Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house



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THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG

ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Editor in Chirf

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

Editor in Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes



LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN






THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor an Chief )

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF

CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN

[VOLUMES I VI]


AND

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.



(Associate Editors)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORS

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Departmsnt of Systematic Theology)
HENRY KING) CARROLL, LLA

(Department of Minor Denominations)


JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgica and Religious Orders)

JAMES FREDERIC McCURDY, PH.D., LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament)
HENRY SYLVESTER RASH, D.D.

(Department of the Near Testament )
ALBERT HENRY NEWNAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History)

FRANK HORACE YIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)

VOLUME VIII

MORALITY   PETERSEN



BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1953




EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS



PHOTOLITHOPRINTED BY CUSHING   MALLOY, INC.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1953,




EDITORS

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR IN CHIEF.

Professor of Church History, New York University.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(AaBOCIATE EDITOR.)

New York,

Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion,

Bangor Theological Seminary.
DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME VIII

OLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology.)

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders.)

Rector of St. Ambrose's, New York City.



JAMES FREDERICK MCCURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D.


(Department of the Old Testament.)

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College,

Toronto.

HENRY SYLVESTER MASH, D.D.



(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

ALBERT HENRY NEW MAN, D.D., LL.D.



(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist

Theological Seminary, Waco, Tex.

FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.)

Managing Editor of the STANDARD DrcrioNARY, etc.,

New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VIII

ERNST CHRISTIAN ACHELIS, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Marburg.

HAMS ACHELIS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of Halle.

WILLIAM ADAMSON, D.D.,

Pastor of the Carver Memorial Church, Windermere,

England.

BENJAMIN WISNER BACON, D.D.,

LL.D., Litt.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, Yale Divinity

School.


FERENCZ BALOGH,

Professor of Church History Reformed Theological

Academy, Debreczjn, Hungary.

ANTON CHRISTIAN BANG, Ph.D.,

Bishop in Christiania.

HERMANN GEORG JULIUS BEGS,

Consistorial Councilor and First Preacher, Baireuth.

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH,

D.D.,


Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.



EARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Ktinigsberg.

IMMANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF

BENZINGER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

German Orientalist and Vice Consul for Holland in

Jerusalem.



CARL ALBRECHT BERNOULLI, Th.Lic.,

Author at Arlesheim, near Basel.



CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,

Pastor at St. Michael's, Hamburg.

HEINRICH BOEHMER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Bonn.



AMY GASTON CHARLES AUGUSTS

BONET MAURY, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Independent School of

Divinity, Paris.



GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL 80NWETSCH,

Th.D.,


Professor of Church History, University of GtSttinBen.

GUSTAV BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Retired Pastor, Stuttgart.




CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VIII

ALBERT BRACSXANN, Ph.D.,

Professor of History, University of Marburg.



CRARLF6 AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.,

Litt.D.,


Professor of Theological Encyclopeedia and Symbolics.

Union Theological Seminary, New York.

THEODOR PAUL 081WAR ARTHUR

VON BROECHER, Th.D.,

Chief Pastor of Jacobikirche, Hamburg.

KARL BURGER (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consiatorial Councilor, Munich.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section

for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

WALTER AUGUST ANTON NATHAN

CASPA RI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

University of Erlangen.

JACQQEB EUG$NE CHOIBY, Th.D.,

Pastor in Geneva.

FRANCIS ALBERT CHRISTIE, D.D.,

Professor of Church History in Meadville Theological

School, Meadville, Pa.

FERDINAND COH8,8, Th.Lic.,

Consistorial Councilor, Weld, Germany.

BAXTEL CRAMER, Th.D.,

Professor of the History of Christianity, University of

Amsterdam, and Professor of Practicl Theology,

Mennonite Theological Seminary, Amsterdam.

FRIEDRICH WILHELM CQNO (t),

Th.Lic.,

Late Pastor at Eddigehausen, Hanover.

GUSTAV ADOLF DEI88IIANN, Th.D.,

D.D.,


Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Berlin.


