CIUDAD, JUAN (JOHN OF GOD). See eseR>:rY, BROTHERS OF.
CLAIRVAU%. See BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUx; CISTERCIANS. CLAP, THOMAS: Fifth president of Yale College; b. at Scituate, Mass., June 26, 1703; d. in New Haven Jan. 7, 1767. He was graduated at Harvard 1722; was minister of Windham, Conn., from 1725 till his induction as president of Yale,
126 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Clark City Xissions
1740. He was already noted for stringency of discipline and pronounced Calvinism, and as president his course was somewhat arbitrary and autocratic, but nevertheless was marked by regard for sound scholarship and propriety. The college funds were increased in legitimate ways and two new buildings were added; the college church was organized and the professorship of divinity was established. He sympathized with the " Old Lights " in the disputes stirred up by Whitefield and the revival preaching of his time. He resigned the presidency in 1766, a few months before his death. Besides many controversial pamphlets he wrote An Essay on the Nature and Foundation of Moral Virtue and Obligation,* intended for a textbook (New Haven, 1765), and The Annals or History of Yale College (1766).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. B. Dexter, in the Papers of the New Haven
Colony Historical Society, v. 247 274, New Haven, 1894.
CLARE (CLARA), SAINT, AND THE POOR CLARES: The founder of an order of women parallel to the Franciscans, and the order itself. Clara Scefi was born at Assisi, of a noble family, July 16, 1194. At the age of eighteen she was expecting to be married, when a sermon of St. Francis showed her the vanity of earthly things. Under his direction she put on sackcloth and went out to beg for the poor. On Palm Sunday (Mar. 18, 1212), she took the three vows, and went to reside provisionally in the Benedictine convent of St. Paul. Soon she was joined by her younger sister Agnes, and Francis made a little cloister for them near the church of St. Damian. Others, including her mother and youngest sister, joined her here; and she acted as head of the community until her death, Aug. 11, 1253. She was canonized by Alexander IV. in 1255.
The growth of her order was rapid; and it was not long before all the larger towns to which the Franciscans came had also a convent of Poor Clares. At the end of the sixteenth century, even after the Reformation had diminished the number, there were still 900 houses, with some 25,000 sisters, under the immediate direction of the general of the Franciscans, and a scarcely smaller number under the diocesan bishops.
Until 1219 Clare and her associates had nothing but the oral counsels of Francis to follow. In 1219 Cardinal Ugolino gave them the rule of St. Benedict, with some additions in the direction of severity. Later, Francis and Ugolind drew up for them a rule in twelve chapters, analogous to that of the Friars Minor. It prescribed the strictest poverty, confinement to the enclosure of the convent, fasting and abstinence, and prohibited the holding of any property, even by the convents. This rule was formally confirmed by Innocent IV. in 1246, and accepted by the majority of the convents. By degrees however, varieties of observance grew up, and in 1264 Pope Urban IV. attempted to enforce a revised rule, with certain mitigationa in the matter of fasting and income for their support. This was accepted in moat countries; but there were (and are still) some convents in Italy and Spain which adhered to the primitive rigor, and claimed the exclusive right to the name
Clarisses, while the others were known as Urbaniste. At the beginning of the fifteenth century the strict reform of St. Coleta, based upon the original rule of Francis and Ugolino, was introduced in all the convents over which she had influence. Upon the representation of the Franciscan John Capietrau to Eugenius IV. that the rule contained more than a hundred precepts binding under pain of grievous sin, the pope ruled in 1447 that the only precepts binding under pain of mortal sin should be those relating to the three vows, the enclosure, and the election or deposition of an abbess. This is still the case. The Capuchin Sisters, originating in Naples, 1538, and the Alcantarines, 1631, taking their name from the reform of St. Peter of Alcantara, are simply Clarieses of the strict observance. The Poor Clares have houses in England and Ireland. They established themselves in the United States in 1875, where they have (1907) five houses.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: ASB, August, ii. 739 788; Life of St. Claire, Dublin, 1854; F. de Mole, Vie de S. Claire d'Aesiae, Paris, 1858; P. Jouhennesud, Vie do S. Claire d'Anise, Limoges, 1873; Joseph de Madrid, Vie, de S. Claire d'Aariae, Paris, 1880; E. wauer, Entakhuep and Auabreituny' lea Rlarieeenordsne, Leipeio, 1908. The Repula was published in Italian at Barcelona, 1844, and in French at Laval, 1851. On the order insult: E. Lempp, in ZKIi, aiii (1892), 181 24b: Currier, Religious Orders, pp. 249 252.
