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141 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA oiw'°at o>! lgoms


268, sad is Christian Classic Seri", vol, vii., London, 1892. Neat to Lightfoot's the beat discussion is R,. A. Lipeius, Do Clementis Romani epiatola, Leipeio, 1855; idem, Chrmudogie der rthnischen B%arhB/a, Kiel. 1889. Consult further: M. J. Wopher, Din Brisfa du . . Cie­mens and PdycarPua. Tfibingen, 1830; C. J. Von Hefele, Patrum apoatol%eorum opera, ib. 1842; E. W. E. Renee, Histoira do la thEokpie chrltianns, ii. 809 eqq.. Paris. 1852; A. R. M. Dreseel, Patrum apoatolicorum opera, Leipeic, 1857; J. Donaldson, History o/ Christian Literature, i. 90 153, London, 1884 68; idem, Apostolic Father% pp. 113 190, ib. 1874; F. C. Baur, LehrbucA der Dopmanps­aehichta, i. 155. 249 et passim, LeiDei0. 1885; T. Zahn, Hirt den Herman, Goths, 1888; A. Hilgenfeld, Din apos­tdiaehen V titer, Halle, 1883; idem, Clementia Romani epietolce, Leipeio, 1878; J. M. Cotterill, Persprinw Protaw, Edinburgh, 1879; idem, Modern Criticism and Clement'a Epistles to Virgins, ib. 1884; F. X. Funk, in TQ, 1879, pp. b39eqq.; idem. Opera patrum apoatolicorum, vol. ii., TO­bingen, 1881; $. Maietra, CiSrnent de Row, sow hieto%ra, 2 vole., Paris, 1883 84; C. TA. Hoole, Apostolic Fadera . .

trend. into English, with %nbroductoryNotaa, London, 1885; Harnsck, in TU, v (1888), 8284; idem. Litteratur, i. 780 et passim, II. i. 251 eqq., 442, 438 eqq., II. ii. 298, $04 eqq.; E. Burton, Apostolic Fathers, part i., Epistles of Clement, with Introduction, London, 1888; W. Wards, Untareurhunpan sum srstan Ctemenabriafa, GSttingen, 1891; C. T. Cruttwell, Literary History of Early Christianity, 2 vole., London, 1893; Krtiget, History, pp. 21 28, 82  83; Schaff,, Christian Church. ii. 838 851; DCB, i. 664 669; AL, iii. 449 458.

CLEMEPTIIPA. The Homilies (§ 1).

Doctrinal Teachings (§ 2). The Recognitions (§ 3).

The Epitome (§ 4).

Discussion of the Clementine Problem (§ 6).

Relation of the Recognitions to the Homilies U 6).

The " Clementine " discussed in this article are a very remarkable and still in many points mys­terious group of early Christian writings, closely related in their contents and evidently coming from a single source, of which three are still extant  the Clementine Homilies, Recognitions, and Epitome. For the collection of decretale made by Pope Clement V. and intended by him to form a seventh book in the great collection, also known as " Clementine," Bee CANON LAW, IL, 6, § 3.

Tutrianue was the first, in his Pro canont'bus aPostolorum (1573), to give information about the Homilies, using a manuscript which has apparently disappeared. They were published :. The in 1672 by Cotelerius from a manu­Homilies. script in the library of Paris, which, however, stopped with the nineteenth homily, and offered a very corrupt text. The first complete editon was that of Dressel (1853), from a newly discovered manuscript in the Ottobonian library at Rome. Lagarde made the first attempt to give a critically accurate text in 1865. The book consists of two letters to the apostle James and twenty " homilies " also addressed to him. The first letter purports to be from Peter, asking James to keep secret the special doctrines he has transmitted to him. The second is supposed to be from Clement, announcing that Peter has ap­pointed him his successor in Rome, and charged him to send James an account of their long asso­ciation. Clement, having sought truth in vain in the philosophical schools, hearing something of Jesus, decides to go to Judea for an answer to his questions. In Alexandria he meets Barnabas, who conducts him to Peter at Ca;earea Stratonis. Peter