SAMUEL MARTIN DEUTSCH (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

ERNST VON DOBBCHUETZ, Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Breslau.

ISAAC AUGUST DORMER (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Berlin.

PAUL GOTTFRIED DREWB, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halls.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

Rector of St. Ambrose's Church, New York City.

WILLL3M EDWARD BURGHARDT

DUBOIS, Ph.D.,

Professor of Economics and History, Atlanta University,

Atlanta, Georgia.

EVIL EGLI (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Churr:h History, University of Zurich.

JOHN OLQF EVJEN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Theology in Augsburg Seminary, Minneapolis.
FRANK HUGH FOSTER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of History, Olivet College, Michigan.

EVIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG,

Th.D., DrJur.,

Professor of EccUnilesiastical, oPub~psi

ac d German Law,


GUSTAV GIESELBUSCH,

Pastor of the Third Baptist Church, Berlin.



GEORGE WILLIAM GILNORE, N.A.,

Formerly Lecturer on Comparative Religion, Bangor

Theological Seminary, Associate Editor of Tnz

NEw $CBAFhloa ENCYCLOPDDIA.

FRANZ GO S, Ph.D.,

Assistant Librarian, University of Bonn.

WILH331 M GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical High School,

and Professor, Military Academy, Munich.

JOHANNEB BB,IEDB,ICH GOTTBCHICK (t),

Th.D.,

Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis, Ethics, and



Practical Theology Evangelical Theological

Faculty, University of Tilbingen.

CASPAR RENA GREGORY, Ph.D.,

Th.D., D.D., LL.D., Dr. Jur.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipsic.


GEORG GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th. Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University

of Heidelberg.

HERMANN GUTHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipsic.


KARL HACKENBCHMIDT, Th.D.,

Pastor in Strasburg.

WILHELM HADORN, Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Bern and Lecturer on New Testament Exegesis,

University of Bern.

ARTHUR CRAWSHAY ALLIBTON

HALL, D.D., LL.D.,

Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Vermont.

ADOLF HARNACK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.

Jur., N.D.,

General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.

THOMAS SAMUEL HASTINGS,

D.D., LL.D., L.H.D.,

Emeritus Professor of Pastoral Theology, Union Theolog­

ical Seminary.

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr. Jur.,

Professor of Church History University of Leipsic,

Editor in Chief of the Hauek trerzog RealencykloWie.

HERMAN HAUPT, Ph.D.,

Professor and Director of the University Library, Giessen.

CARL FRIEDRICH GEORGE HEINRICI,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipelc.

WAX HEINZE (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Tae Professor of Philosophy, University of Iaipsic.

LUDWIG THEODOR EDGAR HENNECKE,

Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Betheln, Hanover.

WILHELM HERRB

Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Marburg.

JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of

Erlangen.

JOHANNEB HERZOG,

City Pastor in Esslingen.

OSWALD HOLDER EGGER, Ph.D.,

Professor at Berlin and Director for the Publication of

the Monuments Germanies Hietarioa.

GEORG HOLZ, Ph.D.,

Professor of German lsnguaseand Literature, University

of Lelp





CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VIII

ERNST HUEHPEL, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Brametedt, Holstein, Germany.

DAVID HUPFELD, Th.Lic.,

Pastor Emeritus at Halle.

ALFRED JEBEIIIAS, Ph.D., Th.Lio.,

Privat docent for Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipsic.

ADOLF HERMANN HEINRICH SAHP­

HAQSEN (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Bonn.

FERDINAND FRIEDRICH NVXL13MX



gATTENBUSCH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halle.

EVIL FRIEDRICH 8AUTZSCH,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Halle.

PETER GUSTAV BAWERAU, Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Provost of St. Peter's,

Berlin and Honorary Professor,

University of Berlin.

KONRAD KESSLER (t), Ph.D.,

Late Professor of Semitic Languages, University of

Greifewald.

GOTTLO33 sIRCHHOFER,

Minister at Schaffhausen. Switzerland.

RUDOLF sITTEL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsio.

HEINRICH AUGUST sLOSTERXANN,

Th.D.,


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Kiel.