CLARENDON, CONSTITUTI=ONS OF. See Bxcs
CLARElYI (CLARElYIftI). See FxeNCrs, SAINT, or Assisi, AND THE FRAmciscAN ORDER, 111., 17.
CLARK, FRANCIS EDWARD: Congregationalist, founder of the United Society of Christian Endeavor; b. at Aylmer, Quebec, Sept. 12; 1851. He was graduated at Dartmouth is 1873 and Andover Theological Seminary in 1876, after which he was pastor of Williston Church, Portland, Me. (1876 83), and of Phillips Church, South Boston (1883 87). In 1881 he founded the Society of Christian Endeavor, and in 18$7 resigned his pastorate to devote his entire energies to its promotion. Since that year he has been president of the United Society of Christian Endeavor, and ,is also president of the World's Christian Endeavor Union and editor of The Christian Endeavor World,the official organ of the society. In the interest of the society he has traveled over the world. Among his publications may be mentioned Young People's Prayer Meetings (New York, 1887); Our Journey around the World (1894); World Wide Endeavor (Boston, f897); and A New Way around an Old World (New York, 1900).
CLARK, GEORGE WHITFIELD: Baptist; b. at South Orange, N. J., Feb. 15, 1831. He was graduated at Amherst in 1853 and Rochester Theological Seminary in 1855, and was pastor at New Market, N. J. (1855 59), Elizabeth, N. J. (1859 68), Balaton Spa, N. Y. (1868 73), and Somerville, N. J. (1873 77). He retired from the active ministry in 1877 on account of ill health, and since 1880 has been engaged in missionary, financial, and literary work for the American Baptist Publication Society. Besides a History
THE NEW SCHAFF IiERZOG of the First Baptist Church of Elisabeth, N. J. (Newark, 1863) and a Gospel Harmony in English (New York, 1870), he has written a Commentary on the New Testament (9 vole., Philadelphia, 1870 1907).
CLARK, THOMAS MARCH: Second Protestant Episcopal bishop of Rhode Island; b. at Newburyport, Mass., July 4, 1812; d. at Middletown, Conn., Sept. 7, 1903. He was graduated at Yale 1831; studied in Princeton Theological Seminary 1833 35 and was licensed as a Presbyterian at Newburyport 1835; was ordained priest in the Protestant Episcopal Church 1838; became rector of Grace Church, Boston, 1836; of St. Andrew's, Philadelphia, 1843; assistant at Trinity, Boston, 1847; rector of Christ Church, Hartford, 1851; was consecrated bishop of Rhode Island, 1854. His books include Lectures to Young Men on the Formation of Character (Hartford, 1852); The Primary Truths of Religion (New York, 1869); Readings and Prayers for Aid in Private Demotion (1888); Reminiscences (1895).
CLARK, WILLIAM ROBINSOft:Church of England; b. at Inverurie (13 m. n.w. of Aberdeen), Aberdeenshire, Scotland, Mar. 28, 1829. $e studied at King's College, Aberdeen, and Hertford College, Oxford (B.A., 1864), and was ordered deacon in 1857 and ordained priest in the following year. He was curate of St. Matthias', Birmingham (1857 58) and of St. Mary Magdalene, Taunton, in 1858, where he was vicar 1859 80. From 1870 to 1882 he was prebendary of Wells, and since 1883 has been professor of philosophy in Trinity College, Toronto. He was lecturer of St. George, Toronto, 1882 85, and lecturer in history in Trinity College, Toronto, 1883 91, as well as Baldwin lecturer in the University of Michigan in 1887, and Slocum lecturer in the same university in 1899. In 1900 he was elected president of the Royal Society of Canada. He translated Hagenbach'a History of Doctrines (3 vole., Edinburgh, 1880 81) and the major portion of Hefele's History of the Councils (to 787, 4 vole., 1871 96), and has written, besides other works, Witnesses to Christ (Baldwin Lectures; London, 1888); Saroortarola : his Life arid Times (1892); The Anglican Reformation (1896); The Paraclete (Slocum Lectures, 1900); and Pascal and Port Royal (1902).