instructs him in Christianity, and invites him to be

present at the disputation with Simon Magus which

is soon to take place. It lasts three days. At the

end Simon, defeated, takes flight; Peter remains

a while, founds a local church, and sets apart

Zaccha;us as its bishop. Before himself following

Simon, he sends Clement, with Niceta and Aquila,

to bring back news of him. They do not find him

in Tyre, but meet some of his friends, with one of

whom, Appion the Alexandrian grammarian, Clem­

ent disputes till Peter arrives. Together they con­

tinue their journey, Peter preaching to the heathen

and founding churches. On the way Clement

narrates his own life how his parents and two

brothers have mysteriously disappeared long before.

Nicety and Aquila turn out to be his brothers.

Discourses sad dialogues are interspersed with these

events. Simon arrives here, and the principal

disputation follows, lasting four days, on divine

revelations in visions, on the most high God, and

on evil. Simon is defeated and retires, but pres­

ently, by his magic arts, changes the appearance

of Clement's brother Faustus into his own likeness.

In this form Peter sends him to Antioch, where

the real Simon has many adherents, to make s

recantation of all his teaching. Peter having or­

ganized a church in Laodicea, departs for Antioch.

This romantic narrative, however, is only s

framework for doctrinal development. The doc­

trine has two sides, a metaphysical and an ethical,

which allows irreconcilable views to be stated

side by side. The aim of human life is the attain­

ment of the highest good, only possible through a

true knowledge of God and of all things, which sin

prevents man from gaining without revelation.

God revealed himself first in creation,

s. Doctrinal and then, this being obscured by sin,

Teachings, through the " true Prophet." He is

to be recognized through prophecy,

and, once known, must be followed implicitly. He

has appeared not in one single person, but under

divers forms and names. Eight persons have had

a special relation to this revelation Adam, Enoch,

Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and Christ;

Adam, Moses, and Christ stand above the others,

Christ being the highest. The primeval revelation

in Adam, the Mosaic teaching, and Christianity

are essentially identical. Christianity is purified

Mosaism, with the addition, however, of preaching

to the heathen and baptism. The death of Christ

does not mean salvation to the author, and he 'is

silent on the Resurrection. The fundamental doe.

trine of the one God, the Creator, develops in

two different directions  one decidedly pantheistic,

and another which leads not less strongly, by an

ethical road, to a totally opposite view of the uni­

verse. Here God is still one, but personal, and

described in the most anthropomorphic terms.

Man, made in his image, is free, and hence comes

sin. The devil is always seducing men, and the

" true Prophet " teaching them again how to serve

God. If evil comes out of freedom, there can be

only one end to it, eternal punishment. The

author has evidently tried to reconcile these two

conflicting tendencies, especially in his teaching on

evil. All property is sin; the eating of fish is



forbidden; marriage, though considered s defile­

ment, is allowed, and even praised;, frequent

ablutions are recommended or commanded. The

episcopate appears as a living institution; the

bishop some up in himself, as the representative of

Christ, the local church, and James, the bishop of

Jerusalem, the whole Church.

The Recognitions are extant only in the trans­

lation of Rufinua. The name is taken from the

technical language of the drama, and refers to the

reuniting of Clement's family. The Latin version

exists in numerous manuscripts, without as yet an

adequate modern edition. The arrangement of the

material corresponds on the whole to that of the

main body of the Homilies. Barnabas, however,

comes to Rome instead of Clement to

3. The Rec  Alexandria. A report is given of all

ognitions. three days of the first disputation

with Simon, varying considerably

from that is the Homilies. Instead of the second

disputation with Simon, there is a three days'

discussion on fate between Peter, Clement, and

his father and brothers. The end is much the

same, but it goes further to narrate the foundation

of a church in Antioch and the baptism of Clement's

father. In doctrine it shows fewer peculiarities

than do the Homilies and it gives the impression of

R revision to suit a certain class of readers.