SABL AUGUST BLDEP7KL (t), Th.D.,

Late Librarian in Tffbingen University Library.

JOSEPH KNAPP (t),

Late Dean in Stuttgart.

WALT HER HOEHLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.

HEINRICH ADOLF BORSTLIN (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Privy Councilor in Cannatadt, formerly Professor of

Theology, University of Giessen.

JULIUS 80ESTLIN (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Halls.

THEODOR FRIEDRICH HZR3EANN

HOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.

HERXANN GUSTAV EDUARD BB,UEC+ER,

Ph.D., Th:D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen.


JACOB BQENDIG,

President of the Reformed Preachers' Seminary in Basel­

land.

JOHANNES WILHELB; 8UNZE,



Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Greifswaid.

EUGEN LACHENacANN,

City Pastor, Leonberg, Wilrttemberg.

WILLLAX HENRY r.ARRAEgE, LL.D.,

Plainfield. New Jersey.

GEORG BITTER VON LAUBXANN (t),

Ph.D.,


Late Director of the Royal Library, Munich.

ICARL LUDWIG LEIMBACH (t), Ph.D.,

Late Provincial Councilor. for Schools, Hanover, Germany.

LUDWIG LEMME, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidel­

berg.

RUDOLF LIECHTENHAN, Th.Lic.,



Pastor at Buch, Canton of Zurich, Switzerland.

FRIEDRICH LIST (t), Ph.D.,

Late Studienrektor, Munich.

FRIEDRICH ARXIN LOOPS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halle.
DUNCAN JAMES XcMILLAN, D.D.,

Presbyterian Pastor, New York City.

WILHELM JULIUS DIANN (t), D.D.,

Late Professor of Hebrew, E°Wsis, Homiletics and

Ethics, Lutheran Theological Seminary, Philadelphia.

OTTO MRJER (t), Ph.D., Th D.,

Late President of the Consistory, Hanover.

PHILIPP MEYER, Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Hanover.

GEROLD B;EYER VON SNONAU,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of History, University of Zurich.

CARL THROD03EL MIRBT, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.

IZAAS XOLENAAR,

Pastor at Zaandam, North Holland.

ERNST FRIEDRICH EARL XUELLER,

Th.D.,


Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.

GEORG BIVELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Inspector of Schools, Leipsic.

NIKOLAUS MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Christian Archeology, Univer­

sity of Berlin.

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge,

Mass.


ALBERT HENRY NEWXAN, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History Southwestern Baptist Theo­

logical Seminary, fort Worth, Texas.

THEOD03EL JULIUS NEY, Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Speyer, Bavaria.

FREDERICK KRISTIAN NIELSEN (t),

D.D.,

Late Bishop of Aarhus, Denmark.



FRIEDRICH AUGUST BERTHOLD

NITZSCH (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Kiel.
CARL THEOPHILUS ODHNER,

Professor of Theoloey in the Academy of the New Church,

Bryn Athyn, Pa.

CONRAD VON ORELLI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of

Religion, University of Basel.

CARL PPENDER,

Pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris.

ROBERT VON POEHLMAN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Ancient History, University of Munich.

ERWIN PREUSCHEN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Pastor at Hlrechhorn on the Neckar, Germany.






PAUL MARTIN BADE, Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Systematic Theology, Univer­

sity of liiarburg.

ERNST RANSE (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology at Marburg.

GE03MG CHRISTIAN RIETSCHEL, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology and University Preacher,

University of Leipsic.

ARNOLD RUEGG,

Pastor at Birmensdorf and Lecturer at the University

of Zurich.

REINHOLD SCHMID, Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Oberholzheim, WtlAtemberg.

CARL SCHMTDT (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Strasburg.

CARL WILH.JLM SCHOELL (t),

Ph.D., D.D.,

Late Pastor of the Savoy Church, London.

THEODOR FRIEDRICH SCHOTT (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Librarian and Professor of Theology, University of

Stuttgart.



MAXIMTLIAN VICTOR SCHULTZE,

Th.D.,


Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology,

University of Greifswaid.