CLARKE, ADAM: Wesleyan preacher, commentator, and theologian; b. at Moybeg (near Kilcronaghan, 2 m. e. of Draperatown), County Londonderry, Ireland, c. 1762; d, in London Aug. 28, 1832. He became a Methodist in 1778, and was in a succession an exhorter, local preacher, and regular preacher. His first circuit was that of Bradford, Wiltshire, to which he was appointed in 1782. He served in various places and traveled throughout Great Britain, achieving fame as a preacher, and being president of the British Conference in 1806, 1814, and 1822. After 1805 he held an appointment in London, where he was a member of the committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society for several years, and one of the advisers of its Oriental publications, in addition to editing certain ancient documents of state in continuation
of the Ftedera of Thomas Rymer. He resigned from this task in 1819, having retired four years previously, in view of his impaired health, to Millbrook, Lancashire, where he resided until his return to the vicinity of London in 1823. He was also active in the service of the Wesleyan Missionary Society from its inception in 1814, making two missionary journeys in 1826 and 182$ to the Shetland Islands, where he established Methodism. The moat important of his numerous works was his commentary on the Bible (8 vole., Liverpool, 1810 26), which long had an extensive circulation. He also published a Biographical Dictionary (6 vole., London, 1802) and its supplement, The Biographical Miscellany (2 vole., 1806). His Miscellaneous Works were edited in thirteen volumes by J. Everett (London, 1836 37).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: An Account of the Infancy. Religious and Literary Life of Adam Clarks, 3 vole., London, 1833 (vol. i. is autobiographical, vole. n., m. by his daughter. M. A. Smith, with an Appendix by his eon, J. B. B. Clarks).
Consult lives by J. Everett, London, 1843; J. W. Ethor
idge, ib. 1858: 8. Dune, ib. 1888; and DNB. a. 413 414.
CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN: Unitarian; b. in Hanover, N. H., Apr. 4, 1810; d. in Boston June 8, 1888. He was graduated at Harvard 1829, and at the Cambridge Divinity School 1833; was pastor in Louisville, Ky., 18330; became pastor of the newly organized Church of the Disciples, Boston, 1841, and remained there till his death, with the exception of an interval between 1850 and 1853 when the church was temporarily disbanded. He was a director of the Unitarian Association from 1845, was chosen its secretary in 1859, and helped to form the National Conference of Unitarian Churches in 1865. He was a leader of the antislavery movement, and an efficient member of the Sanitary Commission during the Civil War; at a later period he advocated civil service reform. He was prominent in educational work in Boston, an overseer of Harvard, and a trustee of the public library. In 1867 he was made professor in the Harvard Divinity School and gave lectures on comparative theology, Christian doctrine, and other subjects, from which his important books, Steps of Belief (Boston, 1870) and Ten Great Religions (2 pasta, 1871 83) were developed. The Church of the Disciples was founded expressly to allow its members entire freedom of individual belief, and he prepared a Service and Hymn Book (1844) for its nee, combining the features of ritualistic and nonritualistic worship. Of his other original works mention may be made of the History of the Campaign of 1812 and Defence of Gen. William Hull [his grandfather] for the Surrender of Detroit (1848); The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness of Sin (1852); The Christian Doctrine of Prayer (1854); Orthodoxy, its Truths and its Errors (1866); Common Sense in Religion, essays (1874); Essentials and Non essentials in Religion (1878); E
Epochs in Religious History (1881); Legend of Thomas Didymus, the Jewish skeptic (1881; reissued as The Life and Times of Jesus, as Related by Thomas Didymus, 1887); Anti .Slavery Days (New York, 1883); The Ideas of the Apostle Paul Translated into their Modern Equivalents (Boston, 1884);
127 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Clark
Manual of Unitarian Belief (1884); Every Day
Religion (1886); Vexed Questions in Theology (1888);
The Problem of the Fourth Gospel (1886). He edited
The Western Messenger at Louisville 1836 39 and
printed in it the first poems of Emerson; with
W. H. Charming and R. W. Emerson he prepared
the Memoirs o f Margaret Fuller Ossoli (3 vole.,
1852); and published many magazine articles,
addresses, sermons, and pamphlets.
Bmrroc;xePWT: J. F. Clarks, Autobiography, Diary, and Correspondence, ed. Edward Everett Hale, Boston, 1891.