The Epitome, first published by Turnebua (Paris,

1555), then by Coteleriua in his Patres Apostolici,

is an extract from the Homilies, with the addition

of a portion of Clement's letter to James, another

from the account of his martyrdom by Simeon

Metaphrastea, and a conclusion from the narrative

of a miracle performed by him which is attributed

to Ephraim, bishop of Cheraon. Dresael published

an edition based on a new collation of

4. The manuscripts (Leipaic, 1859), with a

Epitome. variant copy which differs from the

first only by taking is more of the

Homilies. These extracts have no important bear­

ing on the main questions at issue. Great hopes

were based on the appearance of Lagarde's edition

of a Syriac version (1861), but this throws no new

light on the origin and history of the group. The

narrative matter continued to interest long after

the original significance of the books was forgotten.

It was taken into the body of medieval legend,

and has been thought to have influenced the devel­

opment of the Faust story.

The scientific discussion of the whole question

really began with Neander, who in the appendix

to his Genetische Entwicklung der gnostiscTcere Systems

(1818) gave an exposition of the doctrinal content,

and Baur, who drew a good deal of evidence for

his conception of the primitive Church from the

Homilies. He considered the book,

g. Discus  originating in the Roman Church, to

sion of the be an evidence of the prevalence of

Clementine Judaism there, and the ecclesiastical

Problem. constitution shown in it to be the

basis of the Catholic system. In op­

position to him appeared the thorough work of

Schliemann. He was the first to argue the priority

of the Homilies and the dependence of the Recog­

nitions. Schwegler accepted this view, and con 

sidered the Homilies to show the turning point from Ebionitism to fusion, while the Recognitions marked the conclusion of this process, the stage of neutrality and peace.

Up to this point the literary question of the rela­tion of the two books and their origin from older writings had been neglected. Hilgenfeld's epoch­making work took this up. He saw the original in the Recognitions and a recasting, in the Homilies. On the basis of minute investigation, he evolved the theory of an earlier " Preaching of Peter,"

written at Rome not long before the 6. Relation destruction of Jerusalem, in the inter­of the Rec  eat of Jewish Christianity. On the

ognitions indications of polemical attitude, he to the traced a aeries of recastinga; he

Homilies. thought it likely that the opponent of

Peter in the original work was not Simon Magus but Paul, then becoming successively the representative of Basilidian, Valentinian, and Mareionite Gnosticism, the last in the Homilies, which he believed to have been recast from the Recognitions at Rome under Anicetus (151 161). Against Hilgenfeld, Uhlhorn undertook to defend the priority of the Homilies once more, contending that a fragment of the nucleus was to be found not, as Hilgenfeld had thought, in Recogn. i. 27 72, but in Hom. xvi. xxix., and that the birthplace of the whole group was neither Rome nor Asia Minor, but eastern Syria. This he considered to be proven by the composite nature of the doctrinal system, moat closely related to that of the Elkesaitea, though in­fluenced by Hellenic culture and showing distinct Stoic elements. His theory was that the original work was composed there about 150, and the Homilies adapted from it about 170, with a view to a propaganda in the pagan world, especially at Rome. For this purpose Clement was introduced and Roman local color added. The Recognitions would then be a further adaptation made in Rome not long after 170, more acceptable because of its nearer approach to orthodox Christianity.

The next important contribution to the discussion was Lehmann'a, who took a middle course between Hilgenfeld'e and Uhlhorn's, separating the Recog­nitions into two parts of different authorship (i. iii. and iv. x.), of which the first is earlier and the second later than the Homilies. This treatment was carried further by Lipaiua, who found the nu­cleus in a hypothetical Acts Petri of strongly anti­Pauline tendency written some time before 150; tracers of this work are found in the extant Acts Petri et Pauli (in Tiaehendorf, Ada aPostolorum apocrypha, Leipsic, 1851), but revised in an ortho­dox sense. A fragment of this was worked up in an anti Gnostic sense about 140 145, the result again expanded by the addition of the Clement romance, and further adapted into an early form of the Recog­nitiona, of which two later forms exist, one strong­ly anti Mareionite in the Homilies, the other in the present Recognitions, in which the dogmatic interest is subordinated to the ethical, and the specifically Ebionite matter is eliminated. Langen took quite a different view, presupposing a " Preach­ing of Peter " composed in Rome after 135, with the purpose of claiming for Rome the primacy of


Jewish Christendom lost by Jerusalem. This was revised at Ca=sarea shortly before 200 is a strongly Jewish Christian sense, to support the claim of Caesarea to the primacy, and gave us the Homilies, while the Recognitions are a fresh version made in favor of Antioch early in the third century.