A. SCHUMANN (t),

Late Gymnasial Professor in Aarau.

ALEZIS SCHWARZE, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Cunow an der Strasse, Pomerania.

ALEXANDER SCHWEIZER (t),

Late Professor of Theology in Zurich.

REINHOLD SEEBERG, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Berlin.

EMIL SEHLING, DrJur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, Univer­

sity of Erlangen.

WILLIAM AMBROBE SHEDD,

Missionary, Urumia, Persia.

FRIEDRICH ANTON EMIL SIEFFERT,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn.

EDUARD SIHIONS, Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Practical Theology, University

of Berlin.

JOSEPH FIELDING SMITH, Jr.,

Assistant Historian of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter

Day Saints.


PHILIPP FRIEDRICH ADOLPH THEO­

DOB. SPAETH (t), D.D., LL.D.,

Late Professor in the Lutheran Theological Seminary,

Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.

GEORG STEINDORFF, Ph.D.,

Professor of Egyptology, University of Leipsic.



CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VIII

EMIL 39LIAS BTEINMEYER, Ph.D.,

Professor of German Language and Literature, University

of Erlangen.

HERNANN LEBERECHT BTRACB, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and



Semitic Languages, University of Bcrlin.

ULRICH STUTZ, DrJur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Bonn.

ARTHUR 33ENEDIXT TITIUS, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology. in Gottingen.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN TRUEBLOOD,

Secretary of the American Peace Society, Boston.

PAUL TSCHACSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Gottingen.

P. M. TSCHIRNER (t), Ph.D.,

Late of Leipsic, Germany.

JOHANN GERHARD WILHELE<

UHLHORN (t), Th.D.,

Late Abbot of Lokkum, Germany.

JOHN ROBERT VAN PELT, Ph.D.,

Professor of Phllosophy and Biblical Literature, Cornell

College, Iowa.

BIETBE DOUWES VAN VEEN, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History and Christian Archaeology,

University of Utrecht.

WILHELM VOGT, Ph.D.,

Gymnaaial Rector, Nuremberg.

WILHELM VOLCH (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Rostock.

NATHANIEL WEIRS,

Pastor in Paris, France.

FRIEDRICH LUDWIG LEONHARD

WIEGAND, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Grelfswald.

JOHN CAMPBELL] WHITE,

General Secretary of the Laymen's Missionary Movement.

EDWARD ELIHQ WHITFIELD, M.A.,

Retired Public Schoolmaster, London.

MARY ANGELINE WRIGHT,

Formerly Honorary Secretary for the United States of the

Palestine Exploration Fund.

HERBERT ALDEN YOUTZ, Ph.D.,

Richards Professor of Christian Theology, Auburn Theo­

logical Seminary, Auburn, New York.

FRANZ THEODOR HITTER VON ZAHN,

Th.D., Litt.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis and Introduction,

University of Erlangen.

RUDOLF ZEHNPFUND, Ph.D.,

Pastor in Oranienbaum, Germany.

OTTO ZOECSLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History and Apologetics, Univer­

sity of Greifswald.




BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX YOLS. I V111

The following list of books is supplementary to the bibliographies given at the end of the articles contained in vols. I. VIII., and brings the literature down to July, 1910. In this list each title entry is printed in capital letters. It is to be noted that, throughout the work, in the articles as a rule only first editions are given. In the bibliographies the aim is to give either the best or the latest edition, and in case the book is published both in America and in some other country, the American place of issue is usually given the preference.

ArwcA: G. Simon, Islam and Christentum im %ampf um die Eroberung der animistischen Heidenwelt, Berlin, 1910.

AXED, C. F.: The Lord's Prayer; its Meaning and Message for To day, New York, 1910.

ALExANDRIA: A. M. de Zogheb, etudes our l'an­cienne Alezandrie, Pans, 1909.

ANDREwEs, L.: D. MaeLeane, Lancelot Andrewes and the Reaction, London, 1910.

