LEPPINGTON,

Fellow of the Royal Economic Society, England.

ORLANDO FAULSLAND LEWIS,

General Secretary of the Prison Association of New York.




E. LICYIL391L (t),

Late Pastor in Plochingen, Wasttemberg.

RUDOLF LTECHTENHAN, Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Buck Canton of Zurich, Switzerland.

PAUL LOBSTEIN, Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics in the Evangelical Theological

Faculty, University of Strasburg.

GERHARD LOESCHKE, Th. Lie.,

Privat‑docent in Church History, University of Bonn.

FRIEDRICH ARMIN LOOPS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halle.

WILHELM PHILIPP FRIEDRICH

FERDINAND LOTZ, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Profssor of Old Tstament Exegesis, University of Erlangen.

CHARLES HALLAN MCCARTHY, Ph.D.,

Professor of American History in the Catholic University,

Washington, D. C.

HERMANN MALLET (t),

Late Pastor in Bremen.

PHILIPP MEYER, Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Hanover.

GEROLD MEYER VON KNONAU,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of History, University of Zurich.

ALEXANDER MICHELSEN (t), Ph.D.,

Late Pastor at Ltlbeck.

CARL THEOD03EL MIRBT, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.

ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL MUELLER,

Th.D.,


Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlaugen.

GE03ELG MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Inspector of Schools, Leipsie.

CHRISTOF EBERHARD NESTLE,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor in the Theological Seminary, Maulbronn,

W Urttemberg.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History Southwstern Baptist Theo­

logical Seminary, fort Worth, Texas.

THEODOR JULIUS NEY, Th.D.,

Supreme Coneietorial Councilor, Speyer, Bavaria.

JAN JACOB VAN OOSTERZEE (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Utrecht.

CONRAD VON ORELLI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of

Religion, University of Basel.

KARL HERMANN PAHNCKE,

Ecclesiastical Inspector, Public Schools, Pforta, Prussia.

ANTON FRIEDRICH LUDWIG PELT (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Superintendent in %mmits.

CARL PETER (t), Th.D.,

Late Consiatorial Councilor, Jens.

CARL PFENDER,

Pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris.

EDUARD CHARLES PLATZHOFF­

LEJEUNE, Ph.D.,

Formerly Privat‑docent in Philosophy at Geneva.

LYMAN PIERSON POWELL,

Rector of St. John's, Northampton, Mass.




CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME X.




WALDO BELDEN PRATT, Mus.D.,

Professor of Music and Hymnology. Hartford Theological

Seminary. Cones.

ERWIN PB.EQ$CBEDT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Pastor at Hirschhorn‑on‑the‑Neck., Germany.

EDUARD GUILLAUME ZUG2NZ

REUSS (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor oTheology, University of Strasburg.

OTTO EARL ALBRECHT RITBCHL, Th.D.,

Professor of Sya tOmStle ih801ogy in the Evangelical

Theological Faculty. Bonn.

RUDOLF ROCHOLL (t), Th.D.,

Late Ecclesiastical Councilor. DOeseldorf.

(iUBTAQ RVDLOFF.(t), Th.D.,

Late Superintendent in Wangenheim.

VARL HEINRICH BACK (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology at Bonn.

DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D.,

Professor of Church History. Western Theological Seminary.

Pittsburg, Pa
PHILIP SCHAFF (t), D.D., LL.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological

Seminary, New York, and Editor of the Original

SCHArHH&$LOO ENC7CLOPdRDI•.

CHRIBTOF (OTTLOB VON $CHEQB.L (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor in Nuremberg.

CARL BCHMIDT (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Strasburg.

EDMUND SCHMIDT,

Pastor in Brappits. Prussia

OSWALD SCHMIDT (t),

Lets Superintendent in Werdau, Saxony.

JOHANNES SCHNEIDER,

Emeritus Pastor, Darmstadt.

CARL WLLHELM BCHOELL (t),

Ph.D., D.D.,

Late Pastor of the Savoy Church, London.

EARL SCHORNBAUB, Ph.D.,

Pastor in Alfeld. Prussia


MABIHILIAN VICTOR SCHULTZE,

Th.D.,


Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology,

University of Greifewald.