CLARKE, JOHN: Early American Baptist, with Roger William founder of Rhode Island; b. probably in Suffolk, England, Oct. 8, 1609; d. in Newport, R. L, Apr., 1676. He was 'a highly educated physician who left England as a persecuted separatist and arrived at Boston Nov., 1837, just as drastic measures were being taken by the Massachusetts government against Anne Hutchinson and John Wheelwright (see ANxaroMrwlvrsns AND ANTIlvonslex CoN•raovi,ltsnc8, IL, 2). Whether from sympathy with Mrs. Hutchinson's views or from his aversion toward intolerance, he cast in his lot with the banished party and became a leader in the search for a home where liberty of conscience could be enjoyed. The climate of New Hampshire having been found too severe, the party led by Clarks and William Coddington secured, through the good offices of Roger Williama, the right to settle on Rhode Island; and in March, 1638, the nineteen made members entered into a covenant to subject their persona, lives, and possessions to the Lord Jesus Christ, and to do his will as revealed in Holy Scripture. Yet they guarded jealously the principle of liberty of conscience by providing that "none be accounted a delinquent for doctrine provided it be not directly repugnant to the government of laws established." In 1641 the law establishing liberty of conscience was reiterated and fortified. Clarks had much to do with the uniting of the Rhode Island settlements with Providence under s charter procured by Williams, and is thought to have drafted the law book, which provides for democracy and liberty of conscience. If not an antipedobaptist before he left England, he became such probably as early as 1641, certainly by 1844, when Mark Lukar, an antipedobaptist, became associated with him in a church at Newport, of which Clarks had been pastor from about 1641. While visiting Lynn, Mass., in 1651, Clarks and two fellow workers were arrested and fined, and one of them was whipped. Thereupon Clarks published Ill Netoes from New England (London, 1852), in which he vindicated the principles of liberty of conscience and believers' baptism. The neat twelve years he resided in England se representative of his colony. In 1863 he secured from Charles II. a charter which provided for complete evil and religious liberty. To the Newport church many Baptist churches owe their origin. ALBERT H. NzwmAN.
Bnwrooserer: Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in New England, vol. i.. Providence, 1858; J. Callender, An Historical Discourse an the Civil and Religious Affairs of As Colony of Rhode island and Providence Plantations, Boston, 1789; $. G. Arnold,
HieE. o/ the State of Rhode Island, vol. i., New York, 1859; I. Backus, Hiet. of New England, with particular Referonce to the Denomination of Christians called Baptists. Newton, Man., 1871; H. 8. Barrage, Hist. a/ the Baptieta in Nam England, ib. 1894; A. H. Newman, Hist. of do Baptist Churches in the U. S., ib. 1898; DNB, z 482. CLARgE, SAMUEL: The name of four prominent English theologians.
1. English non conformist; b. at Wolaton (22
m. s.w. of Leicester), Warwickshire, Oct. 10, 1599;
d. at Isleworth (11 m, s.w. of London), Middlesex,
Bnraoassrar: His autobiography was prefixed to the
Lines of Sundry Eminent Persons, 1888; s Memoir by
G. T. Clarks, a descendant, was prefixed to the reprint of the Saints Nosegay, London, 1881; DNB, z 441 142.
2. Orientalist; b. at Braekley (16 m. a.w, of Northampton), Northamptonshire, 1625; d. at Oxford Dec. 27, 1869. He entered Merton College, Oxford, in 1640, but left the university during its occupation by the royal troops. After the surrender he returned (M.A., 1648). In 1849 he was appointed the first architypographus of the university and was also upper bedell of the civil law. In 1650 he was master of a school at Islington, where he assisted Brian Walton in his Polyglot Bible, his attention being directed chiefly to the Hebrew teat, the Aramaic paraphrase, and the Latin translation of the Persian version of the Gospels. He returned to Oxford in 1658 and was reelected to both his former positions. In addition to his work for
Walton, he wrote Scientice metrics et rhythmics, seu tractatus de prosodica Arabica (Oxford, 1661), white the Masaereth Beracoth Titulus Talmudic (1667) is also ascribed to him.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. b, Wood, AOienie Bliss, iii. 882 88b, 4 vole., London, 1813 20; DNB, z.
8. Biblical commentator, eldest son of Samuel Clarks the non conformist; b. at Shotwick (8 m. n.w. of Chester), Cheshire, Nov. 12, 1826; d. at High Wycombe! (24 m. s.e. of Oxford), Bucks, Feb. 27, 1701. He received his education at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and was appointed fellow in 1644, but was deprived of his fellowship seven years later for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth, At the Restoration he held the rectory of Grendon Underwood, Bucks, but was ejected for non conformity in 1682. He then settled at High Wycombe. In theology he was Baxterian, and extended divine inspiration to the veraediviaiona of the Bible. His chief work was his Old and New Testaments with Annotations and Parallel Scriptures (London, 1690), beside which mention may be made of his Survey of the Bible (1894), designed to supplement his earlier work, and The Divine Authority of the Scriptures (1699).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, a. 442 443. Where further literature is given.