None of these views has obtained universal accept­an'  It is impossible to assert the absolute priority of either the Homilies or the Recognitions, or to regard one as a working over of the other. Opinions as to date of composition differ more widely than ever. Where there used to be practi­cal unanimity in referring the works to the second century, 170 or 180 at latest, Harnaek has said that they can not go further back than the first half of the third. The importance of the Clementine, for early church history, asserted by Baur and Schweg­ler, is now abandoned. (G. UsL>3oxrrj'.)

Bnatroaasra:: A bibliography to 1888 is in ANF Bibliogrs­phy, pp. 92J85; cf. Kr6ger, History, p. 371, and Harnack, Litterntur, ii. 2, pp. 518 519. Eng. travel. is in ANF, viii. 77 211, 21b 348. Consult: Kr0ger, History, pp. 371 377; A. Neander. Die paeudoclementdniachen Homilum, Berlin, 1818; F. C. A. 8ahwegler, Des nachapostolische Zeitdkr,, i. 386 408, 481 490, TObingen, 1848; A. Hilgenfeld, Die ckmenhnischan Recap»ihonen and Hornilien, Jens, 1848; J. Lehmann, Die clenuntiniachsn Schrifkn, Goths, 1889; R. A. Lipeius, Die Quellen der rSmisehen Pebvs Sage, Kiel, 1872; A. B. Lutterbeek, Die Cienunt4nen, Giessen , 1872; [W. R. Cassels], Supernatural Religion, ii. 1 37, 336 354, London, 1879; Harnsck, Dogma, i. 311 eqq ; idem, Lib taratur, i.144, 212 213, 322 eqq., ii., part 1, 701; C. Bigg, in Studia Bibdiea, ii. 157 193, Oxford, 1890; J. Langen, Die Hiemeneromanc, Goths, 1890; DCB, i. 587 578; Schaff, Christian Church, ii. 43b 442.


I. The Name. II. The Doctrine of the Clerical Office. Not Instituted by Christ as a Distinct Office (¢ 1). But Necessary and Indispensable ($ 2). View of Roman and Greek Churches (¢ 3). The Lutheran Doctrine (¢ 4). The Reformed and Anglican Doctrine (§ b). III. The Call. IV. Legal Status of the Clergy.
The clergy constitute the entire body of public servants or ministers in the Christian Church, duly set apart for their office by Consecration or Ordi­nation (qq.v.); the remainder of the Christian community, in contradistinction to the clergy, con­stitute the Laity (q.v.).

L The Name: The English word "clergy " (and the French clergy, clergie) is from ecclesiastical Latin (elerieua =" clergyman, priest, clerk "; see CLERK) and is more remotely connected with the Greek kl&os, " lot," which was applied to the clergy " either because they are the lot of the Lord, or else because the Lord himself is their lot and portion " (Jerome, Epist., Iii., ANF, vi. 91; cf. Acts i. 26; Num. aviii. 20; Dent. a. 9, aviii.2, LXX.). Another term of ecclesiastical Latin is aptrittales. Paul had designated as " spiritual " certain Chris­tians in whom the spirit of Christ manifested itself with special power (I Con xiv. 37; Gal. vi. 1; d. Irenfeus on I Cor. ii. fi, Ha:r.,V. vi. l; Theodoret on I Cor. ii. 15). The priest, according to C)lrym (" On the Priesthood;" iii. 4; NPNF, 1st eer., ia. 46),has a vocation instituted neither by "man, nor



angel, nor archangel, nor any other created power, but the Paraclete himself." According to Peter Lombard (Sent., iv., diet. 4), the office is a mantle spirituals; all the seven grades of holy orders are spiriluules ; the ordo is " something sacred by which the power of the Spirit is imparted to the ordained." In consequence of this point of view the designation " spirituales " and its German equivalent " Geistliche " were transferred to the incumbents of the office.