LUDWIG THEODOR SCHULZE, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Retired Professor of Systematic Theology. University of

R~toak.


REINHOLD $EEBE8G1, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Berlin.

EMIL BEHLING?, Dr.Jnr.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, University

of Erlangen.

WILLLAX AMBROSE SHEDD, D.D.,

Missionary, Urumia,Persia.

FRIEDRICH ANTON EMIL $IEFFERT,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn.

ERNEST GOTTLIEB BIHLER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Latin, New York University.



EDUARD $IMON$, Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professorof Berlin.Practical Theology. University



PHILIPP FRIEDRICH ADOLPH ' T8E0­

DOB, SPAETH (t), D.D., LL.D.,

Late Professor in the Lutheran Theological Seminary,

Mt. Airy. Philadelphia
ANTHONY eNABTA$IOQ $TAMOULI,

Formerly Member of the Editorial Staff of Atiantis. New York.

CHARLES JANEWAY $TILL3k (t), LL.D.,

Late Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania.


HERMANN LEBERECHT BTB,AGB, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Extraordinary , Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and

Semrtre Languages, University of Berlin.

LEWIS CLINTON STRANG,

Author and Christian Science Practitioner, Boston, Mass.


RUDOLF BTUEBE, Ph.D.,

Head Minter. Nioolsi Gymnasium, Leipeie.

JAMES WEBTFALL THOMPSON, Ph.D.,

Associate Professor of History, University of Chicago.


CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, LL.D.,

Emeritus Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University.


PAUL TBCHACSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History University of Gdttingen.

JOHANN GIERHARD WILHELIC

DHLHORN (t), Th.D.,

Late Abbot of Lokkum, Germany.

EBERHARD VIBCHER, Th.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of Basel.
WILBELBi VOGT, Ph.D.,

Gymnaeisl Rector, Nuremberg.


HENRI VmLLEDMIER, Th.D.,

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, Univeesit?

Of Lausanne.

JULIUS AUGUST WAfiENMANN (t),

Th.D.,

Late Conaistorial Councilor, GSttingea.


HANS WAITZ, Th.D.,

Pastor in Darmstadt.

CARL HEINRICH VON WEIZ­

8AEC8ER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Tffbingen.
JOHANN JABOB WERNER,

Privst‑docent in Medieval Philology, Zurich.


FRANCIS METHERALL WHITLOCK,

Pastor of the Bethlehem Congregational Church, Cleveland,

Ohio.
AUGUST WQENBCHE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Retired Titular Professor, Dresden.

RUDOLF ZEHNPP'QND, Ph.D.,

Pastor in Oranienbaum.


OTTO ZOECBLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Churoh Hietory and Apologetics. Univer­

sity of Greifewald.

RICHARD OTTO ZOEPF)Q'EL (t), Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology. University of $trssbarg.



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX‑vOLS. I‑g

The following list of books is sup plementary to the bibliographies given at the end of the articles

contained in vols. I.‑X., and brings the literature down to Feb. 20, 1911. In this list each title entry

is printed in capital letters. It is to be noted that, throughout the work, in the articles as a rule only

first editions are given. In the bibliographies the aim is to give either the best or the latest edition,

and in case the book is published both m America and in some other coilntry, the American place of

issue is usually given the preference.

ABBOTT, E. A.: The Son of Man: or, Contributions G. the Study of the Thoughts of Jesus, London, 1910.

ArmcA: R. E. Dennett, Nigerian Studies; the re­

lY and political System of Yoruba, New

ork, 1910.


ALEXANDRIA: CSCO, vol. IX., fasc. II., contains Severus Ben el Mogaffa: Historaa Patri,­archarum Alexandrinorum, vol. I., faso. II., ed. C. F. Seybold, Vienna, 1910.

APOCRYPHA: J. Maller, Beitrage zur Erkldrung and Kritik des Buches Tobit, in Revue de l 'orient chrbtien, 1910.


APGLPGETICS: J. F. Love, The Unique Message and the Universality of Christianity, New York and Chicago, 1910.