APOCRYPHA, O. T.: Die Esra Apokalypse (IV Ezra),

frt 1, Die Ueberlieferung, ed. B. Violet,

1910.
APOLOGETICS: K. Gutberlet, Gott and die Sch6p­Jung. Begrxlndung and Apologie der christli­then Weltaufassung, Regensburg, 1910

A. C. Headlam, History, Authority, and The­ology, Milwaukee, 1910.

P. M. Muir, Modern Substitutes for Christian­' , London, 1910.

F. . Schenck, Christian Evidences and Ethics, New York, 1910.

B. Scott, The Contents and Teachings of the Catacombs at Rome. A Vindication of pure and primitive Christianity and an Ex~ Posure of the Corruptions of Romanism: Derived from the sepulchral Remains of the early Christians, London, 1910.

G. Thomas, Christianity in Christ, vol. iv. of Anglican Church Handbooks, London, 1910.

Note also Ballard, underATHEIsM, below.

ARAM: S. Schiffer, Die Aramder. Historisch~geo­graphisehe Untersuchungen, Leipsie, 1910.

ARISTOTLE: H. Meyer, Der Entwicklungagedanke bei Aristoteles, Bonn, 1909.

C. Werner, Aristote et l'idealisme platonicien, Paris, 1910.

AssYRIA: F. Delitzseh, Asurbanipal and die assyrir ache Kultur seiner Zeit, Leipsie, 1910.

P. Dharme, La Religion assyro babylonienne, London, 1910.

L. W. King, History of Babylonia and Assyria from Prehistoric Times to the Persian Con, quest, 3 vols., London, 1909.

V. Scheil and J. E. Gautier, Annalea de Tukul­tininip 11., roi d'Assyrae 889 884, Paris, 1910.

W. H. Ward, The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, Washington, D. C., 1910.

ATHEISM: F. Ballard, The Miracles of Unbelief, Edinburgh, 1910.

N. J. Laforet, Causes and Cure of Unbelief, ed. by Cardinal Gibbons, with a chapteby



r the Rev. P. J. Ryan, Philadelphia, 1910.

ATONEMENT: J. B. Oldroyd, The Doctrine of the Atonement, ch4y as set forth in the Epistle to the Hebrews, London, 1910.

M. Scott, The Atonement, London, 1910.

BABYLONIA: P. Dharme, see above, AssYRIA.

L. W. King, A History of Sumer and Akkad: an Account of the early Races of Babylonia from prehistoric Times to the Poundatwn of the Babylonian Monarchy, London, 1910; see also above, AssYRIA.

BAPTISTS: M. T. Whitley, ed., Minutes of the Gen­eral Assembly of the General Baptist Churches in England, with kindred Records, London, 1909.

BARDESANES: F. Haase, Zur bardesanischen Gnosis, Potsdam, 1910.

BEET, J. A.: Holiness, Symbolic and Real: a Bible Study, London, 1910.

BELGIuM: T. F. Bumpus, The Cathedrals and Churches of Belgium, New York, 1910.

BIBLE TEXT: E. Konig, Hebrdisches and aramd­isches WBrterbuch zum Alten Testament, Leipsic, 1910.

Agnes Smith Lewis, Codex climaci rescriptus. Pragments of sixth Century Palestinian S

Texts of the Gospels, of the Acts of the p flea and of St. Paul's Epistles. Also Frag­ments of an early Palestinian Lectionary of the Old Testament, etc., Cambridge, 1909.

BIBLE VERSIONS: O. Procksch, Studien zur Ge­schwhte der Septuaginta: Die Propheten, Leipsic, 1910.

J. Wright, ht, Grammar of the Gothic Language

and ~ Gospel of St. Mark. Selections, from

the other ~spels and Timothy with Notes

and Glossary, London, 1910.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: R. Kittel, Die alttestament­liche Wissenschaft in ihren wich~eten Ergeb­nissen mit Ber"gdehtigung des eligion8un­terrichts, Leipsic, 1910.

W. B. Riley, The Pinals of the Higher Cri& cism, or the Theory of Evolution and false Theology, Minneapolis, 1910.






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