]7. The Doctrine of the Clerical Office: Christ promised and .sent the Holy Spirit to his congre­gation here below, and instituted the sacraments. According to Roman Catholic and Anglican belief he also instituted a special statue within his con­gregation, which in distinction from the rest of the congregation should be furnished with the prerogatives of the spiritual profession. Thus he called the Twelve, made them his companions and representatives, and in Matt. aviii. 18 he gives his disciples the assurance that whatever dispositions they shall adopt as his disciples, in his name, and for the continuation of his work shall be effectual as of divine, not human ordination. Protestant bodies other than the Anglican reject these claims. In the farewell addresses, John xiii. evil., the assembled disciples are considered in a twofold relation: on one side as the founders appointed by Jesus himself for his congregation, on another 1. Not In  side as the congregation itself, left atituted by behind by Jesus on earth; but not as Christ as s an ordained mate of administrators

Distinct with a commission over the rest of the

congregation. In John xx. 21 23 the

risen Christ reveals to those present the transforma­

tion which his resurrection has effected in their re­

lation to his person, and in their attitude toward the

world; but what he says does not apply to them and

I their contingent successors in distinction from the

i rest of the congregation. In II Cor, iii. 3 10 Paul treats of the glory of the New Testament minis­tration, but not of its particular institution; in Eph. iv. 11 the emphasis rests on the " he " (Gk. autos): by him, the exalted Christ, are they all given who labor for the congregation, but the passage knows naught of a special act of institution by Jesus when living in the flesh. Again it is stated in Acts ax. 28 29 that the Holy Spirit has ap­pointed the persons addressed as " overseers," but not that this was done by means of a special eccle­siastical act. In reality there confront us in the New Testament all kinds of designations with respect to such as were active in the instruction and administration of the congregations: " elders " (Gk. preabyteroi ; Acts xv. 2, xa. 17; I Tim. v. 17; Titus i. 5; James v. 14); " those over you " (proi­stamenoi; I Thess. v. 12); "those which have the

~ rule over you " NVotcme>zoi ; Heb. xiii. 7); " over 

seers " or " bishops " (episkopoi ; Acts xx. 28; ~ Phil. i. 1; I Tim. iii. 2); " deacons " (diakortof ;

Phil. i. 1; I Tim. iii. 8, 12); " pyre Py (poi. Eph. iv. 11); " angels " (dag0elor; ; Rev. i. 20)~

" evangelists •• and `• teachers " (euanggeliatai, didaskaloi; Eph. iv. 11). The most evident in­ference from any of these names is the special ac­tivity of those mentioned; there can be no question


of a hierarchy, or an organism continuing unchanged in its main features. And the most that can be said is that at that early period the New Testament congregations were not wanting in defined person­alities, active in their charges; in this respect the Corinthian congregation constituted no exception.

But the clerical profession is indispensable though it is not the immediate institution of Christ.

For the means of grace by word and 2. But Neo  sacrament conferred by Jesus on the eaaary and congregation moat be administered;

Indi°pen the powers which are present in the

sable. congregation through the Spirit of Christ must be organized and directed. To this end there is need of definite personalities who belong to the congregation and are no less de­pendent, as individuals, upon the means of grace and powers bestowed on the congregation than the congregation as a whole, but who still ,assume a position of leadership within the congregation; which leadership is authoritative for the congre­gation in so far as the holders of this office admin­ister these gifts and powers in the name and accord­ing to the will of the Lord. To this extent there is e clerical or spiritual profession and a spiritual office, and there must be both of these so long as Christ's congregation lives on earth separated from its Lord by the confines of the visible, and associated with the unchristian world.