4. Philosopher; b. at Norwich Oct. 11, 1675; d. in London May 17, 1729. He was educated in his native city and at Caius College, Cambridge (B.A., 1895). There, in 1697, he prepared a Latin translation of the Traifk de physique by Jean Rohault, to which he added notes based on Newton's Principia. The work was long the standard textbook of its subject at Cambridge and went through repeated editions. In 1898 Clarks became chaplain to John Moore, bishop of Norwich, and held this post for twelve years, in addition to the rectory of Drayton near Norwich and a small living in the city. In 1704 05 he delivered the Boyle Lectures on The Being and Attributes of God, the Obligations of Natural Religion, and the Truth and Certainty of the Christian Revelation (2 villa., London, 1705 08). These addresses won him the reputation of the leading English metaphysician for the next quarter of a century, but his rationalism exposed him to the criticisms of the ultraconservatives on the one hand, while his orthodoxy brought upon him the attacks of the deists on the other. In 1706 he assailed the doctrine maintained by the nonjuror Henry Dodwell that the soul receives immortality only through baptism, and in the same year was presented to the rectory of St. Benet'a, London, holding this until 1709, when Queen Anne made him rector of St. James's, Westminster. There, however, he gave offense in 1712 by his Scripture Doctrine o f the Trinity, which exposed him to the charge of Arianism. A prolonged controversy ensued, and the matter was finally taken up by the House of Convocation, the lower house being especially hostile. The upper house practically dropped the case, and Clarks refrained from giving further offense, although .he does not seem to have altered his views. About 1718 he was appointed master of Wigaton's Hospital, Leicester, but the remainder
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
of his life was devoted to philosophy rather than theology. He became involved in a controversy with Leibnitz, Clarks declaring that time and space have a real existence, and the correspondence was published at London in 1717. He had many adherents among the Latitudinarians and metaphysicians, including Bishop Berkeley, Arthur Collier, Francis Hutcheson, Bishop Butler, William Whiston, Sir Isaac Newton, and Bishop Hoadly. The High church party, on the other hand, was hostile to him. Clarke's writings included, in addition to those already mentioned, sermons, a Latin translation of Newton's Optics (London, 1706), and editions of Caesar (1712) and the Iliad (1729). They were collected and edited by Bishop Benjamin Hoadly in four volumes (London, 1738).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Whiston, Hiato,•ical Mew's of . . . Dr. Samuel Clarke, London, 1741 (contains A. A. Syke's Eloproum of Samuel Clarks, and T. Emlyn's Memoirs o1 Dr. Samuel Clarks); the Life, by B. Hoad1Y, was
prefixed to his Works, ib. 1738: DNB, z. 443 448.
CLARKE, WILLIAM NEWTON: Baptist; b. at Cazenovia, N. Y., Dec. 2, 1841. He was graduated at Madison (now Colgate) University (B.A., 1881) and Hamilton Theological Seminary, Hamilton, N. Y. (1863). He held Baptist pastorates at Keens, N. H. (1863 89), Newton Centre, Mass. (1869 80), and Montreal, Canada (1880 83). He was professor of New Testament interpretation in the Toronto Baptist College 1883 87, and pastor at Hamilton, N. Y., 1887 90. Since 1890 he has been professor of Christian theology in Colgate University. Isis theological position " is intended to present the substance of the Scriptural teaching,
interpreted by Christian thought, m the light of modern knowledge." He has written a Commentary on the Gospel of Mark (Philadelphia, 1882); Outline of Christian Theology (New York, 1898); What Shall We Think of Christianity t (1899); Can 1 Believe in God the Father? (1899); A Study of Christian Missions (1900); and The Use of the Scriptures in Theology (1905).
CLARKSON, THOMAS: Antislavery agitator; b. at Wiabeach (35 m. n. of Cambridge), Cambridgeshire, England, Mar. 28, 1760; d. at Playford Hall, near Ipswich, Sept. 26: 1846. He studied at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1783). In 1785 he won a prize for a Latin essay upon the negative aide of the question " whether involuntary servitude is justifiable " (Eng. transl., London, 1788; enlarged, 1788). Thenceforth the story of his life is the history of the antislavery struggle. He labored with indefatigable perseverance in collecting, and disseminating information, and spent most of his modest fortune upon this cause. His labors were crowned with success under the lead of William Wilberforce (q.v.). Of his many writings concerning slavery the most
important is The History of the . . . Abolition of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament (2 vole., London, 1808; new ed., 1839). He also wrote A Portraiture of Quakerism (3 vole., 1806); Memoirs of . . . William Penn (2 vole., 1813); An Essay on the Doctrine and Practice of the Early Christians as they Relate to War (1817); Researches, Antediluvian, Patriarchal, arid Historical concerning