W. D. Mackenzie, The Final Faith; a Statement of the Nature and Authority of Christianity as the Religion of the World, New York, 1910.

ARMENIA: T. E. Dowling, The Armenian Church, London, 1910.

M. Ormanian, L lglise arminienne. Son his­toire, sa doctrine, son regime, sa discipline, sa litMrature, son pr6sent, Paris, 1910.

AsYLUnz: J. C. Cox, The Sanctuaries and Sanctuary Seekers of Medianval England, London, 1910.

ATONEMENT: J. B. Champion, The Living Atone­ment, Philadelphia, 1910.

C. C. Morgan, A Lawyer's Brief on the Atone­ment, Boston, 1911.
AUGUSTINE: W. J. S. Simpson, St. Augustine and African Church Divisions, London, 1910.

Sandi Aurelii A ustini de civitate

dei libri XXII., ~ E. Hoffmann, I., libri

i.‑xiii., Vienna, 1910.

BABYLONIA: C. Fossey, L'Asayriologie en 1907. G‑M&alites. Explorations et foualles. Langues aum6rienne et assyrienne. Geographie et his­toire, religion, droit, vie priv6e, astronomie, rriMorologxe, litt6rature, varia, arcUologie, in­fluence‑8 babyloniennes, Paris, 1910

R. F. Harper, Assyrian and Babylonian Letters belonging to the Kouyunjik Collections of the British M‑eum, vol. ix., Chicago, 1910.

H. Schneider, Kultur and Denker der Baby­lonier and Juden, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1910.

BACON, F.: G. W. Steeves, Francis Bacon: a Sketch of his Life, Works, Literary Friends, etc., London, 1910.



BERNARD or CLAmVAVx: St. Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux. Selections from his Letters, Medz­tationa, etc., rendered into English by H. Grim­ley, London, 1910.

BIBLE TExT: Der Cambridger Psalter, Hamburg,

1911.

H. A. Sanders, The Old Testament Manuacript in the Freer Collection. Part I.: The Wash­ington Manuscript of Deuteronomy and Joshua, New York, 1910.



A. Souter, Novum Testamentum Greece, London, 1910.

H. J. Vogels, Die Harmonistik im Evangelium­text des Codex Cantabrigiensis. Bin Beitrag zur neutestamenilichen Textkritik, Leipslc, 1910.

BIBLE VERSIONS: J. O. Bevan, Our English Bible: The History and Its Development, London, 1911.

W. J. Heaton, Our Own English Bible: its Translators and their Work, London, 1910; The Bible of the Reformation, London, 1910.

J. P. Hentz, Hist. of Lutheran Versions of the Bible, Columbus, Ohio, 1910.

W. Muir, Our Grand Old Bible. Being the Story of the Authorized Version of the English Bible, Told for the Tercentenary Celebration, London, 1910.



Fourteenth Century English Bible Versions, ed. A. C. Pauis, Cambridge, 1904.

BIBLICAL CRITIcisns: F. C. Conybeare, History of New Testament Criticism, London, 1910.

R. Kittel, The Scientific Study of the Old Testa­ment. Its Principal Results, and their Bear­ing upon Religious Instruction, London, 1910.

BIBLICAL THEOLOGY: T. X. Cheyne, The Two Re­ligions of Israel. With a Re‑examination of the Prophetic Narratives and Utterances, London, 1910.

M. Dibelius, Die Geisterwelt im Glauben des Paulus, Gottingen, 1909.

P. C. Purves, The Gospel according to Hosea and the Master's Gospel, London, 1910.

H. C. Sheldon, New Testament Theology, new rev. ed., New York, 1911.

J. Weiss, Paul‑ and Jesus, Berlin, 1909.

BLAURER, T.: Briefwecksel der Briider Ambrosius und Thomas Blaurer, 1509‑15.1,8. Hers‑ge­g1ben von der badischen historischen Kommis­ston, ed. Traugott Schiess. Vol. i.: 1509 bis Juni 1538. Vol. ii., August 1538 bis Ende 154,8, Freiburg, 1905‑10.







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