Historical evolution parted into two conceptions of the clerical office, of which one has' found its expression in the Roman sacerdotium, the other in

the Protestant ministerium ecclesias 

8. View of any. As early as the poetapostolic o~

and k age, the celebration of the Lord's Sup 

t7hnrohea. per was accounted valid only when

conducted or authorized by the bishop (Ignatius, Ad Smyr., viii.). The right to bap­tize devolves principally on the bishop; on the presbyters and deacons " not without the au­thority of the bishop," Tertullian, De bapt., xvii.; on the priest, Apostolic Constitutions, VI. xv. 1. The bishops and other priests have been entrusted by the apostles with the charge of doctrine (Apos­tolic Constitutions, VI. xviii. b); they must be heard, for through them the Lord speaks (Augustine, Serm., class ii. 20). In the celebration of the sacrament the priest accomplishes a sacrifice which far surpasses the act of Elijah on Carmel; the priest excels rulers, for his authority extends to heaven. From this doctrine developed the Roman theory of the priest's profession, s mediation between God and men (of. the Roman catechism, part ii., chap. 7; see PRIEBT). The view of the Greek Church of to day is substantially the same. The consecra­tion of priests is a sacrament wherein the Holy Spirit, through a bishop, ordains duly elected can­didates to the office of administering the sacra­ments and feeding Christ's flock.

Luther rejected the theory that the clerical dignity depends upon any ecclesiastical consecra­tion. " Were there not in us a higher consecration than the pope or bishop gives, there would never­more a priest be made by pope or bishop's conse­cration; neither could he celebrate masses or preach or absolve " (An den ehriatlichen Add). But at the

same time he was convinced of the necessity of a

special profession. " The Church requires the

4. The word of God, baptism, the sacrament

Lutheran of the altar, the use of the keys, and,

Doctrine. lastly, we know the Church out­

wardly by the fact that it consecrates

or calls church ministers, or has offices to be

administered. For one must have bishops, pastors,

or preachers who shall publicly and expressly dis­

pense, administer, and exercise the aforesaid four

articles of salvation on account and in the name of

the Church, and also much rather, indeed by

reason of Christ's institution " (V on den Conciliis

and %irchen, part iii.). He holds that the clerical

profession is not rendered unnecessary by the uni­

versal priesthood. "Although we are all priests,

yet we can not, nor should we, all preach and teach

and rule: one must then certainly, from the entire

body, separate and elect some to whom such duties

shall be committed; and he that wields the same

is not a priest on account of the office (as all the

others are), but a servant of all the others " (Ex­

position of Psalm ex.). To hold that the spiritual

profession is instituted by God is not inconsistent

with these views of Luther, since the work it must

carry forward is instituted by God; hence the

Lutheran confessions ' s,nd dogmaticians without

hesitation designate the profession as of divine

institution. From this theory there deviates a new

doctrine, represented principally by Kliefoth and

Vihnas, according to which the clerical profession

is instituted immediately by Christ, being entrusted

with the fulfilment of the means of grace, not as

trustee on the part of the congregation, but as ex­

clusively empowered thereto by the Lord; and that

the same has been perpetuated throughout the cen­

turies by the imposition of heads. This doctrine,

which is not substantiated by Scripture, has been con­

tested especially by Htifling, Hofmann, and Harless.

The Calvinists likewise reject the Roman idea

of priesthood, though they strongly emphasize the

divine institution, authorization, and organization

of ministers (Confession of Basel, xv. xx.; Gallican

Confession, xxix.; Geneva Catechism, De verbo Dei;

Second Helvetic Confession, xviii.).

6. The Divine election is confirmed through

Reformed the appointment to office (Confession


of Basel, xvii.). The Anglican Church

Doctrine. makes membership in the clerical pro­

fession dependent upon reception by

act of the privileged estate itself (cf. the Latin

text of the Thirty nine ,Articles, art. xxiii., and

the forma of the Book of Common Prayer on the

" Making, Ordaining, and Consecrating of Bishops,

Priests, and Deacons ").

III. The Call (Vocatio): The cooperation of the congregation in the calling of its clergy is very old. The circumstance that Paul makes no mention of this cooperation in Titus i. b, in connection with the commission to appoint presbyters, is not a convincing argument to the contrary, since exceptional con­ditions in Crete may have compelled Titus to dis­regard the cooperation of the congregation; or, what is just as possible, he may have executed the commission in conference with the congregation. In favor of the cooperation of the congregation are


found more or less distinct references (Didache, xv. 1; Cyprisu, Epist., xxxviii., lxvii. 4; Chrysoatom, " On the Priesthood," iii. Ib; APoatdic (;'onatitur dons, vii. 31; Leo the Great; EFist., a. 8; Synod of i Orldana, ii. 7, iii. 3; Missals Frnrecorum, allocutio in ordinations presbyteri). That, as a matter of fact, this right of the congregation was often enough greatly encroached upon is not to be disputed. But the Council of Trent did not revoke the right in principle, merely pronouncing the opposite pro­cedure to be just as valid (Session xxiii., chap. 4).

Luther distinguished two kinds of calling. The first proceeds from God alone, without any me­dium; and this calling must have external signs and witness. The other calling needs no signs; it comes about through men and is previously con­firmed by the command of God on Mount Sinai: Love God, and thy neighbor as thyself. From this view of Luther's has been evolved the Lutheran doctrine of the vocatio immediate and mediate. With reference to the latter the Augsburg Confes­sion requires that he who holds a clerical office moat be " duly called." Lutheran dogmaticians generally recognize the cooperation of the congre­gation. It is to be observed that this vocation is always understood as to a definitely circumscribed sphere of operation.

According to Calvin (" Institutes," IV. iii. 17) the vocalic must come about "with the consent and approval of the people; but other pastors ought to preside at the election." According to the Geneva ordinances the clergy do the electing and the laity voices rte consent (Second Helvetic Confession, xviii.). A detailed description of the election as conducted by the whole congregation is found at the close of the Lituxgia in ecclesia peregrittortim at Frankfort on the Main, 1554. W. CeaPARI.

IV. Legal Status of the Clergy: In the United

States, there being no ecclesiastical establishment,

the clergy, with the exception of chaplains in the

Army and Navy and those attached to legislative

bodies, have no governmental connection. The

clerical profession is, however, recognized in the

statute law of all the States and Territories. In law

a clergyman, priest, or minister is one who has been

regularly authorized to preach the Gospel and ad­

minister the ordinances of religion, according to the

rules of the religious body to which he is attached.

The legal status of the clergy remains so long as this

clerical office is recognized by the body to which

they belong. The law grants them exemption from

military duty and from service in petit juries. In

the case of grand juries thin exemption is sometimes

optional. The law also grants the clergy the right

to solemnize marriage, which right is shared by a

number of civil officials, and is purely statutory.

Under some State laws providing for the incorpora­

tion of religious bodies the minister in charge may

be elected a trustee and thus a member of the cor

poration. The profession of pastor or minister in

any general religious body does not in law develop

any contract for his support, while he is bound by

the laws of the body as to his official and personal

conduct so long as his office is recognized; but no

ecclesiastical connection can impair his civil and

property rights. A minister is under no legal ob­

IIL 10

ligation to mantain his ecclesiastical connection. The law reads into a contract of a minister for employment by a local church all the rules of the denomination that recognises his standing as a min­ister as though such rules had been inserted in the call. Where the religious society is an independent organisation, the salary is generally fixed by the qualified electors of the society, and certified by the trustees having control of the temporalities of the Church. For salary is alien upon all the church property other than that held in trust. See ORDI­NATION; BENEFIT OF CLERGY; BIaHOP; EPIBCOPACr;


Btstsoonerav: For the Roman Catholic doctrine consult: %L, iii. b37 647; De Mares, De diaaimine deriocrum at iaicorum, ad. Baluse, pp. 84 93, Venice. 1770: H. Rump. Das allgemoine Priestarthtmt der Christen, Mttneter, 1890; W. Schanz, Daa Laien  and das himmliaehe Prieatsrfhum, Freiburg, 1873; H. Hurler, Theolopim dop»wDieo cotnpen­diem, vol. Iii., chap. .. De ordine." Innsbruck, 1893.

For the Lutheran: %. Ullmann, preface to T3% for 1849; Ci. C. A. von Hulese, Rirdre and Amt, Stuttgart, 1863; J. W. F. Hbfiing, OrundasW evanpdisdWufhr tiader RirrAanroer/astunp. Erlangen, 1863; B. Lechler, Die neutastamentdiche Lehre vom hsiiipsn Amts, Stuttgart, 1867; w. Preger. (3eschichte vom paietlinhen Amt., Nbrd­lingen, 1857; A. F. C. Vilmar, Die Lshre room peieUiehm Amts, Marburg, 1870.

For the Reformed and Anglican sides consult: Bing­ham, Origin", books iv., vi.; Calvin, Institutes, L, iv. 3; d. B. Lightfoot, The Christian Ministry, new ad., New York, 1894; E. A, Litton, The Church of Christ, in its Idea, At­tributes and Ministry, London, 1861; C. Wordsworth, putlinu o/ the Christian Ministry, ib. 1872; C. Gore, Ministry of the Christian Church, ib. 1889; 'H. J. Van Dyke, The Church, her Ministry and Sacraments, New York, 1890; W. Lefray, The Christian Ministry, London, 1891. The subject is trested in works on the Enoyolo­podia of Theology (q.v.) and on Practical Theology. Gee the literature under OauWsTtoN.


Reformed theologian; b. at Geneva mar. 19, 1657;

I d. at Amsterdam Jan. 8, 1738. He studied at

Geneva tinder Turretin and Mestrezat, and later

went to Grenoble, Saumur, Paris, and London,

where for some months he preached to the Reformed

fugitives from Savoy and published his Ece

theologico under the name of Liberiua de $aneto

Amore. By studying the works of lWenne de

Courcelles and Epiacopiue he was drawn over to the

Dutch R,emonatrants, went to Amsterdam, and

was appointed there professor of literature and

philosophy in the Remonstrant Seminary. Here

he developed a great activity in all branches of

science. He published much and corresponded with

many scholars. In his Entretiena (Amsterdam,

1884) he maintained that reason is an infallible

guide in judging of all that man needs to know for

salvation, but in other writings he declared his

belief in revelation and defended himself against

the charge of Socinianiam. As a theologian his

chief service was his contribution to a better un­

derstanding of the Bible, free from dogmatic preju­

dices. H. C. RooaEt.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: An anonymous life in Latin was published Amsterdam 1711; A. des Amorie van der Hoeven. Ds Joanne Ct, ib. 1843.

CLERK: The name originally need, in its Latin form clerk=, to designate all ordained persons, or members of the " clergy " (q.v ). From the fact




1159 damaged the position of Cluny still more, and neither the reforms of his successors nor the attempt of No II. in 1289 to entab­6. Decline. liah a seat of learning in Paris, the Col­lege of Cluny, had permanent effects. The independent position of the abbey was par­tially abandoned by No I. in 1258 when it wan placed under the protection of Louis 1X., which led later to subjection to the trench crown. First the Avignon popes claimed the right to name the abbots John XXII. and Clement VI. put in their own relations and from 1458, when Charles VII. of France appointed John of Bourbon, an illegit­imate member of his house, the kings dominated it. From 1528 to 1822 it was held in commendam by the family of Guise. At the Reformation, with the suppression of the English, German, end Swiss houses and the attainment of independence by the Spanish and Italian, the congregation loaf its inter­national character. During the Guise period the abbey suffered severely in the warn of religion; in 1582 the Huguenots destroyed a great part of the fine buildings and dispersed the library. Cardinal Richelieu held it in succession to the last regular abbot, sad attempted in 1834 to combine the congregation with that of St. Maur, an act which was reversed tenyeare later by his succeenorArmand, prince of Coati. The next abbots were Cardinal IIIazarin (1854 61) and Cardinal Rinaldo d'Erte,, brother of the duke of Modem and protector of France at Rome (1862 72). After him followed an interregnum of eleven yearn, and then it was held from 1883 to 1710 by the Cardinal de Bouillon. In 1790 it was suppressed by the Constituent Assem­bly, which cold the magnificent church to the commune for 100,000 franca, and thus brought about its almost complete destruction. The Muse de Cluny in Paris, originally built (1334) as the Parisian headquarters of the abbot, preserves a splendid, collection of antiquities, a large part of which came from the abbey. (G. GRQTZMACHEn.)


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